§ 20. Germany
· As was made Holy Roman Empire?
· What were the most powerful emperors?
· Why started and what the consequences had the fight and Dads Emperors?
· How did Switzerland?
1. The emergence of the German kingdom
By Verdun Agreement was 843 "Land east franca was German Ludwig. It is on these grounds then faced German Kingdom. But while those lands had to remind the state. They existed five duchies, holders of which almost obeyed kings of the dynasty Carolingian. Notables families constantly fighting for power. This confrontation feudal lords, Dukes and kings often had armed character and therefore was called internecine wars.
Together with the internecine wars of the earth East Frankish kingdom suffered from attacks of the aliens. Shidnofrankski Kings and Dukes were able to protect local Vikings from their lands. But at the end of X t. a new dangerous enemy, who came from the east, - Hungarians, or Magyars. After the relocation of Pryurallya in Europe these tribe of nomadic herdsmen settled on the plain in the middle current of the Danube and began attacking neighboring states. The first invasion of Hungary died Slavic state of Great Moravia. Hungarians then began devastate German states that Dukes urged to unite in a single kingdom.
In 919, the local nobility proclaimed King of East Frankish kingdom Saxon Duke Henry Bird. In that event dates back story of the new European state - German kingdom.
Henry I increased the power and put an end to constant quarrels and disputes German nobility. To fight against the Hungarians and the protection he ordered build a small fortress - Burg. As in other contemporary European countries, Germany was founded numerous heavy cavalry - knights. It is using it, the 955 son of Henry I Otto I (936 - 973 years) inflicted such a crushing defeat of the Hungarians in the decisive battle on the river Lech in Bavaria, they always stopped seizures.
2. The emergence of a new empire. Italian politics of German emperors
Unlike his father, Henry I, who after the election of the King refused the coronation and anointing to the kingdom, his son, solemnly crowned in Aachen, Strongly emphasized the advantage King over all the notables. He believed himself to be the person who will restore Rome Charlemagne's empire, would like Charlemagne crowned in Rome and get the imperial title by the Pope.
In 961, the Otto I made trip to Italy, supported the 22-year old Pope John XII in the fight against recalcitrant vassals and turned his lost throne. February 2, the 962 in St. Peter's in Rome grateful pope crowned Otto as Roman and emperor. Since then, German king and Roman imperial crown are indivisible. So it was again restored to the Roman Empire in the West. But it already had another empire borders and other historical circumstances.
At the coronation of Otto I John XII gave the document to verify that the Pope possess Pope area, emphasizing the dependence of this pope and church emperor. But John XII thought its imperial power above, because it is from God, and the emperor, in turn, receives power from the pope. In the future These disputes led to violent struggle between empire and papacy.
Confronting Church and imperial peaks reached a peak in the second half Article XI. When the pope was Gregory VII (1073 - 1085), which held a series of reforms in the Catholic Church. Among them was the abolition and investiture - The right of the emperor or king clerics approve of church office.
It is this reform outrage 26-year German emperor Henry IV(1056 - 1106) who did not want to lose its power over the bishops. Began a long and exhausting struggle. First Emperor gathered in Worms German bishops and got them to decide deprivation of the rank of Gregory VII. Then the pope the bishops gathered in Rome France and Italy, excommunicated Henry IV and released him subjects from the oath of the emperor. This advantage dissatisfied Henry IV German feudal lords and began an uprising against the emperor. This situation Henry IV left no alternative but to seek reconciliation with the papacy. Cold winter 1077 with little emperor came to the residence by post Kanossa pope at the castle in northern Italy. Within three days Henry IV was forced to stand barefoot in the clothes atoning sinner before the gates of the castle, Gregory VII pardoned until his opponent. Since the word "Kanossa" became the symbol of the spiritual conquest of the secular authorities, and the phrase "walking in Kanossu "means the deep humiliation of the winner of the loser.
But Henry IV forget the humiliation and not accepted. In 1084 He gathered a large army, went to Rome and conquered it. Gregory VII barely escaped from captivity and was forced to flee to the south of Italy. The following year, Pope Gregory VII died bequeathing to their successors to continue the struggle against the emperors.
The struggle against papal authority led to a weakening of the German Empire. German nobility gained power and became the hereditary ruler of the land, of the Duchy and other secular and spiritual possessions grew considerably. After all, during the struggle between the emperors and popery both sides gave ground and a variety of benefits to supporters. The emperor remained the supreme seniors, but the nature of its power has changed. German nobility fixed right elect the emperor. He could still choose to make life for his successor son, but still the principle of selectivity, rather than inheritance, was important.
