§ 19. England
· How Britain became England?
· What changes have occurred in England after the Norman conquest it?
· What is a parliament and how it arose?
· Why that had flared up and aftermath of the war Rose?
1. Anglo-Saxon kingdoms
And from the end to end andVArt. Fr. Britain was province of the Roman Empire (except the northern part of Scotland). The Romans built here мIsta and fortresses, but migrants from Italy, there was a warm short. In 407, the Roman troops left the island, were forced to defend because the borders of Italy from the barbarians, and Roman-British relations actually stopped. Roman culture in Britain began to decline. The leaders of the local Celtic tribes waged internecine struggle. Of mid V Art. started mass intrusion territory Britain Anglo-Saxon invaders. Resembled those пivnichno-west Germanic tribes of lands between the Elbe and Rhine (modern Germany) - Saxons and Yutlandskoho Peninsula (modern Denmark) - Angles та Utah.
First conquerors captured пivdenno-east coast of Britain, and then began to move deeper into the island. They destroyed Celts or turned them into dependent people, who levied tribute. Tribes Britons preserved the independence only in the West (пivostrovy Wales and Cornwall), in the north (Scotland) and on the neighboring island of Ireland. Part of the Celts moved to the continent, to Gaul, to the peninsula Armoryka that subsequently was named Brittany.
Celts not just escaping from invaders, but they do desperately resisting. At the beginning of VI Art. ruler of the Britons and Romans on the island last Avrelian Ambrose led the fight against the Germans. His воyenachalnykom or perhaps the leader of one of tribes was the legendary King Arthur. He managed to inflict several Sachs palpable lesions, including 516 р. в battlesand at Mount Badon. Unknown chronicleст wrote that the battle lasted three days and three nights victory over Britons. Remembering King Arthur kept the legends, which has acquired almost fairy form and not have nothing to do with real events. Medieval Europe writers have left dozens of novels about King Arthur, his knightsв Roundtable led by magician Merlin and Lancelot, who helped the king.
Seizing Britain conquerors formed Seven Kingdoms. English and kingdoms were Ostanhliya, Mercia and Northumbria, the Saxons - Essex, Uesseks, Sussex; yutiv - Kent. All Germanic tribes spoke рiznymy dialects, but gradually began to dominate and distributed dialect of English and Mercy. Language, which speaking conquerors were called in English, and my country - England. Balances пidkorenoho population and conquerors gradually merged into one nation, which was named Anglo-Saxons.
The first two - three centuries пince winning Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the population was divided into ordinary people (Curly) and noble (erliv). Curly were free peasants owned small plots And then in the event of war were in the militia. Erly represented Anglo-Saxon nobility and owned vast tracts of land treated slaves and dependent people - slaves or debtors Briton-Curl.
Anglo-Saxons brought the tradition of rule of Germanic tribes. In each village всand free people participated in the National Assembly that was elected his old age. Several settlements were a hundred, led by the well was свth mayor. Every month, hundreds of leaders gathered in sacred place, on a hill or пid oaks and solved a common cause, punished criminals, solve disputes. Twice a рIR held a meeting of representatives of several hundred, where each came with their weapons and, according to ancient tradition, Germans expressed their opinion by striking with a sword on shield.
Пince conquering Germanic leaders became kings and their power increased. King surrounds the wife, which protected him, receiving a reward in weapons, horses, Timber and land. Commitments of the award were feasting and luxury which helped increase the popularity of the King. However, long existed under King "Wise council" or "those who know the customs, which limited the royal authority. The council consisted of representatives of the nobility, has endorsed new laws and, if necessary, could choose to remove the old and the new king.
Because ofAnglo-Saxon conquest of Britain into a Englandію: Celts were killed or oppressed; Roman culture and customs have disappeared.
As in continental barbarian kingdoms in Anglo-Saxon also began to spread Christianity. Christianization of England had two sources. The first - an Irish missionaries, the second - is Roman Catholic Church. Pope Greg and Great (590 – 604 years) was quite an effort to turn the Christian population in England faith. To that end, he sent 40 monks led by the outstanding theologian Augustine, who became the first bishop in England. His residence was the town of Canterbury in Kent. Roman monks launched a vigorous activity, converting people to Christianity пivdennoyi parts of the country and displacing Irish itinerant preachers, where they saw rivals. In Englandher church was established organization that is subordinated to Rome in rural parishes were created, which appointed permanent priests. Instead of the small chapels Irish invited craftsmen from Gaul built largeand stone churches.
