§ 17. In Northern Europe VIII - XI. (textbook)

Age of Norman

§ 17. In Northern Europe VIII - XI.

 

You know

·        Who are the Normans, Vikings, Varangians?

·        Why late VIII - XI. Normans the terror in Europe?

·        Origin and developed countries in Northern Europe Middle Ages?

·        What was the spiritual world of the peoples of Northern Europe?

 

1. Normans, Vikings, Varangians

Begin the conference - the first half of XI century. known in European history "era Norman '. While the Germanic tribes who lived on northern Europe, Yutlandskomu, Scandinavia and some islands Baltic Sea, they went to conquer new lands. In Europe they were called Normans- Nord people ". Common prayer was then God please save from rage Norman, when suddenly the coast appeared bezpalubni their long ships - drakary- Under the red square or striped sails with horrendous carved dragon heads on nosah.

 

Viking Ship

 

In most Scandinavian those who do not want to work at home, and preferred a life full of dangers and adventures, called Vikings (Origin the word is not fully elucidated). Vikings sailed not only to the west, and on east. Baltic Sea and the Western Dvina then they got the land where they lived Eastern Slavs, who called strangers Vikings. Here they traded with local people, establishing their factory, or moved "by Varangians in Greeks further, to Constantinople. Varangian wife hired to the Byzantine emperors, who appreciated the courage and Norman military prowess.

How to look aggressive Normans? Archeological finds and Icelandic sagas - the legend about the exploits of the Vikings - allow us to reproduce the appearance of these brave soldiers. Was found stones scientists have glimpsed a bearded warriors in helmets and gabled chain, armed with large swords and battle axes. Icelandic sagas Norman soldiers called nayhorobrishyh Berserk. These people dedicate their lives to serving God of War Odin, believed that after death in battle get to his palace in the sky - Valhalla. Before the battle they were used especially prepared amanita mushroom juice, which exercised a man on drug action. From his actions during the battle Berserk merged with madness, plucked from her chain-mail with the enemy and fought naked to the waist, not noticing injuries and pain. They harchaly, bit his shield, could fight the enemy with both hands, keeping in each sword. On Berserk was viewed with fear and horror not only enemies but also themselves Normans. However, their very appreciated by equating a Berserk 20 ordinary soldiers.

As for Conventional Vikings, then, as exemplified by its burial, they had some supernatural physical strength: were low in height, often suffered from rheumatism and diseases of the teeth. While high-profile receptions, which tell Icelandic saga, vypyvalosya much beer, but food was monotonous, poor in vitamins. So the Vikings, like other inhabitants of the then Europe, rarely reached old age.

 

Varyag. From paintings V.Vasnetsov

 

Hiking Vikings were the last wave of the Great Migration. Home its wave in V - VI century. destroyed the ancient Roman Empire and led to the emergence Europe's new states - barbarian kingdoms. The second wave in the IX - XI centuries. has come to a new Europe. Vikings could not destroy it, and adapted to it, borrowing a tradition and orders of feudal Europe.

 

In Europe IX - Article XI. Hiking Norman

 

2. Hiking Viking

Europeans knew nothing about the Normans, ancestors of today's Norwegians, Swedes, Danes and Icelanders to the end of VIII century. In 793, the Norman first squad attacked the monastery northeast coast of England, robbed, took captive monks and burned it. Since settlement of coastal areas of England, France, Germany turned to objects of recurrent attacks of sea robbers. Brave and relentless Normans sow death, robbed, burned houses.

 

Figure: Reasons for trips Norman


Causes Norman marches

Rapid growth   population and the consequent lack of land and livelihoods

Social   separation, separation of the military elite, led by konunhamy, their desire to   fame and booty

Traditions   inheritance predicted that only the eldest son inherited the paternal property   younger remained the same hope for luck and strength

Skills shipping.   The presence of light, high-speed vessels - printers that easily overcame the sea   oceans and rivers.

              

Hiking Norman (late VIII - XI.)

         

Iceland,

Greenland

North America

British Isles,

West and South   Europe

Russ,

Byzantium,

Possession of Arabs

 

At first the Normans after raid returning from a stolen homeland for some time but by the Normans began invade and conquer large parts of its power in different parts Europe and settle them.

The British Isles are most affected by the Norman conquerors. It cause they were located very close from home Norman. With a good wind of Norman ships of Denmark and Norway reached the coast England less than a week. In 842, the Normans looted and burned London. Then they left to return home after the attacks and settled on north-east coast of England. Lands were ruled by the Normans, who came from of Denmark, became known as "area of this Danish LawOr Denlo. In this part of England they began to move on. The state of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms on the island was dangerous. Fighting led invaders Kingdom Uesseks. Turning point in the struggle against Anglo-Saxons Danes became board uessekskoho King Alfred(871 - 900 years). Thanks to the reforms he was able to mobilize against all enemy forces. However expel the Normans from England he does not failed.

