§ 16. Islamic Empire
· On the nature and population of the Arabian Peninsula.
· As Islam emerged and what role he played in the lives of Arabs?
· Why Arabs managed to conquer large territories in Asia, Africa and Europe.
· Which contribution to Arab culture valued.
1. Arabian Peninsula and its population
Much of the vast Arabian peninsula, an area equal a quarter of Europe - a desert and steppe. Arabia is divided into several different areas of natural conditions. In the southwest peninsula stretches Yemen with fertile land, rich tropical vegetation, high population density, which has long lived with the Farming and gardening. Mid-Peninsula - Najd ("Upland") - a huge, arid plateau where only nomadic animal husbandry. There are no rivers, only a dry river bed, sometimes rain filled streams. Life-giving water to people only give a well. A long strip along the Red Sea - Hijaz ("Frontier") - perhaps suitable for Farming in separate oazah. Boundless space, especially in the vicinity plateau, remains uninhabited.
Natural conditions of the Arabian Peninsula resulted in the fact that most Arabs were nomads - Bedouins(Desert dwellers), who bred goats, sheep and camels. Bedouin Life impossible without the camel, the animal is - and inseparable companion tool existence of nomadic Arabs.
Camel is perfectly adapted to life in the desert, several days may do without water. Bedouin eats his milk and meat, wears clothes from camel hair. In the desert, no trees or any other fuel, instead of Bedouins use it kizyaky Camel. NE The nomads live in tents with camel felt, harness, saddles, shoes made from camel skin. During wandering camels, Bedouins are still called "ships of the desert, carrying Cargo and family treasure. Camel ruled by money, as the unit of calculation. Arabs believed they knew: if the water or lost in a desert caravan, one put forward a camel - he will find water and road.
Bedouins tribes livedWhich are divided into tribes and families. They existed to know - Sheikh and SaidWho had large flocks, and slaves received greater share of mining in the war. All members of a tribe considered themselves relatives. Most Arabs worshiped various tribal gods: religion in common they do not exist. Among most respected were god war and fertility Astar, Goddess of the moon Sin, The goddess-mother snake. Embodiment of their gods the Arabs considered man-made idols of stone and natural stone pillars. There were also few adherents of Judaism and Christianity.
In Hijaz along the Red Sea located along the ancient trade route from the Mediterranean to Africa and India which resulted in large shopping centers that have turned into cities - Mecca Yathrib et al. Especially important was the mecca that took place in the main bus caravans. Its inhabitants live in large masonry buildings. Every year in Arabia, in the spring, four months stopped War robber attacks and installed a general peace. At this time, all the Arabs could visit the main sanctuary of Mecca - Kaaba(In Arabic "Cube"), in which the wall was vmurovanoblack meteorite. At the same time in different competitions were arranged and great fair.
At the end of Article VI. Arab society embraced the crisis. The population of the peninsula has increased, lacked land. Trade declined because of attacks of the Iranians who wanted to trade ways held Gulf Coast and enriched their country. Deteriorating living conditions pushed Arabs to think about the need merge together to fight for better livelihood, but in the way of this were different tribal beliefs.
2. The emergence of Islam and Arabs unite
Union of Arab contributed to the emergence of a new religion - Islam. The founder of Islam was Mohammed(570 - 632 years). This name means "inspired", "prophet." In Europe it was called Mohammed.
Mohammed argued that the major provisions of the new faith given to him by God. Students and followers recorded his words. After death Mohammed All these records were collected in one book - Koran (In Arabic - "read").
