§ 21. Mediterranean Sea
You will learn:
· Why medieval Europe, when the prevailing monarchical power in Italy there Republic?
· What was the role region in the papal history of Europe and Italy?
· What marked in the history of Europe Sicilian Kingdom?
· What is Reconquista? What are its results?
1. The Italian city republics
Italy during the Roman Empire was its center and one of the most advanced of its districts. In the Middle Ages is from Italy began the revival of urban life in Europe. But in finding permanent authorities of foreign invaders (Lombards, Byzantines, Franks, Arabs, Normans, German Emperor) has caused that Italian city prefer to live independent lives. In XI-XII Art. Italian communes of the city stood. Form of government for city-commune in the majority were republics. In the cities flourished stormy political life: different factions fought for power. In XII-XIII centuries. were the two most influential groups - hvelfy and hibelliny. Hvelfamy called supporters of the emperor, hibbelinamy - Roman pontiffs. However, in each city were own interests, which it backed by any means. The most powerful city-states were Florence, Venice and Genoa.
Coat of arms of Florence
Florence in the Middle Ages was one of the most economically developed cities of Europe. The basis of her wealth amounted to cloth, which were produced in large cloth shops. In the middle of the XIV century. such workshops there were over 200. In addition to cloth production, developed in Florence production of silk fabrics, furs and jewelry processing right. Also Florence was the largest center of trade and usury and banking. Located next to Rome, Florentine banks are financial service operations popes throughout Europe. Evidence of financial strength Florence became the Florentine gold florin, which is widely used in international trade.
Dyeing cloth. Italy, XIV century.
Economic and social life of Florence on the brink XIII - XIV century. of the "Chronicles" Giovanni Willan
At that time in Florence, there were about 25 thousand men in the age when they can bear arms, from 15 to 70 years, they were all citizens, and among them was in 1500 the noble and rich people ... A total of Florence was 90 thousand mouths (Domestic): men, women and children, if we proceed with amount of food needed per day. In Florence lived about 1500 foreigners, travelers and soldiers, but of spiritual status, siblings, who lived in monasteries. Girls and boys in the age when they could read (Ie students), was 8 - 10 thousand children who learned the alphabet, and algorithms (mathematics), in six schools was 1 to 2 thousand, and those who taught grammar and logic in the four major schools - 550 - 600. In Florence and its surroundings were 110 churches, including churches and abbeys religious brotherhoods ... It was more than 200 workshops where up in wisdom spun wool, and they produced 70 - 80 thousand units of cloth, worth 1.2 million gold florins (1 florin - 3,5 g gold), one third of which went to wages, not including profit owners, and 30 thousand souls lived through it.
1. Calculate: a) what percentage of the population were rich, b) what percentage of the population was engaged in cloth production.
2. What information can be found in this document about Florence?
By Florence form of government was republic. According to the Constitution in 1293 supreme authority was senyoriya. It has been elected one representative from 7 shops and on senior Two representatives from all 14 elementary buildings. Headed senyoriyu honfalonyerThat during the war also commanded the city militia. The fight for senior posts in the republic were more abundant families of the city. At the end of the XIV century. largest influence in the city has Medici family. In 1434 CosimoMedici Florence became the ruler of nearly 30 years. Officially, he had no no titles, and was called a simple citizen of Florence. But no decision not been without its approval. Senyoriya often met in his house. For raise their prestige in it reduced taxes on the poor segments of Society, generously handing out favors and patronage from rozmynavsya not. For struggle against political enemies and rivals, he used his widely right to assign individual taxes, which simply rozoryav them. He avoided bloodshed, and the biggest punishment was banishment from the city.
Successor Cosimo, especially his grandson Lorenzo Generous (1469 - 1492 years), no concealed his championship in the city. Magnificent palaces, royal lifestyle combined with a wide patronage.
The ruler of Florence Lorenzo Medici Generous
He bought and collected Greek and Latin manuscripts, ancient sculptures and other valuable things. In his retirement living a lot of artists - writers, poets and artists. To carry out its Medici financial transactions and not ashamed to use the state treasury.