After the death of King Alfred the Great battle against the Danes launched with a bang. End X century. a single English kingdom was annexed land Denlo. However, the long Anglo-Saxons triumph had not. In 1013 Army Danish king landed on the coast and on the short War captured the whole of England. So the island ended up in a huge North State of Danish King Canute Mighty(1017 - 1035's), which included Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Scotland. After the death of Canute its state quickly collapsed, and authorities in England renewed Anglo-Saxons but again not for long.

Age of Norman

793 was - The first mention of Viking attack (Norman) on the north-east coast of England.

870 was - Early Norman settlement of Iceland

IX. - Norman attacks on the coast Northern Germany, France and England. Lining "in the way of Varangians Greeks Southern coast of the Baltic Sea to Byzantium and the Arab Caliphate.

911 - foundation Duchy of Normandy

980-ies - Opening EyrikomRudym Greenland.

About 1000 - Swimming Leyva Eyriksona (“Happy ") To islands of North America.

1030 - 1091 рр. - Norman conquest of Northern Italy and Sicily.

1066 - Norman conquest of England.

When weak descendants of Charlemagne Normans were constantly violated in French possession. Vikingthree times - in 845, 857, 865 years Paris devastated. In 885-886 years They 10 months he was held under siege. But this time they take the city with no luck.

911 zahidnofrankskyy Charles Prostak decided to negotiate with Norman and use them with their own purpose. He gave a leader in the use the Danes Rollonu Pedestrians (it was so healthy that no horse will not endured) city Rouen with its surroundings (the majority of modern Normandy). For this Rollon oath of allegiance King and promised to protect his land from the Duchy of Norman attacks. By legend, sublime Norman Rollon, Making an oath allegiance to the King, had to bow and kiss his foot, but he refused to do so. RollonStanding, sharply raised King leg to his mouth, but Charles fell back. But zahidnofrankskyyKing had to endure this abuse. Formally vassal possession of France new Duchy of Normandy was virtually independent of both the weak zahidnofrankskyh kings, and from Danish konunhiv.

Normans (French Norman called them) to Christianity, learned French and converted their holdings in the Duchy of the strongest in the north of France. Normantsi in 1030 - 1091 рр. - Conquest of northern Italy and Sicily, and in 1066 - England.

In addition to aggressive Normans made trips and many geographical discoveries. In the 870's Normans in Norway he was opened and began to colonize Iceland - Country ice ", Called the new lands as the first settlers. Nature Iceland is harsh, but at the same time - extremely good for its northern beauty: forests were very few, most of the territory occupied rocky plateau with volcanoes and hot water sources - geysers. On the coast stretched huge meadows with lush grass, which are beautiful pastures for early settlers. Very quickly on the coast of Iceland hamlets have Norwegian immigrants. The interior of the island unsuitable to life, remained unoccupied. Until the mid-thirteenth century. When the country fell under the rule of Norwegian kings, there was a system in Iceland self-free farms. All issues were resolved by common folk Meeting - altinhu. It was he who in 1000 announced the adoption of Christianity, Icelanders

In IX - X century. Normans started to colonize the islands of the Atlantic. Viking Eyrik Rudy, doomed to exile from Iceland with the crime, sailed in uncharted northwest and unexpectedlyopened Greenland - Green Land.

Brave navigator Leyv Happy and his companions about 1000 reached the islands off the coast of North America. In these sagas place called "Forest country ", "Country of flat stones " and wild country of grapes ". On the islands they met local residents, whom they called skrelinhamy. They like a fairy tale story confirmed by archeologists find Viking settlement on the island of Newfoundland. The settlement existed briefly, but it shows that America was open for 500 years before Columbus! Opening the Vikings did not had large consequences for America and Europe, because the Vikings were not opportunities to master a new continent.

If the Norwegians and Danes financed their campaigns mainly in the west, the Swedish Vikings - to the east. In the VIII century. they were to penetrate the earth Finno-Ugric, Baltic and Slavic tribes. But hiking in these areas were mostly commercial nature. Swedish Vikings tried to learn the trade routes along the Volga to the Caspian Sea and along the Dnieper to the Black Sea in the land of the Arabian caliphate and Byzantium. Detachments Varangians become a significant factor in shaping state in the eastern Slavs.

 

 

The book "History Europe, Written by historians from twelve European countries under   direction of F.Delusha, States: "Attacks   Scandinavians have a very significant impact: the Normans finally utverdzhuyutsya on   in France, then in England, in southern Italy and Sicily: credibility   Frankish king falls and the population itself does not feel safe. A similar   position reduced the fortified castles which later become one of the signs   feudal order ".