Resident Mecca Mohammed belonged to the poor family. In the six years he remained an orphan and became a shepherd. Subsequently Mohammed got a job to keep doing business rich widow Khadija and began to travel with merchant caravans. He soon married his mistress and got rich. After some time Mohammed began to say that hears the voice of God telling him leave the trade and to preach a new religion. Mohammedclaimed that he - an instrument of God, the successor of the prophets Abraham, Moses and Jesus. About 630 was He began to preach Islam (in Arabic - "Humility"). Not everyone liked the inhabitants of Mecca calls Mohammedgive to the poor and their property free slaves. He was forced to move to Yathrib - Rival Mecca. Yathrib, 622 inhabitants which was accept MohammedBegan call the Medina - the city of the prophet. Since then, year Hijra, how to call it Muslims (Those who profess Islam) is counting time in Muslim countries. Doctrine Mohammedquickly redistributed, and 630, the He won back to Mecca. In 632 was Mohammed died. His tomb in Medina, as and Kaaba, Is the largest Muslim shrine. By religious legend, after the death of the prophet with his horse znissya the sky.
The main religious requirement Mohammed to the Arabs was to abandon the worship of different tribal gods and recognize the existence of one God - Allah. "There is no god except Allah, and Mohammed - His prophet "- the main religious formula of Islam. Influence of Islam on Jewish and Christian Religion appears to recognize Moses and Jesus and the prophets predecessors Mohammed. The sacred city of Jews and Christians - Jerusalem - recognizing and Muslims. In order to be a Muslim, it was necessary recognize and fulfill five major provisions:
1) believe in the existence of one God - Allah;
2) five times a day to perform mandatory prayer;
3) annually observe the mandatory post - Ramazan - from dawn to dusk;
4) to get rid of sins, spend fifth of the profits to charity;
5) once in your life make a pilgrimage (Visit the holy places) to Mecca and Medina.
Temple Kaaba. Mecca, modern look
Mohammed laid out and testament holy war. " He vyriznyv Jews and Christians as people who own writings (the Scriptures) which should lead noble strife, but the pagans called delete.
At its beginnings preaching Mohammed condemned the rich, but subsequently abandoned it. The Qur'an states that inequality among people established by God and a Muslim should not envy those who are richer.
Hasidy (statement and guidelines) Prophet Mohammed
1. The one who does not restrain prayer of bad things, far away from God.
2. The pleasure of small - inexhaustible wealth.
3. Paradise - for mothers footsteps.
4. Shame - Did faith.
5. Dry eyes - a sign cruel heart.
6. Most of you are those who call you to the good.
7. Great as a betrayal if you do no brother said, and he (believed), affirmed said you and you lied him.
8. To be a liar, just repeat everything that is heard.
9. To be ignorant enough say all you know.
10. Amity to the people - half mind.
11. Good question - half knowledge.
12. Seeks knowledge even in China, pursuit of knowledge - the duty of every Muslim and Muslim.
13. Teacher and student - friends in good deeds.
14. Anyone who lost their lives their property - the holy martyr.
15. The property of a Muslim - blood Muslim.
16. Poverty - the threshold of disbelief and envy can change the destination of man.
1. What is your attitude to guidelines Mohammedhis supporters?
2. Does the guidance prophet human ideals, which must follow people, irrespective of their religious beliefs? Bring your position.
After the expulsion from Mecca Mohammed began to advocate the unity of all Arabs into one Muslim community. Between Mecca and Medina opened the war. Most simple residents supported the prophet; nobility was forced to surrender Mohammed and let him into the city. In 630, after return to the prophet of Mecca, most Arab tribes recognized authority Mohammed and adopted Islam.
Joining the Mecca Mohammed went to the main sanctuary - Kaaba. Ob'yihavshy her on a horse seven times he touched staff to the black stone and said: "Truth has come, let him disappear lie!" Further ordered to destroy almost 300 different tribal idols which surrounded Kaaba. Mohammed announced Kaaba the main sanctuary for all Muslims. Forbidden visit her unbelievers Arabs, Jews and Christians. Each Muslim, as said MohammedShall at least once in a lifetime visit Kaaba. The main sanctuary it was recognized that by Arab tradition Kaaba built a father is Jews "Abram for his son Ishmael, whom the Arabs regarded as their founder. Abram, as Muslims believe in one God, and a dedicated this temple, and pagans, according to Mohammed, Then polluted the sanctuary.
Now Kaaba contained in the center of the mosque Al-Haram ("Holy"). This - cubic stone building high in the five-story house. It remains a "black stone", presented God Adam - first man on earth.