Germany and In Italy XI-XIIIArt. Mongol invasion of Central Europe
Restore lost power in Germany fortunate to three emperors of the dynasty Shtaufeniv: Frederick I(1155 - 1190's), his son Henry VI(1191 - 1197's) and grandchildren Frederick II(1212 - 1250's).
Emperor Frederick Iin history under the name Barbarossa(Bearded), which gave him the Italians. During his time the empire began to call Holy. This, say the emperor had to emphasize his independence from the Pope. Like, his empire was sanctified by God, not the pope. In its counsel, Frederick I enjoyed the fact that the papacy was at that time not to him. In Rome, various groups have chosen multiple popes, each of which he considered other impostors. However, when the struggle for the papacy is over, Rome again put forward the claim to the highest authority in Christendom. In 1157 Representatives Pope on his own behalf announced that Frederick was crowned as the only "Incumbency" of the pope, and he must obey.
Friedrich Barbarossa - Crusader. Figure XII century.
With the appeal of Frederick and Barbarossa Romans
Rome is no longer in Rome. Would you like to see again the former Roman glory Art array camps prowess and discipline? All this is passed to us with the imperial power. I am your lawful owner.
As argued emperor of his power over Rome?
In response, Frederick I went to war with Italy. He wanted not only to punish the pope, and under this pretext conquer the wealthy Italian cities. In fact, march 1158 was aggressive. With great for those times one hundred thousandth army Italy was added to the holdings of the emperor. However, freedom-loving residents of the cities would not submit Friedrich I. To fight against the emperor, they joined in union 15 cities - Lombard League.
Title alliance given area of Lombardy, where residents felt the most painful on a work of the emperor. In 1162 they rebelled against Frederick I. In response, the emperor devastated the main town of Lombard Milan as not Italian cities devastated barbarians. He broke down the walls and buildings, ordered residents in eight lines to leave the city. Central square, the ancient custom, pereoraly plow and put salt on a sign that the city will desert. Leaders of the uprising were executed.
Lombard League joined forces Italian cities to fight against the emperor. May 29, 1176 in Battle Lenyano Lombard League defeated troops army of Frederick I. Characteristic was that the German knights beat and defeated their army, most of which were artisans cities of Lombardy. After defeat the emperor resigned from the Italian city. But the Italians have Frederick I had to confess to their ruler.
The fight for the further conquest of Italy continued the son of Frederick I - Henry VI. He conquered the Sicilian kingdom and became the owner immediately four crowns: German, Italian, Sicilian and imperial. Emperor Henry VI was the most influential country in Europe at that time. Dependence on it acknowledged king of Aragon, that the Iberian peninsula and even the English King RichardI of England heart.
Son of Henry VI Frederick II (1220-1250 years) was three years when his father died. Despite the fact that his tutor was the pope Innocent III, he became an avid opponent of the papacy.
Friedrich II considered himself a secular head of the whole Christian world and that rulers must acknowledge its supremacy. Moreover, he believed. That Empire sanctified by God and that the Emperor not only Roman successor emperors, and as God's vicar on earth. During the ceremonies the Emperor allow people to hand out a blessing, if he or minister of church envoy God.
The reason for another confrontation between the emperor and the pope became the sixth crusade campaign (1228-1229 biennium). Emperor long delayed sending in campaign, for which Pope excommunicated him from the church. But even Friedrich II and no attempt to absolve themselves of weaning, and went to the Holy Land without any battle with the sultan of Egypt agreed on the transfer of Jerusalem and other holy for five years under the rule of Christians. The Pope was so angry. That even excommunicated and Jerusalem.
Pretty cool attitude of Frederick II to the Christian faith became another occasion for confrontation. Pope Gregory IX excommunicated the emperor of the second church. However, from "walking in Kanossu" already splynulo time. Removal from nobody is scared of the church. Until his death in 1250 Frederick II was excommunicated and led a campaign against the pope, who called it antichrist and son of the devil. Although the Friedrich in his lands severely all persecuted heretics. Sudden death of the emperor has enabled the church sigh of relief: Every day life in this "wicked" reduced its authority.
Friedrich II not like Germany and almost all of his life spent in the Sicilian kingdom is transformed into a powerful centralized state. Drawing on its resources after returning from the crusade he launched a struggle for control over Central Italy, that was under the popes. He tried so Dads conquer their power and unite simultaneously in one unit and its Italian German ownership. But this continuous struggle gave the desired result. Germany after the death of Frederick II became faint, the imperial authorities have never to late Middle Ages was not the same as during Shtaufeniv.
Italian politics emperors was harmful for both Italy and Germany and for the emperors. Italy Germany paid for this fragmentation, and emperors of actual loss authorities. And the Pope of Rome, in turn, could not create a large Christian state under its auspices.