 

3. The emergence of the Scandinavian countries

Hiking Norman gave a powerful impetus formation of Northern Europe. Through field trips increased tribal power leaders - konunhiv.

The quickest way to the formation of state took place in of Denmark (from VIII century).. Here, thanks to more favorable natural conditions most was the strengthening of the nobility and government leaders. In appeared large proprietary and dependent segments of society. In the second half of the tenth century. Harald Synozubyy (About 950 - about 986) finally brings together Denmark under his power. At the end of the ninth century. konunhu Harold superb managed to conquer most of the tribes of their power in Norway. The final association country was only the beginning of XI century. However, the royalty was Norway temporarily strained and joined the powerful Danish King Knut Mighty. But after son's death last Norwegian crown was Harald Hardrad("Strict ruler ", 1046-1066).

Harald HardradaVikings recently called on the throne. In younger years he went hiking in Eastern and Southern Europe, served in the Byzantine emperor, fought in Italy and Sicily. His wife was the daughter of the great Kiev prince Yaroslav Wise. In 1066 He prepared a large fleet and tried to conquer England but in the battle of Stemfordbridzhem defeated and died. For three weeks in England landed another Norman Norman Duke William the Conqueror, which was more favorable fate.

In Sweden, union the country was during the reign of Olaf Skotkonunha(About 995 - 1020), but the King long power remained weak.

All Nordic rulers to strengthen his power, sought to rely on the Christian church. However, the establishment of Christianity in Scandinavia roztyahnulosya a very long time.

 

4. Scandinavia in XII-XV centuries.

After the violent events associated with Viking raids late VIII - XI century., Nordic little separated in its development from other countries, although there occur similar to Europe other processes.

The events in Scandinavia (of Denmark, Sweden, Norway) in the XII - XV centuries. almost no influence on the lives of other European countries and vice versa. But then the processes that led to further growth of these countries and their participation and significant impact on Europe XVI - XVIII centuries. Scandinavian rulers of the most disturbed (especially of Denmark and Sweden) who will host the Baltic Sea. All of their policy of XII century. and developed in this direction. Thus Danish and Swedish kings tried to conquer Finland and Baltic States, which necessarily led to a clash of Novgorod and German crusaders.

Most developed among the Nordic countries was Denmark. Here for XII - XIII century. formed feudal relations and the process of Christianization of the population. In the middle of XIV century. the process of rapid exaltation of Denmark and its transformation into a significant factor in northern Europe. Role in this process played Waldemar IV Atterdah(1340 - 1375's). However, his plans were interrupted by the defeat in the war against Hansa - The powerful trade union the Northcities that did not want to lose control over the Baltic Sea.

His daughter and heiress Margarita (1387 - 1412's) continued father's policy aimed at integration of Scandinavia under his authority. Being a wife Norwegian King HanonaVI, Margaret in 1375 gained election to the Danish throne his son Olaf, who after death Hanona in 1380 inherited and the Norwegian throne. Thus, Denmark and Norway were united into one state. After the death of Olaf in 1387 Margaret became queen of Denmark and Norway. In 1397, using the internecine struggle in Sweden, it failed to include the union Of Denmark with Norway and Sweden have. Formally, the King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden were proclaimed granddaughter Margaret Eric II, essentially administration persisted in its hands until 1412

So thanks to the union in 1397 that was called Kalmar, Swedish city called Kalmar, where it was concluded, in northern Europe there was a powerful formation that began to put forward their claims to rule in Baltic Sea. However, this association was quite artificial. Sweden all the time trying to get rid of Danish rule. In 1453 it gained autonomy in 1523 and - Independence. The national movement in Sweden of Denmark launched the fight against so mobilized the forces of the country that it subsequently has become a claim to a leading role in the Baltic Sea.

 

5. The spiritual world peoples of North Europe

For those whose land is impoverished by the Normans, they were barbarians, pagans, destroyer high Christian culture. However, the Scandinavians have created their own distinctive culture. Thus, they created their own written language, was rich folk epic creativity. Island Iceland, Vikings settled in the IX - X century. - A place unique cultural monuments of Germanic tribes in Northern Europe. From ancient Icelanders save time saga of the exploits of the Vikings and their ancient gods. Singers these were ordained scald. Poets and warriors simultaneously. In the thirteenth century. these legends were recorded in the books, from which we can play everyday life, the spiritual world and the images heroes of the ancient Germans.