Thus, during the banner of Islam Mohammed united the Arab tribes. At the time of death Mohammed under it visited most of the tribes that inhabited Arabia.
3. The conquest of the Arabs during the First Caliphs
After the death of the Prophet among his old supporters and Surahsnotables began debate on succession. It was not the only thing is who will be the religious leader, but also those who head the state he created. Eventually it was decided that the state govern Khalifa - Vice prophet. " Thereafter, every Arab ruler called himself so. The first four Khalifa, who ruled in 632 - 661 years, were close friends and relatives Mohammed.
Khalifa called on people to get under way in the campaign for the spread of Islam, promising a reward as each lifetime and after his death. World Islam went on the offensive: the Arab conquests began night. The most significant seizure was made during the reign of second Caliph - Omar(634 - 644 years). Arabs won in Byzantine Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Libya, and Iran - much of its western lands until Transcaucasia. Saved the legend that after the conquest of Egypt, Caliph Omar ordered to destroy the famous Alexandria library saying: "Everything that meets the Quran in ancient books, is in it, and that that does not respond, do not need to Muslims. "
Military success Arabs contributed to the benefits of military tactics. They createdfirst-light cavalryThat the fierce attacks by the terror infantry enemy or less successfully attacked enemy heavy horsemen. Her appearance was made possible by the Chinese invention of stirrups. It is leaning on them, Arab horsemen rozrubuvaly Sabres enemies almost in half. Significant role played and that the Arabs were conquering the form of "holy war in the name Allah. " Every victim of this war, it was said Khalifa, proven in the garden, and receive eternal bliss. Military successes have inspired new hikes. In Arabs conquered countries took first property rich, so majority Captive saw them liberators. Arabs give religious freedom population of the conquered countries, but also a variety of benefits to encourage the transition local residents in the Muslim faith. Due to huge gains occurred State - Islamic Empire.
During the first Caliphs The fight for power in the Arab Caliphate. Especially it increased at the old and the third Caliph bezvolnoho - Osman(644 - 656 years) and fourth caliph - Ali(656 - 661 years). Both killed their conspirators. Then the throne captured the governor of Syria Muaviya kind of Omeyya. He is a founder of a new Dynasty Umayyad. Thus began a new period in history Arab Caliphate.
Arab conquest VII-IXArt. Formation of the Caliphate
4. Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphate
Muaviya refused to live in Mecca or Medina and remained in Damascus, which became the capital of the Caliphate. Damascus Caliphate Umayyad lasted about 90 years (661 - 750 years). During this time, Arabs greatly expanded their possession. By the end of VII century. Arab invaders conquered part Armenia, Southern Azerbaijan, part of North Africa. By 711, the they took possession of all African Byzantium to the west of Egypt (modern Libya Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco) and gave them the Arabic name Maghreb- "West".
In 711, the Arabs began the conquest Spain, where they lived Visigoths. General Jabal Al-Tariq from 7 thousand horsemen forwarded through Strait Herculean pillars, named after his name (Gibraltar). He defeated the Visigoths and quickly conquered almost all of Spain.
The Arabs tried to conquer and Frankish kingdom, but were defeated by the Frankish mayordoma Karl Martell. Promotion of Islam to Western Europe has been suspended. In the East, the Arab military leaders have advanced deep into the Central Asia possessed Hivoyu, Bukhara, Samarkand, Afghanistan and conquered north-western India, the Indus. Three times carried Arabs trips to Constantinople in 717 - 718 years stayed his year in siege, but to conquer and could not. The Byzantine emperor Leo III Isavr extreme price pressure forces of the empire managed stop the invaders. Because the borders of the Caliphate gains Umayyadstretched from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to China and India in the East. By its size exceeded the Islamic Empire State antiquity such as Roman Empire during its heyday or state AlexandraMacedonian.
750 was UmayyadIranian and Iraqi deposed nobility, discontented preponderance of the Syrian-Arab powerful. Khalifa was Abul Abbas Blood for which was destroyed by order of Umayyad. He established a new dynasty Abbasid Caliphate, that the rules in750 - 1055 years. The capital of the caliphate was moved to Baghdad in Iraq. Baghdad caliphate period of history called the "golden age Abbasid Caliphate ", Time of unparalleled luxury Caliphs.