The book "History of Europe, written twelve European historians stated: "In the second half of XIII century. In Germany there is something new ... Monarchical power. What is theoretically connected imperial crown, loses its content and yield City unprecedented number of regional and local authorities, religious and secular, which subsequently leads to confusion of the situation. This contradiction between existing fragmentation of Germany and the theoretical assault on the general domination is becoming increasingly evident and, of course, affect its future History.
3. German "offensive to the East
Absorbed fighting papamy and princes emperors paid relatively little attention to the eastern border of the empire, seeking only to Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary recognize their vassalage. At the time, between the rivers Elbe and Oder and the coast Baltic Sea, still retained its independence West Slavic tribes. Their own country they have not happened. They also resisted the penetration and Christianity. In the tenth century. polabskyh land and wonderful Slavs tried win HenriyiAnd іOtto I. But the revolt of the Slavs undermined their efforts. The first "attack on East defeated.
Since the middle of the XII century. Church and German princes begin again to direct their views to the East. In the Second crusade pope allowed under German crusaders leadership of the Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, Henry the Lion make a trip not Palestine and in the land of the Slavs (1147). The Crusaders went for a walk with the sword lands polabskyh Slavs who zealously protected. But the forces were not equal. On conquered lands arose markhrafstvo Brandenburg, centered in the XIII century. Berlin became a city.
In need for knights and missionaries in moved east German peasants, craftsmen, which encouraged various feudal lords privileges. The local Slavic population exterminated or forced out to the deaf place.
In the thirteenth century. begins German Colonization and the Baltic lands that were inhabited the Baltic tribes. The first of these land paved the way German merchants, missionaries went after them, and then the knights. In 1201 lands in lyviv was founded Riga. What later became the center of the new German state - Livonia. But arrange relocation of a large part of the German population could not be here. Also Livonia did not have political unity. Enmity of the bishops of Riga established in 1202 Order in these lands mechonostsiv and later in the City community of Riga. Do not just exist and relations with neighboring Rus principalities - Novgorod, Pskov and Minsk. Peak resistance accounted for 30 - Beginning 40's XIII. After the defeat at the Battle of Lake Peipus ("Ice Battle "in 1242) for a long time peace was concluded.
In 1231 and began conquering Slavic tribe Prus. The major role played in their conquest of the Teutonic The Order, which was invited to the Polish Baltic Duke Conrad Mazowiecki, Whose reign most suffered from attacks Prus. Teutons skillfully used the opportunity provided to them. In place of the conquered Prus their land, they created a strong state, which soon became a threat both for Poland and for Ruthenian principalities. In 1238 in battle Dorohochynom Daniel Galician caused them a serious defeat. After this Teutons focused their primary attention on the fight against Lithuanians. However, the "Lithuanian raids" order and did not give the desired result. Lithuanian tribes united to bring in a single principality, which not only gave a rebuff German aggression, and became a significant factor in the further history of the Eastern Europe. Moreover Order popostyv relations with Poland, taking in her coastal land. Later in 1410 unions army of Poland and Lithuania defeated Order of Battle GrunwaldAnd the land became the order of vassal state of the Polish king.
Grunwald Battle of July 15 1410
German colonization occurred not only by force of arms. Many rulers in Eastern Europe invited German settlers in their possession, hoping to use them experience for the development of large areas, the city's founding and development of handicrafts. Later this led to the existence in the cities of eastern Europe a significant layer German population.
4. The decline of the imperial power. Golden bull
In the XIII century. Holy Roman Empire entered the lane of the crisis and then decline. In 1254 died last king of the dynasty Shtaufeniv. Empire ceased its attempts to conquer Italy, and ceased to be a rival popes. As the empire began period of interregnum (1254 - 1273's). Germany split into many secular and religious domains, cities and individual knight estates. From that most benefited from the princes who okruhlyuvaly their knowledge and enhance power. Following the formal restoration of power Emperor was so weak that he actually managed only their generic holdings. Imperial rulers jealously watched the rise emperors and the emperor wanted to choose weaker. Between interregnum vstanovyvsya order, when the emperor chose the seven most powerful princes of the empire, called Elector. In the imperial crown claimed by the representatives of the Habsburg family and Luxembourg.
Germany and in Italy XIV-XVArt.
In the middle of the XIV century. Policy Centre Empire was in the Czech Republic. Emperor Charles IV (1346 - 1378's) with Dynasty Luxembourg was both a King Czech Republic. In his politics he paid attention generic own territory. Charles IV, realizing that to keep the empire under his power, he can not, decided to consolidate the status quo in which the individual united empire only independent principality, city and others. Yes In 1356 He told Gold Bull, reinforcing that fragmentation of Germany.