Because of of Irish and Roman preachers вEngland reigned Christianity.
2.Anhliya and Vikings
Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain was not for her last. England was the first that suffered devastating attacks against the Vikings and they suffered from most. The first such attack dates back to 793, the
England was located very close from home Norman. With good wind ships vikings of Denmark and Norway from reach the coast Englandher less than a week. In 842 Normans was robbed and burned in London. Then they left to return пince attacks home and settled on the northeast coast of England. Lands were ruled by the Normans who came from of Denmark, became known as Pane Danish law, "or Denlo. З this part England they began to move on. The state of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms became dangerous. Struggle against the invaders led Uesseks Kingdom. Turning point in the struggle against Anglo-Saxons Danesв was Board uessekskoho King Alfred(871 - 900 years).
At the beginning of his Board position Englandher was very hard. Danes captured London. King was forced to flee from them пivden, which began to gather strength to fight. He divided his army into two parts. Each year, one was у бth, and another - tilled field. Such tactics proved successful, and 879 by King Alfred, the Danes rejected by the Thames, пidpysav them peace agreement.
In the war against Danes Alfred instead of the usual Anglo-Saxon people's militia created an army of professional soldiers, knights. By рishennyam King every five Anglo-Saxons were to equip and provide all necessary one soldier who served in the Army. This enabled us to lead Alfred long war and prevent collapse economy.
The emergence of professional warrior-knights launched a far-reaching changes in Englishiyskomu society which began to acquire features of feudal.
In addition to the Chivalry, by order of King Alfred they built Burg - Castle of detachments of the guards - and ships to protect the coast from invadersв. For In order to conduct successful struggle, the king needed significant funds. Alfred first introduced permanent tax on people - "Danish money".
Alfred paid much attention to developing education and science. He sadly said that previously went to study foreign Englandaction, and now can not find the person who translated from Latin to English letters. King Alfred created a school in his yard, where he sometimes taught, and school centers Bishop. By order of the King made Latin translations of Anglo-Saxon language books.
Great importance to strengthening the unity of the country had creation collection of laws, "Alfred the Truth". King ordered collect old Anglo Saxon law - truth - into a single collection, added some new and demanded that all use them.
Excerpts with the Laws of King Alfred "
I, King Alfred, withwas these laws and ordered to write most of those that our predecessors observed and which liked me, and many evil things I do not like, I rejected by council wise, and some commanded to perform; on, I dare not pass the record most of my own resolutions, for no convinced that they like our successors ...
4. If someone evil designs against life of the king himself in person, or provides refuge captives or his accomplice, he meets his life and всthem than has ...
4.2. Who prepares an attempt on his master, he will answer for it with their lives and всthem what it owns, or will make clear oath.
5. Also, we each set your Church, consecrated a bishop, a defense of peace: if it reaches пisha horse or a person who ryatuyetsya of revenge, no one can print it out for seven nights. When someone is still do, answer for the violation of the royal protection of ecclesiastical peace ...
5.2. Seniorthe church has supervised so that this person is not received within these seven-day meal.
5.3. If he wants to give rape their weapons, they should keep him alert and 30 nights his family about itв.
5.4. Next the ecclesiastical privilege: if someone who has committed an offense of which have never been known to hide church and there rozkayetsya before God, then he will forgive half of his guilt ...
If someone steal something in the church, let him pay for this one-time compensation and fine proper this refund, and let уit will cut off the hand, which he made this theft ...
How King Alfred made a collection of laws? What was sharing in its creation and Salic truth "Clovis? What was the significance of Christian Church in Englandher reign of King Alfred?
After the death of King Alfred the Great battle against the Danes launched with a bang. End X Art. a single Englandiyskoho the kingdom was annexed land Denlo. However, long triumph Anglo-Saxons had not. In 1013 , the Danish army King landed on the coast and captured after a short war Englandiyu. So the island ended up in huge Пs-night State of Danish King Canute the Mighty (1017 - 1035 years), which included Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Scotland. In England, as before, collected "Danish money" but now they turned into much more than the size tribute to the Danish king. But pat death Canute his government quickly collapsed, and authorities in England renewed Anglo-Saxons.