Capital Abbasid Caliphate impressed contemporaries with their size, numerous palaces, parks Khalifa and his servants. In the twilight parks dzyurkotily fountains, singing strange birds.
In large markets Baghdad can meet buyers from many countries of the world - Byzantine, Chinese, Indians, Malays. It sold silk fabrics China, exotic spices from India, fur distant from Slavic countries. Merchants and mariners told of distant lands amazing. Not surprisingly, those times and Baghdad Caliph himself Garun Al-Rashidbecame the prototype for the hero tales "Thousand and One Nights".
5. Public order caliphate
For the first four caliphs, the state ran higher religious person, which elected with friends and relatives Mohammed. After coming to power Umayyad Khalifa became a hereditary position. Caliphate into a theocratic monarchy, which came rice oriental despotism - state structure in which the monarch is unlimited legislative and judicial power does not correspond to anybody for their actions, confirms the way violence and terror.
Islamic Empire was a state, created as a result of conquest of various peoples. Hold them in subjection could only power. Khalifa established for this huge standing army - to 160 000 soldiers and for their own protection - Palace Guard. By all the laws of the Arab land belonged to the Caliph, who conceded to her only temporarily part their servants. After the death of the princes of all his property passed to the treasury Khalifa, and exclusively on the willingness and commitment Khalifa dependent or descendant receives a dead heritage.
A huge number of officials watched of tax payments to the treasury of the Caliph. There were three main types of taxes:
1) haradzh - Land tax;
2) dzhyziya - Per capita, which paid non-Muslims;
3) zyakyat - Tithing, which came at the disposal of the Caliph.
Legal proceedings are carried based on Koran and Sunna - Additions to the book of the Koran. Not all Arabs believed Sunna sacred book, equal in meaning of the Koran. During Umayyad Muslim world split into SunniWho admitted SunnaKhalifa and supported, and ShiaThat denied Sunnanot supported Umayyad.
Like all previous empires, created as a result of conquest, the Islamic Empire collapsed and disintegrated. The reasons for the collapse Arab Caliphate were few. First, United caliphate force people who had a different history and culture. Ever since they were under the rule Arabs did not stop their struggle for independence. Second, Power Caliphs that falling into the unprecedented luxury and governance passed his close, what's next, the more weakened. Emir (Governors of the Caliphs) who administered on the ground, trying to make their possession and hereditary power, unezalezhnytysya of Khalifa.
This has led to that from the end of VIII century. to the XI. Khalifa lost most of his possessions. In 1055 Baghdad won the Turkish Seljuks,Caliphate ceased to exist.
The collapse of the Arab Caliphate
6. Culture caliphate
Russian researcher A. Gurevich says: "The greatest contribution the Arabs have made in science and philosophy, to Moreover, this contribution was double. First, the Arabs were intermediaries between the West and the Far East and between Antiquity and Middle Ages. "
Doba has enriched the world of the Arab Caliphate outstanding cultural achievements. Although we call this culture Arabic, it's not entirely true, because it absorbed the culture of peoples, conquered by Arabs. Arabs showed the rare ability to acquire knowledge and traditions of conquered peoples. More They managed to combine the cultural achievements of different countries in one unit on the basis Islam and Arabic. Arabic language became official: it consisted documents, negotiations were conducted and prayed. In addition it has become the language of science and culture all the Muslim East.
Sample Arabic Calligraphy
The most significant contribution made to the Arabs development of natural sciences, physical sciences, philosophy and medicine. They also studied translating Arabic works Aristotle, Hipokrata, Euclid, Ptolemy. Europeans familiar with the works Aristotle by Latin translation from Arabic. In Baghdad, Cordoba, Cairo existed high schools in which the Koran were studied along with secular science. These high schools have become models for the future of Western European universities. There huge library (Cairo, Cordoba et al.), where it was donated hundreds of thousands of books. Quick contributed to the spread of books that in VIII century. Arabs borrowed from China art of making paper. In Baghdad, Damascus, Samarkand were great Observatory. Arab astronomers have discovered many stars and made maps of the star sky, identified the circumference of the Earth.