Gradually authority families increased in all European countries. In 1537 they had the big title Dukes of Tuscany. From this family came the famous Pope, Leo X in particular, French Queen Catherine de Medici and Mary.
City-republic of Venice and Genoa took the power in the XIII - XV centuries. The main source of their prosperity was the intermediary in trade Mediterranean, which gave an insane profits. Genoa controlled the West Mediterranean and Black Sea, Venice - Eastern Mediterranean. Rivalry control of important sea routes led to armed confrontation. In 1298 in sea battle near Kurtsole in the Adriatic Sea Genoese defeated the Venetian and almost Century Championship held at the Mediterranean Sea. But after deciding Battle 1380 near KyodzhiWhere Venetians utterly defeated fleet Genoese, The equilibrium restored.
The control system of the Republic, especially in Venice, was complex. It provided the narrow circle of domination nobility. At the head of the Venetian Republic was dogeWhom were elected for life. But his power was limited by the Great Council - the highest legislative and oversight agencies. At the end of the XIII century. power concentrated in Venice narrow circle of rich families, whose names are recorded in a special "Golden Book". To control the nobles and representatives dozhamy created special courts, which were punished for trying to change the state system.
For the dominion of republic trade routes had to conduct active foreign policy that required a significant financial, military and diplomatic resources. For fast response to changes in Europe that could affect the situation of the republic, Venetians were the first to send special envoys to the European courts monarchs. Their main task was to an event occurring in those states where they are.
2. Papal region
As you already know the possession of the Roman pontiffs, in Central Italy - Papal Region - arose as a result of a gift Pypina Short (VIII century).. It shared by Italy in two parts and became a factor unemozhlyvlyuvav Association Italy until the mid-nineteenth century.
In the pope carried their possessions except ecclesiastical authority the same as any prince of Europe. Papam as kings did not give peace the great feudal lords, moreover they infringe and to the Holy See.
Papal region suffered from almost continuous hostility between papamy and emperors until the mid-thirteenth century. In 1143 in Rome was proclaimed republic. On her head was Arnold Breshyanskyy, who opposed the secular power and domination of popes great feudal lords. But And with Friedrich Barbarossa Republic was destroyed in 1155
In the thirteenth century. Pope achieved to expand their holdings by neighboring lands, but local power belonged great feudal lords.
In the fourteenth century. Pope came to depend on the French kings were "Detained" in Avignon. "Avignon capture " had negative consequences for the development of their country. It broke up into many feudal estates, and in Rome began to rule the aristocrats. Trying to declare Rome commune in the mid XIV century. failed because of weak commercial and industrial segments of the city. Call head movement commune Cola ді R'yentso unite all Italian cities around the ancient capital, too, was not supported.
Papal castle in Avignon
After the suppression of the commune and guidance Agenda in 1357 the initiative of Cardinal Albornozaat a meeting of senior clergy and nobility adopted the constitution according to which in Papal region was defined centralized management system, and know, higher clergy, representatives of the communes in the provinces had the right to legislate and distribute taxes. However, the schism caused a new blow to stability. The situation improved during the pope Martin V (1417 - 1431), which resumed in Rome commune.
Papal region remained under-developed economically and most difficult system to guide farmers and urban residents. Heavy burden for the population was self-papal officials, taxes for the maintenance of the papal curia, the widespread construction that unfolded in Rome in the XV century. Damaging to the development area was the Pope nepotism policyWhen the reigning pope focus on the important positions of their relatives, displacing their representatives predecessor.