3. Norman conquest of England
In the fight Anglo-Saxons against the Danes helped the Duchy of Normandy, which exist at coast Пivnichnoyi France. It was founded 911 on land captured in the French Norman kingdom Rolland leader Duke. Normans (French Normans called them) have taken Christianity, learned French and turned in their possession strongest in the Duchy пivnochi France.
У 1066 by using death of King Englandaction, Duke William of Normandy decided to seize the English throne. The reason for the conquest was Anglo-Saxon King of the covenant, which the Norman Duke dovodyvsya relative. In It said that William - heir Englishiyskoho throne. Alexander Pope II trying to conquer his influential English church, and gave the blessing Вilhelmovi. Spring 1066 was great Duke army invaded England.
October 14, 1066 by William broke Englishiysku army led by the new king Harold at the Battle of Hastings. King Harold killed in action. Army Norman Duke went to London, where the December 25 1066 he became the new king of England under the name ВAnd ilhelma Conqueror (1066 - 1087's).
Аnhlosakskа know lost their possessions. They were French-Norman invaders. HimselfKing became the largest landowner in the country and gave their land supporters - barons. Replaced it by its supporters and the English episcopate church.
King and barons covered all Englandiyu stone castles. In fact London, on the shore of the Thames, was built gloomy Royal Castle Tower, which became a symbol of authority of new rulers of the country.
Great importance for Englandhad her conducted in 1086 by order of King by census population. People looked with horror at this amazing and unusual action, they believed news of her approaching end of the world. Compound пid the census lists the population was called the "Domesday Book" as Some believed that when Christ comes, he will judge people by the same book. In fact, census goal was that to find out how much taxpayers in a countriesand. Many farmers who Norman conquest to be free, recorded the "Domesday Book" as a dependent. "Channel slavery" became known as the era of Wilhelm I Conqueror Englishiyski peasants.
Calm in conquered EnglandIn herilhelm provided a brutal measures. By killing Norman King established a joint responsibility of all or residents of thesefat mistsevosti where it happened.
At some time in the Peace reigned country: Danish raids stopped and intestine wars nobility. Reinforce favored royal authority that William established procedure by which all vassals пidkoryalysya not only our seniors but king. At the request of King each knight, no matter whose vassal he was, must service was held in the royal army. Conversion, which began Wilhelm And increased royal authority and turned Englandiyu in a centralized state.
William And created a strong management staff itsstate. Country divided into CountyOn were led by SheriffsAppointed king. Sheriff charge was increasedр taxes to the royal treasury, to guide the proceedings and managed on behalf of King County.
Strengthening royal power and suspension intestine wars in the country contributed to the growth in Eст, Trade. In a large shopping center England into London. British merchants began to develop trade with Normandy and Flanders. They sell wool, which gradually transformed into main object Englishiyskoyi foreign trade.
Stages of development birth of the monarchy in Englandії
1066 Norman conquest of England
The consequences of the conquest
Begin strengthening central government
Converting free Peasants in the dependent person
Installation William and rules that all vassals obey not only his seniors, and and King
Formation Treasury, Court of Queen's Bench, the role of the royal council on Henry II
Judicial and military reforms of Henry II
Signature John Lackland Magna freedom
Civil War 1263-1265 biennium and the emergence of parliament - stanovopredstavnytskoho authority
Completion of the second XIII half - beginning of XIVArt. formation in England centralized state in the form of birth Monarchy
Policy established Вilhelmom And he continued his younger son HenryAnd (1100 - 1135's). During his reign a large role in the management landNoah play became permanent royal council. It included senior officials of the state - the royal treasurer, director office, judges and representatives of the aristocracy loyal to the King. The highest judicial body in countriesand became permanent Queen's Bench. On behalf of King County judge went there and rozbyraly lawsuits. It was created and Treasury, which was called by the House and meet the checkerboard by tax revenuesв.
This weird name Englishiyske Treasury had received thanks to count money. Large tables in the House was redistributed lazinesspit on strip. They в special order decay and moved columns of coins. Such a system resembling chess game, hence the name originated Chamber.
Thus, due to Norman conquest in Englandher increased throne and began the formation of a centralized state.
It is believed that famous Bayye carpet was manufactured in England at the request of Bishop Bayye, brother of William the Conqueror. It is made of embroidered linen fabric exceeding 70 m and tells about the battle of Hastings and the events that preceded it. Through picture of small details we can get an idea of both arms parties. Channel knights wore chain mail, made of tightly fitting to each other metallic plates and conical helmets. To protect them used the shield over 1 meter in height, covered with tanned skin. Knight fought a long spear and sword.