Page Arabic manuscripts
Arab mathematicians created the algebra; they became widely used figures that were invented in India but known to us as Arab.
Arabs first began to do vivisection - autopsies of live animals to study functions of parts of the body and causes diseases. In the medical field in particular were famous IbnSina (980-1037 years). known in Europe under them. of my Avicenna. In the main his work - Canon Medical science "- he brought together the experience of ancient, Indian and Central Asiandoctors. This work for many centuries was reading East of doctors and West.
Arab travelers (Ibn Fadlan, Al-Masoud, Ibn RUST et al.) visited the first countries that were not even known in Europe. They left and unique descriptions of life in eastern Slavs IX - X centuries. Arab Travel was known for much larger world than the Europeans. For sea travel Arabs created a convenient and reliable ship - Dau, Exact maps and navigational devices.
Finally, for all time unsurpassed monument of Arabic literature is The Thousand and One Nights " that absorbed the tales of different peoples of the Arab-Muslim world.
Quickly developing a variety of genres Poetry. One of the most famous poet Ferdowsi was. He created a huge epicShahname " (Book of Kings "), which describes the act Persian chess.
The heyday of the Arab caliphate marked substantial construction. Majestic mosques were built, PalaceKhalifa, mausoleums, tombs, fortresses.
Samanidiv Mausoleum. Bukhara, the X century.
The main building was a mosque, the Muslim east. Outside the mosque frequently resembled a fortress, surrounded blank wall with a minimum of decoration. The walls mosques joined the high minarets from which the faithful five times a day called to prayer. However, a different picture discovered by going to mosque. First, believers caught in a rectangular courtyard surrounded arched galleries. The center courtyard was often placed fountain for ablutions. From the court combined room for prayers. The ceiling of the hall is based on rows of columns. In most famous Cordoba Mosque (VIII-X century). There are about a thousand marble columns. Osvichuvalasya 250 chandeliers with it 7000 bulbs. Considered the most beautiful mosque Kayiry (XIV).. Holy place in the mosque is the servant of the bottle - a niche in the wall, facing toward Mecca, and many decorated with carvings and mosaics. Those who pray always returned to the slave bellows. In mosques neither icons. Neither the frescoes. Islam prohibits the worship of God and represent any image. However, many interior of the mosque arabesque - interwoven lines, shapes and colors. Arabesque made mosaics, carvings, inlaid. Along with the ornaments on the walls of mosques many inscriptions (sayings of the Quran), which themselves resemble ornament (id). It - art of calligraphy, which the Arabs possessed virtuosity.
The Arabs were able to beautifully organize your life and leisure. Combining the traditions of antiquity, Byzantium, Persia, Arabs created a subtle oriental luxury. Created by Arab craftsmen items luxury (the finest fabrics, ceramics, glass, jewelry, weapons) have been desirable to spaces from China to Europe. Great success in the Arabic culture won decoration of palaces and gardens are divorced. Skillfully Arabs and organize and Recreation: hunting and meal, chess and backgammon, music and dancing. The invention of the Arabs now a popular musical instrument as the guitar. Very popular in Arabs used the dome, which was not only a place where bathed, but also a kind clubs, where we met friends. At the table Arabs introduced the change of food, hand washing, use a toothpick.
Arab culture had great influence Western Europe. Enthusiastic Arabs Spain became the source from which to spread European countries have scientific knowledge. Europeans, Christians came to learn CordobaWhat they called "bright beauty of the world, young strange city, glittering in the brightness of their wealth. Hence they were brought to Europe translated into Arabic works of scientists years ago. In European monasteries existing centers of translation from Arabic in Latin. Yes, thanks to the Arabs medieval Europe learned about the scientific achievements of different times and peoples. Europeans also borrowed many Arabs in everyday life.
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Why Arabia was the cradle of a new world religion?