3. South Italy and Sicily
Otherwise, the usual fate of Southern Italy and Sicily, although their development they not abrogate the North. Pivdennoitaliyski cities were one of the centers of Mediterranean trade. It lasted the longest power Byzantium. For some time here ruled Arabs. In XI. these areas were Normans seized. One of the Norman rulers RogerII in 1130 objects united South Italy and Sicily into a single powerful Sicilian Kingdom. The capital which was the city of Palermo. Formally, it was thought that Sicilian kings are the direct vassals of the Roman pontiffs, but they spent independent policy. In the Sicilian kingdom peacefully were taken different peoples - Italians, Greeks, Arabs, Normans. Reigned and tolerance. In 1189-1268 he Sicilian crown owned German emperors of the dynasty Shtaufeniv. During the reign of Frederick II (1212-1250 biennium) kingdom reached the highest degree of centralization and prosperity.
For the time Frederick II was an amazing person, and unusual ruler for his subjects. He did not like Germany because of her rebellious Dukes and almost a lifetime spent in the Sicilian kingdom. All of Italy wondered how lived emperor and his court.
At the court of the Emperor in Palermo were collected of Arab, Byzantine and Jewish scholars. Sam Frederick II wrote scientific treatises in Latin, poems - Italian, and spoke Greek and Arabic. Surprising his luxury Palace with eastern music and dance rather resembled yard Arab Caliph. On city streets and trips kingdom emperor vyyizdyv accompanied soldiers the Indian elephant. For elephants were camels, leopards, lions. No wonder contemporaries called Frederick II "wonder of the world." Emperor to the Christian faith treated fairly cool. Claimed that he wrote a treatise "The legend of the three oshukantsiv "which was about Moses, Christ and Mohammed. Mysterious and enigmatic figure of the emperor caused even the legend that he is not died in 1250 and mysteriously disappeared and yet, when the offensive end of the world to establish on earth the kingdom of universal peace.
However, Frederick II was not a troubled man, and very talented leader, as evidenced by changes in Sicily. By using hired Muslim troops, he suppressed the rebellion and the nobility Unveiled in 1231 Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Sicilian kingdom. This document significantly limited the rights of feudal lords and their influence on public affairs. All Castles built notables in the past 40 years, by order of Frederick II was destroyed. All power concentrated in the hands of the emperor and his deputies. Kingdom was redistributed into 9 provinces, where the three were meeting states - townspeople, barons and higher clergy. State of assembly had the right decide on taxation of various social strata. Feudal lords were forced, as representatives of other states to obey the imperial court governors. There was and one common to all provinces, royal court headed by the chief judge of the royal. All people had to pay to the royal treasury for land tax. In order watched well-organized police. There were also hired permanent Army and Marine Fleet is subordinated directly to the king.
Frederick II paid attention to the development and education. At his behest 1224 Naples founded the university - the first university founded secular authorities. Persons wanting access to public office or conduct activities that require special knowledge (eg medicine), were pass a state exam.
Conducted by Friedrich II conversion made Sicilian kingdom Europe's first centralized state - A country that subject to a unified central government (in this case - royal).
But the constant War Frederick II destroyed the kingdom and in the second half of XIII century. once powerful central Sicilian kingdom entered a period decline. It became the object of attacks from the French (Anjoudynasty) and Aragon. In 1302 Sicily fell under the rule of Aragon, and in Southern Italy (Neapolitan kingdom) Anjou dynasty entrenched. The long struggle resulted in the decline of cities and trade developed once agriculture.
Country split into separate fief. Neapolitan kings caught in addiction to Florentine, Genoese and Venetian merchants and bankers. On Neapolitan kingdom put forward a claim king of Aragon, who in 1442 achieved his. Under the rule of Sicily and Aragon kingdom Neapolitan had brief period of stability, economic and cultural development.
In VII - VIII century. whole Iberian Peninsula, but it northern mountainous part was conquered by Arabs. Europeans called them cemented their dynastic link, called locality Mauritania in North Africa, where they came to Spain. At the beginning of X century. Spain lords separated from the Arabian caliphate and established a separate state - CordobaCaliphate. Muslim Spain developed into the most developed part of contemporary Europe. Hence its way to Europe to achieve Arab culture and Science.