In the Anglo-dominated army foot soldiers who are well owned Viking battle-ax with a long spear.
4. First Plantagenet
After the death of Henry I, who did not leave a descendant of the throne, began 20 years internecine strifeя. With the church during anarchy in Englandstopped her. See received And the young grandson of Henry Earl of Anjou Henry, who launched a dynasty Plantagenet, who ruled the country до end of the XIV Art.
Henry II Plantagenet(1154 - 1189's) played a great role in the history of England. His Mother, daughter of Henry And the wife of Count of Anjou Anjou Geoffroy (this прizvysche he received from the name of plants "Plant henesta" what I liked to decorate his helmet). By свidchennyamy contemporaries, Henry II was a man of strong physique with bovine neck and hands strongman. He was unbalanced and explosive character. Henry could be kind, generous, honest, but when something irritated him and was like - turned to a raging tyrant. His anger, however, quickly passed, and King again became a benevolent, available man. Henry II had significant education (owned six languages) and exceptionally good memory. By gourmet food or luxury clothing king was absolutely indifferent, but for a full and persistence рishuchosti. Henry II was the ruler of the huge possessions. For their part, except Englandher and Normandy were his hereditary possession in France - Anjou, Poitou, Turen et al. After marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, and he got her possession. State Henry II historians have called "the Anjou empire.
All forces continued Henry II set on how to restore the state мitsnu royal power. He ordered to destroy the feudal castles, which were actively involved in internecine struggle. Simultaneously Henry II started in countriesand reform.
Significant changes уSociety launched Judicial reform. Every free man in Englandreceived her right for a certain fee to apply to Royal Court, bypassing the court of barons. Royal judges who traveled the country, for consideration on the ground attracted special jury. They were 12 locals who were sworn in Бibliyi that will lead fair deal. Having completed the investigation, the jury reported royal judge who appointed Karim Wine or freed the innocent. So started of jury, operating today in democratic countries. Through Judicial reform Henry II received пx: data capable small knights, peasants, petty bourgeois, who saw in it his counsel. In addition, the activities of the royal court become a source of big profits treasury King.
Henry II also made military reform. Service in the army of knights as vassals of the king, was limited certain number of days on рIC. Henry II allowed some knights did not serve in the army for that they King had to pay "shield money", which hired detained knightly army, significantly reduced the dependence on local feudal king. At the same time it strengthened the people's militia: each вilna person was required to have weapons and appear to her to attend the royal Land.
Henry II of England tried to put пid control of the English church, but was defeated. Archivesiyepyskop Canterbury Thomas Becket, who headed the church in England, spoke out forcefully claims against the King. When Beckett by secret order of the King was killed, у deal pope intervened. Пid threat of excommunication Henry II was forced to repent and abandon their plans to reform the church.
Henry II Plantagenet considered one of the greatest kings Medieval England. However, his great Anglo-French state required considerable strength to its management and the successors of Henry II - His sons Рicharda And the Lionheart (1189 - 1199's) and John Landless (1199 - 1216's) quickly declined.
English King John of England
5. "Magna Carta"
Famous king Рichard And the Lionheart was brilliant general, a talented poet and musician, but his life in England He spent only a few months. The desire to gain fame pushed him to participate in Crusades and the wars against France.
Signet Richard Lion heart
Devoted all his life fighting against the French king and his successor of John Lackland. In the war against Philip Augustus II, he suffered defeat after defeat, and finallyі-ultimately lost most of French possessions. John of England began to struggle against the pope, but it also lost. He was forced to acknowledge himself the vassal of the pope and to pay him annual tribute in 1 thousand. фuntiv sterling.
Constant increase taxes рiznomanitni extortions of officials Royal unsuccessful gambles caused discontent in the country. Simultaneously English barons, sensing the weakening of royal power, began to fight for their rights. The reason for it was the proclamation of John of England in 1215 р. пidhotovky another war against France. Knight would not participate in it, considering it hopeless, and in summer 1215 he started the uprising. Led uprising great barons пivnochi England. The rebels moved on London and took him with the support of townspeople. John of England, taken prisoner, was forced to accept the demands of the rebels and signed June 15, 1215 compiled by the Magna Carta barons.
Charter (in translation with davnohrets. - A sheet of papyrus) contained 63 articles Most of them defend the interests and limited the barons of the king.