 

Prior to the adoption of Christianity and spread of Latin letters used in Scandinavia runic writing. Rune translated means secret. Runes - special characters, letters, which in Article IX. there were 24, and thereafter - 16. ABC called fatark: exactly been spoken first six runes. Runes were utluvatoyi form and usually vyrizalysya on weapons, items. Stones. Was considered. What can they in the battle to protect and help others recover. Runes were used for divination priest. According to the legends of the underground kingdom of the runes One brought a god.

 

Runic stone. Denmark, the X century.

 

The main god (asom) was One(Ancient Germans called it Woden). Exactly its possessions in Valhalla, Heavenly maidens - Valkyrie - bring souls of warriors killed in battle. Here, in anticipation of a decisive battle against the forces of evil, they rest and feasting. On the other gods most famous was Torus (davnohermanskyy Donara). He threw his hammer in heavy clouds and lightning vykreshuvav. 's Wife Odin (Woden) Was Freya - Goddess of good harvests and fertility patroness of family and marriage. The forces of evil personified goddess of death and the otherworldly World HelThe monstrous dragon Fafnir and the wolf Fenrir. Hurt people as little evil trolls who kept the wealth of earth's interior.

Teutons and Scandinavians have treated their gods rather unusual. They sacrificed for them (sometimes even men) to stone altar in the sacred groves. But they did not ask the gods to protect and assistance, and demanded it. If the gods are not done what was required of them, then they could leave and apply to others. Songs of the ancient gods, written in Iceland joined the collection "Edda ". Contained in It also songs about ancient heroes, their victories and the struggle against the forces of evil.

The most famous old hero of the glorified inEddie " - Sigurd. He killed huge vicious dragon Fafnira and stole gold Nibelungs - Underground dwarf-smiths. According to legend, one who had so treasure, had huge power and fortune in all cases. But gold Nibelungs has not brought happiness Sigurd. Jealous King Gunther decided to acquire treasure. Together with his brother Gunther killed the prince and took the gold treasure Nibelungs, Sigurd hidden at the bottom of the Rhine. But this struggle for the "Rhine gold not finished. King of the Huns AttilaGunther and killed his brother and took possession of a magic treasure. Avenge Gunther solved his sister GudrunWho was the wife Attila. This revenge was stunning in its cruelty. Gudrun killed their children, children Attila, Fed her husband food from their flesh, and night killed Attila his own sword and burned down house.

On the basis of these legends in the XIII century. Germany appeared in "Song of Nibelungs'. The main difference from its legend of "Edda " is that the characters - the medieval German knights.

Norse mythology is full of gloomy images. They reflected real-life drama Harsh. In "Prediction velvy " foresaw the death of the world. First, cut off good god Balder. This will global catastrophe. People destroy each other in a fratricidal war. Wolf Fenrir zirvetsya with tsepu and zyist Odin. Fafnir rise with Ocean and poisonous breath impress Torah. In the end all die and men and gods. But from the ashes arises a new life, install peace, prosperity and happiness.

Icelandic sagas also contain descriptions of real historical events. It is for these historians have learned about the opening North America Leyvom Lucky, on ancient rulers of Norway, the Norman conquest of England.

 

Check how to remember

  1. Who are the Normans, Vikings and Varangians?
  2. What century European history can be called      Norman era?
  3. Name the states that suffered most from campaigns      Norman?
  4. Spread the word far and near hiking Norman. What      geographical discoveries they made?
  5. When and how any Scandinavian country? What      Scandinavian country there first?

6.      Name most powerful rulers of the Scandinavian in XII-XV centuries.

  1. What saga? Can they be used as      historical source? What information they gave to the historians?
  2. As a system called Writing invented the Normans?
  3. Which gods were the most respected people in      Scandinavia?

 

Think and answer

  1. What causes hikes Norman?
  2. What Norman invasion to Europe differed      from the previous?
  3. Why do you think stopped the Viking raids?
  4. What's left behind Norman raids in Europe?
  5. Why do the nations of Scandinavia embraced relatively late      Christianity?
  6. Which countries and how to conclude Kalmarunion?
  7. Describe the spiritual world peoples of North      Europe.
  8. About testified own invention runic writing      Nordic nations?
  9. Why Scandinavian mythology is full of people      grim images and cruelty?

 

Perform the task

  1. Define the milestones of the history of Scandinavian countries      In the Middle Ages, back chronology.
  2. Fill in the table: "Gods people Scandinavia

God's Name

The natural strength. What it represents

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Make a plan for the story: "Close and far trips Norman '.

 

For the curious

  1. It is believed that the Normans were hiking last act      "Great Migration peoples ". Why hikes      Norman did not have such consequences as invading barbarians on the border of the Roman      Empire?
  2. Can I say that Norman helped hiking      establishment of the feudal system in Europe? Justify their thoughts.
  3. Why Norman penetration into Eastern Europe was      relatively peaceful?