City gate in Cordoba
During the Arab domination of Spain has reached unprecedented prosperity. In a country that has always suffered from drought, the Arabs introduced the system artificial irrigation, and cultivated rice, sugar cane, oranges, lemons and Other new culture. Renewed mining of silver, have experienced growth craft. Muslim merchants brought from Spain to other countries, silk and wool fabric, metal, leather, glass. Spanish Arabs established trade with the East, Byzantium, France and Italy. With the development of economy greatly increased population. Cordoba - the capital of the caliphate - has been in the XI century. largest city in Europe. They lived around 500 thousand residents was 113 thousand houses, 3 thousand mosques, 80 schools, 300 therm (baths).
Khalifa here staged the largest library that contained several thousand books, and high school that has trained thousands of students. To Cordoba Christians even came to learn from other countries Europe.
In our time the monuments of architecture, built by Arabs in Spain: Cordoba mosque palace Alhambra in Granada, Alc
Architectural detail. Moorish art of Spain
However, along with the great achievements in Caliphate combined national oppression and Islamization (conversion to Muslim faith) Christian population.
Reconquista. Establishment of the Spanish kingdom
The struggle for liberation from Spain Moors began almost immediately after slavery. Center of this struggle was a small kingdom of Asturias, formed in the mountains in the north of the peninsula Iberian Peninsula. Subsequently, the kingdom was called Leon, and later - Castilla (country locks). Many castles were built support for the promotion to the south. Exemption of land occupied by Arabs was called Reconquista (ISP. reconquista - reconquer) and lasted long, about eight centuries until the end of XV century.
At first there was Reconquista of varying degrees of success. In the tenth century. during the reign of Caliph Abd ar-Rahmanprevious successes Christians were almost lost. Arabian army under command of the greatest military leader al-Mansura(Winner) for 20 years carried out 50 successful raids in the possession of Christians.
But the next century domestic problems caliphate. What is split into several emirates allowed Christians under the direction of King Alfonso VI of Castile to release the ancient capital of West Gothic kingdom of Toledo.
Reconquista was once part offensive of the Christian world, the form of military colonization. Its critical success were the XI - XIII centuries. when the Crusaders "liberated" Palestine and German knights attacked in eastern Europe. In the liberation of the Iberian peninsula of the Arabs were not only Spanish and Portuguese, but also knights of other European countries. For knights, as in eastern Europe were farmers settling in the lands conquered swords. They received personal independence, and that in the liberated towns - governance. Knight pryvlasnyuvaly huge estates and palaces that formerly belonged to Muslims.
At this stage Reconquista Castile were famous knight RodrigoDiaz de Bivar (1043-1099 biennium). He was commander in the King of Castile SanchoII. By military prowess Spaniards called it Kampeadorom(Warriors), and the moors - Sid (Boss). Sid povodyv themselves independently and too arrogant. So he served King posvaryvshys then became the service emir of Zaragoza, in the end with his committed squad captured Valencia and became its ruler. After death Rodrigo D Victory imprinted in people's memory and reflected in the poem "Song about my Sid ".
In liberated from Arab territory beginning of the XII century. formed four Christian states: Kingdom Castile, Aragon, Navarre and Portugal. Sometimes the most intense fighting was the XII century. Then Reconquista became a Christian holy war Muslims, like the Crusades in Palestine. To fight against the Arabs as in the East were based spiritual and knightly orders - Santiago, Alcantara, Calatrava. Knightly troops successfully attacked, forcing the Arabs to retreat to the south of the peninsula. Decisive battle took place near Las Navas de Tolosa-in 1212 In the 40's of the XIII century. ruled by Arabs remained only a small area Hranadskoho emirate.
England and France in XII - Early XIVArt. State of the Iberian Peninsula in VIII-XIIIArt. Reconquista
Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa.1212 was the "Universal Chronicle"
Noble king dong Alfonso ordered his pystsyam and officials to list all the Crusaders. What came from other countries to know how many of them knights, and how many troops ... Among those came from outside Spain, the knights were on foot near 10000 and 100 000 ...