Excerpt from the Magna Carta
1. First, we gave to God consent and пidtverdyly this Charter for us and our descendants forever to English church was free, fully and immunity owned his rights and freedoms.
12. Neither shield money, nor as anyand other payments should not impose our Kingdom otherwise than for the general council of the kingdom of our?
13. City of London should have всand ancient freedom and free their customs, as on land and on the water. In addition, we want to allow and that all other cities, and burhy and towns, and ports have all their freedom and free customs.
14. To have a general council Kingdom for the appointment of new fees or imposing shield money, we command convene architectiyepyskopiv, bishops, Abbot, graphs, senior barons our letters individually and, in addition, command convene, through the sheriff and our beylifiv, all those who have land received directly from the King.
16. No one should compel bear a greater service by свth chivalrous linen or other fluent than those specified.
20. A free man would shtrafuvatysya by дрibnyy offense under this kind of misdemeanor, and for the greater offense will shtrafuvatysya according to his severity, and should remain untouched fixed assets of the defendant?
39. No free man shall not be arrested, imprisoned, or deprived of property, or outlawed, or exiled, or deprived in any way and we do not пgo for it otherwise than by lawful sentence equal to this man and the law of the country.
40. No one will sell rights and justice, no one will deny them and slow them.
41. All merchants should have the right to travel freely and safely with Englandher and v'yizdyty to her to stay and ride England as land and water for in order to buy and sell without any illegal fees, paying only old and righteous manner set duties, with the exception of wartime.
1. What rights granted King Charter рiznym groups population?
2. Which of these rights you consider most important and why?
John of England immediately пince signing refused to do it. Indignantand barons government announced the withdrawal of the King. The war, in the midst of which John Lackland died.
Adoption Magna Carta was important. In 39 article was first proclaimed the principle that in the future become a requirement of many countries Europe. Maybe that's why is called the first charter Europe document пidtverdyv basic rights rights.
6. Establishment of the English Parliament
New King Englandbarons acknowledged her infant son John - Henry III (1216 - 1272's). Weak and boneless Henry III was always пid somebody's influence: at first a minor king ruled barons, and after marriage, he came under the influence of his wife's relatives, Frenchwoman. He distributing foreign office and land, causing these perturbations Englishiyskyh barons. Commoners, knights, free peasants were dissatisfied preponderance royal officials and judges. Spring 1258 King asked the barons, despite crop failures and famine in the country, one third of their income on an adventure with Sicilian conquest of the kingdom. Then the barons categorically denied King у money and held a "council mad" which in fact took over power. But the rule of Baronвnot satisfy other segments of the population. Knights, burghers and peasants began oppose barons. Englandiyu covered Civilian war - A war between citizens of one country who follow diametrically opposed views, which is impossible to reconcile. On way dissatisfied domination Council passed and some barons. Led the knights, burghers and barons, who continued their struggle against the king and council, Simon de Monfor, Earl of Leicester. Spring 1264 he defeated the royal army, captured in captivity Henry III and his eldest son Edward. For some time he became the ruler of the country - lord-protector. January 20, 1265 Westminster, in Simone de Monfor first assembled board, Which, in addition to representatives of the spiritual and свitskoyi notables invited two knights from each county and two burghers from each major city. Knights elected всand free to county taxpayers, and townspeople - self-government of cities. This Council named the "parliament" (From France. Parler - to speak). So, first In medieval Western Europe, there was a class-representative authority (General States у France appeared in 1302 р.).
Victory over the King did not stop the civil war: she, by contrast, broke with the new force. Villagers smashed possessions supporters of the king, refused to work on barons. Deployment of the war, most frightened barons moved on towards Prince Edward, who пince the escape from captivity, was organized forces of the King. Monfor Army was broken, he died in battle. Power King Henry III was restored. However, during the Civil War and the King, and barons convinced of the need to consider the interests of other groups. So main result was the emergence of civil war in Englandher birth-representative body - the parliament.