Bull confirmed procedure for selection of German King Elector majority. After King Coronation of the Pope became the Emperor at once. Bull reinforcing privileges of the princes of the high court, development of mines, coins, collecting gold. Allowed to conduct "lawfully declared" war. But the war against the suzerain vassal was forbidden. Gold bull has basic laws for the Empire until its dissolution 1806 At the end of XV century. Empire became known as Holy Roman Empire Germanic nation.
5. Formation Union Swiss
The weakening of the empire marked the beginning of a new political entity - the Swiss federation. In 1291 three communities Alpine Land (Canton) - Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden - United to bring against attempts to subjugate them by Emperor Rudolf I Habsburg (1273-1291 biennium). The emperor and his successors sought to unite all its holdings in a single unit, and free peasants were in the way of him. Also through this land was important pass GothardeThat bound Germany to Italy. According to a legend in the fight against Habsburg compatriots lifted known bow William Tell. In 1315 peasant infantry troops utterly defeated by the Habsburgs mountains Morhanten. After that, the union joined by five urban cantons. But it took a few more victories to the Union has achieved autonomy from the Empire (1499). Finally, international recognition Switzerland won independence only in 1648 Late fifteenth and early Sixteenth century. the union joined 5 other cantons. Population cantons spoke on different languages - German, French, Italian, but they are united by a common desire to live in a free country.
Long time, Union had no permanent authorities. Cases of each Cantona resolved at a meeting of men and Union general assembly in cantons. Each rim could conduct its own domestic and foreign policy, but gave a promise that will not harm the common interests.
Switzerland, have shown themselves resistant and skillful warriors, were invited to serve on various rulers money European countries, as well as Pope. Unlike other mercenaries Swiss marked by stability and commitment. In the present day with them recruited guard that protects the Pope.
A special part of the Empire was the imperial city, which only obeyed emperor. Lack of strong central authority in the empire effects included development municipal government, but defended the city from the encroachment of neighboring principalities. This situation prompted the imperial cities to their association to protect their independence. Union became the largest cities Hanse- Of merchant cities that were intermediary trade. Union was began in 1241 when the city of Hamburg and LAllied made a contract. Finally, alliance formed in 1356 It consisted of nearly 80 cities in North Germany, the Baltic and nyzhnoreynskyh lands. The goal was the maintenance of the Union monopoly on trade with England, the Netherlands, the Nordic States and Russia. Hanse factory (trade settlements) were located on London to Novgorod.
Although Hanse not a political union, it has played a huge role in political life neighboring countries. She led the war, entered into alliances. Thus, in 1367 Hanse in alliance with Sweden and the Duchy Mecklenburgwaged war against of Denmark. Winning the war gave her complete control over the straits North of the Baltic Sea and the right to participate in the selection of the Danish king.
As powerful economic and political force Hanse not represented any slim movements, like the state. Each city that came to Union, was fully independent in domestic life. The aggregate body of the Congress was Representatives of cities. Decisions uhvalyuvalysya at the Congress were required to everybody and their failure threatened separation from the union. In the case of War sporyadzhalo every city fleet and army for joint action.
At the end of XV century. Hanse began to decline. It was caused by movement of the main trade routes to the Atlantic Ocean and the growing sea power of the Netherlands and England. Final blow Ghanzi suffered during the Thirty Years War in the first half XVII. when trade in the Baltic Sea almost stopped.
Check how to remember
1. As a result of the events have a German kingdom?
2. Tell a result of the events appeared in the New West Roman Empire. Who was the emperor of a new empire?
3. What caused the conflict between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV?
4. Who and how to elect the emperor of the empire?
5. Name the three most famous emperors of the dynasty Shtaufeniv?
6. When was the Holy Roman Empire?
7. What is a Gold bull? What are its main provisions and implications adoption?
8. What territory was carried out German "offensive to the East?
9. In what year Switzerland won autonomy in stock Holy Roman Empire?
10. What is Hanse?
Think and answer
1. What differed Otto I founded the Roman Empire from Empire of Charlemagne?
2. What was the cause of the struggle between the Roman and papamy German Emperor?
3. What evidence of restoration of power the German Empire during the reign of the dynasty Shtaufeniv?
4. What were the results and impact of "offensive to the East?
5. Why and how did Switzerland?
6. What differed from Switzerland all existing at the time European countries?
7. What is the purpose formed the Hanseatic League?
Perform the task
1. Tell us about the struggle between Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV.
2. Make a table, "German Empire at the time of the Board Shtaufeniv ".
3. Make a historical portrait of Frederick II Shtaufena.
For the curious
1. Discover the essence saying: "Walking in Konnosu ".
2. Why Hanse it appeared within Holy Roman Empire?
3. What linked the changes in the name of Empire: The Roman Empire - Holy Roman Empire - Holy Roman Empire of the German nation?