From the bridge came to the Kingdom of Castile noble King Don Alfonso many good people. In large cities and fortified numerous castles came many troops, well equipped ...
Noble king dong Alfonso originally gathered Hidalgo and ordinary people. His compatriots, and all his royal court and said: "My friends, those who met you and my fellow vassals ... See my friends, if you are among those who need a horse and has no him who has no arms or money, or need more of something, come to me and ask, I will take all for each. And he said, so everything performed, and gave the horses, weapons, money and even gave knighthood order. Who had, but it was worthy ...
1. As preparation the final battle?
2. Identify participants Reconquista.
3. Does the passage of the document a snapshot of what took place as Reconquista?
Capture Toledo, which became the capital of Castile
Battle Las Navas de Tolosa-Victory of the united Christian army
Capture of Seville
At union of Castile and Aragon into a single Spanish kingdom
Capture of Grenada. End of Reconquista
At the beginning of XIV century. Reconquista more than 100 years ended. States that were formed due to Reconquista, cared resolve internal problems. Kingdom of Aragon most of their energy directed at controlling the western Mediterranean. It captured the Balearic Islands, Sicily and Sardinia, and later Neapolitan Kingdom. In the Kingdom of Castile all energy was directed at fighting against opponents in faith - Muslims and Jews. Kingdom of Portugal failed to space exploration and the Atlantic coast of Africa.
The book of twelve European historians' history of Europe "expressed opinion: "In 1195 new governor of North Africa and Muslim Spain Almohad Army wins Alfonso VIII Castilian at Alarkosa. This dramatic event - last detonator Reconquista. The new pope to call a crusade not is more enthusiasm for the Reconquista is a national. Exactly Spanish army, uniting the forces of Castile, Aragon and Navarra, won victory in the battle near Las Navas de Tolosa- in 1212 ... Reconquista continued success has been attained. At the end of the XIIIст.... Iberian Peninsula becomes a Christian, for except Hranadskoho Emirate ... This state is two centuries to remind the Muslim presence in Spain.
In 1474 successor Aragon throne Ferdinandtook the marriage of Queen Isabella of Castile. 1479, when the throne Aragon joined FerdinandIs considered to date merging the two kingdoms into a single Spain. Still, the real process union of Castile and Aragon stretched long. Both parts of the state significantly differed. Ferdinand Isabella and actively took to the formation of a single state with a strong central government. By Various character - intelligent, soft, friendly and Isabella lying, devious, insidious Ferdinand - Were united in their religious fanaticism and desire for absolute power. All that prevented this, subject to destruction: the heterodox, the local freedom, communal rights, privileges nobles and others. Monarchs actively support the holy Inquisition. After strengthening power and filling the treasury Ferdinand and Isabella took by solving the last task Reconquista - winning Granada- Possession of Muslims in the far south of the Iberian Peninsula.
Spanish Royal marriages - Ferdinand II Aragon and Isabella I of Castile
After brief war January 2, 1492 watch-tower above the courtyard hranadskyh emirs Spanish flag was raised. Terms of surrender were the Arab emirate's population favorable. They kept their land and faith. However, since the conquest of all the promises were violated. The lands Granada furious inquisition, began the forcible baptism. Ferdinand and Isabella were fanatical Catholics. They even received from Pope pochetnyytitle - the Catholic Kings. In 1502 Ferdinandand Isabella issued a decree according to which every Jew or Moor had or baptized, or leave Spain. This decree initiated a massive exodus of Spanish Moors and Jews, which led to the decline of trade, handicrafts, agriculture economy, to znelyudnennya many lands.
At the cost of unification of Spain became the victims of the Inquisition, hundreds of thousands of exiles and economic decline of many neighborhoods. These negative consequences at the time were not so palpable, they emerged a little later, because when Columbus discovered America, from which rushed to Spain as much gold and silver, that the economic decline no shvylyuvav.
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For the curious
Why in Italy existed when the republic throughout Europe diadem was undeniable?