Finally formed parliament у years of Edward І(1272 - 1307's). The nature of their Englishiyskyy Parliament differed from the French General states. In the second half XIII - XIV in the early Art. basically formed the basic rights of English Parliament. З 1295 parliament in England was collected systematically. Parliament had the right to approve taxes and issue laws. In 1343 British Parliament divided into two chambers. The upper house called House of Lords and consisted of Lords Spiritual (architectiyepyskopiv, bishops and the abbot) and secular Lords - barons. In the lower house - House of Commons - Knights of the counties included and commoners. Free peasants and poor townspeople у Parliament had been officially and dependent farmers in general were prohibited from participating in elections. Englandiyskyy parliament had a greater impact on public life than the General States in France. He became the body where expressed the views of different population groups, and a place peace agreement of various conflicts that arose in the country.
So, XIII - XIV century. in Englandії formed centralized state in the form of birth monarchy.
Chamber Lords by Edward
7. In England XІVArt.
End XІVArt. turned to England full of various social movements and performances that had a significant impact on its development. The impetus for them were defeated in Hundred Years War and Politics Plantagenet dynasty. In 1377 Parliament was strengthened additional tax that they had to pay всand subjects regardless of sex, at least 14 years of age. This tax was heavy burden for the population before he destroyed the traditional relationship between peasants and feudal state.
Modern English istoyk N. Davies says: "In England during the Hundred Years War was decisive in shaping the national community. In early England Plantagenet was a dynastic state. What's in a cultural and political aspect was not more than outpost of French civilization. End. Uprooted from their continental possessions. Lancaster England was island kingdom. What was glad security through separation and povnylosya newly acquired power anhliyskosti. Anglo-Norman establishment entirely anhlizuvavsya.
In addition, 60 – 70-ties of England embraced the movement for reforming the church. He was the ideologue John Wycliffe (1320 – 1384), priest and professor at Oxford University. In his sermons Wycliffe denied the power of popes, arguing that the pope should not get Englandher no tribute. He called for confiscation of church holdings, easing religious rites and recommended increase in worship sermon time. An important achievement of his was that he translated the Bible Englishiyskoyu language closer Word of God to the souls of believers British. Wycliffe calls were echoed in various segments of society. His goods and servicesidovnykiv called lolardamy. Пid the influence of Wycliffe parliament passed a special Charter, which prohibited contact with the pope as the highest court in judicial and ecclesiastical affairs, the English king refused to pay tribute to Pope etc.. But the peasants perceived goesї Вiklifa as a call to speak against the feudal lords. Winged was saying: "When Adam was plowing, and Eve spun, who was then the nobleman?
Perturbed Englishiyske society exploded uprising in 1381 Tyler led Uota.
Farmers were outraged by the new tax, which is introduced to continue the war against France. Riots swept nearly half Аnhliyi. Led it was Uot Tyler. In 1381 , the rebels came to London. They, Believing the "good king", sought to tell him about the harassment by seniors and pass their requirements. Young King Рichard II won the time, skillfully playing the role of defender of common people. Пid time regular talks Uota Tyler was murdered. Farmers, having lost leader, were despair, and royal troops gone country, punishing participants in the uprising.
Socialni performances were the result of the social changes that swept British society. The traditional division bower на seigneurs, clergy and peasantry did not meet the realities of time. Appeared and increased at new layers: craftsmen, traders, merchants and others. Andfeudal lords themselves were no longer similar to their predecessors. They are more worried problems of land and revenue than fame and war. Knightly honor betrayed in past. Such changes in English society, especially in the higher strata led to war, which in history was called the Red and Бiloyi тroyandy.
8. War of the Roses
The defeat in the Hundred Years' War caused a crisis of political dynasties of Lancaster, that dostupylasya to power in 1399 Opposition against them led by the Duke of York Richard. He decided to take advantage of what Henry VI was nearly mad, and power in countriesand held his wife Margaret Anjou. In 1455 р. Рicharda declared regent of the kingdom, though they had a son Henry VI. This turn of events not satisfy the family of Lancaster, who was unwilling to concede York. Finally, palace intrigue escalated into open armed clashes between supporters of two families and the civil war that was called Red (Item Emblem Lancaster) and White (Item Emblem Tudor family, which started пince the war a new dynasty) Roses. At the beginning of the war was a success on the side of Lancaster. In 1480 р. пEid time one of the battles of the army of Richard was broken, and he died. But next year son Рicharda supported by the powerful Count of Warwick became King Edward IV (1461 – 1483 years). Queen Margaret's son fled to France, and mad Henry VI, abandoned by all, wandered Englandiyeyu accompanied by his spiritual director until it was put in the Tower.
Edward, became king, took away all the land in Lancasterв and their supporters. Giving possession, he created submissive a new nobility. He also promoted the development of tradingвлand especially international, but for it demanded all sorts of merchants and bankers gifts and loans that are not turning. З parliament He established a case for, and he called it rarely and reluctantly. Politics Edward IV displeased even his supporters. Earl of Warwick, posvaryv-Snooze / Light with him, Ootyк to France, where he formed an alliance of Margarita. In 1471 by army Lancaster led by Warwick in vysadylosya Englandand her captured London. Henry VI again proclaimed king, but Edward was able to regain power. Warwick, which called "the creator of kings", Henry VI and his son died and was in Margarita captivity. All years War marked merciless destruction of enemies. Пince death of King Edward IV was supposed to be his son Edward V, but the deceased brother King Richard Duke of Gloucester commanded to imprison the young King and his brother (13 and 10 years) in the Tower itself and proclaimed himself king Richard III (1483 – 1485 years).
Person Рicharda III attracted the attention historians and writers. Yes, he has devoted drama "Richard III "famous English V. playwright William Shakespeare. In some works and chronicles he appears before us as a real monster: humpbacked dwarf Sukhoruk void of any moral qualities. He attributed directly involved in the murder of Henry IV and so on. In fact, he was low on zriстWith reasonable face. Even enemies acknowledged that it was wise ruler and brave warrior capable commander. As for disability, then one shoulderit was slightly higher, and the left hand acted badly. Рichard III realized that the war ultimately destroyed the old relationship, and that the country will any king who will ensure peace, lower taxes and establish order in state. In this way he acted, thereby obtaining the commitment of the people. But over it tended Rumors about his involvement in the death of two sons Edward IV, moreover he did not disproved.
After all, his opponents have united around one of recent Lancaster, who lived in exile, Henry Tudor. Last gathered army, landed in England. Near the town Bosuart agreed two armies. Рichard III was betrayed, his army fled. He himself died on the battlefield. The crown of his head immediately was placed Henry Tudor, who became the rule пid name Henry VII (1485 – 1503 years). To fully reconcile hostile side, Henry VII married the only representative of York, and in his arms combined red and white roses. The war that lasted 30 years, has expired.
In Parliament convened Henry VII пince the victory was only 1920 Lords of 50, besides some of those that remained was the Lord during War. It свidchylo that almost all birth aristocracy of England fell on the battlefields, and it was replaced by a new, confessed that new moral principles, was dependent on the king and defended feudal independence. Almost disappeared vasalitetu system, instead it started to operate system livreynyh post. Livery - A special dress servants with arms owner. Also known as livery charges his suzerain vassal.
Livreyni almost - Essentially groups Mercenaries receiving payment from your Lord and had with him a written contractualр of service. Old traditions and honestly, what stuck vasalitetu system, already seen as insufficient.
Thus, in Englandії was demolition of old feudal traditions and the formation of a new type of state that based on the absolute rule of a monarch and a developed system of public administration. In Englandher, this process was somewhat slower than in France. Moreover, in England strengthened parliamentary traditions that did not allow King features fully concentrate in their hands the full power.
Check how to remember
1. When was Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain? What Germans tribes took part in it?
2. How many kingdoms formed the Anglo-Saxons?
3. From what sources held hrystyanizatsiya England?
4. In what year was the first Viking attack on British Islands?
5. Which country formed the Vikings in England?
6. Why uessekskий Royalь Alfred was nicknamed the Great?
7. In what year was Norman conquest of England? Where was the battle?
8. What has been created Books Scary th Court "?
9. What reforms carried out Henry II Plantagenet?
10. Why King John was nicknamed Lackland?
11. When was taken Great Liberty Charter?
12. Tell us how you came British Parliament.
13. Who led the peasant uprising of 1381?
14. Between whom and whom the youth of the Roses? Why War got its name?
15. Who won in the Wars of the Roses?
Think and answer
Perform the task
1. Tell us how was the formation of Christian Church in Аnhliyi.
2. Make historyі portraitи Henry II Plantagenet and Bilhelma Conqueror.
3. Compare Englishiyskyy of Parliament General States France. Identify common features.
4. What new phenomenon in the development of England XIVArt. can single out? Put their paper.
5. Make a story about rebellion led Uota Tyler.
For the curious
1. Пidhotuyte story from a person English baron angry King John of England. Think he could propose to the King claim.
2. On the example of King Richard III explain how a writer affect the image of the ruler.