§ 11-12. Medieval Western European Culture
1. Which character was medieval culture?
2. Where and how zdobuvalysya knowledge of the Middle Ages?
3. What is the Romanesque and Gothic style?
4. Why Europeans came to the humanistic outlook? What is Renaissance (Renaissance)?
1.Kultura early Middle Ages
The first century Middle Ages called "dark ages" and are unlikely to be called favorable to the progress of culture. However, during this period was birth of a new European medieval culture, which drew its beginnings with ancient heritage, culture barbarians and Christianity. First results of such interactions become noticeable during "Carolingian revival. It called the rise of culture in Frankish kingdom by during the reign of Charlemagne and his immediate successors. It was the first History of Medieval Europe and the conscious expression of deep interest in ancient culture and education. At the same time Great Kal do not forget about their Germanic origin, and commanded to collect Germanic antiquities and ancient interest Frankish songs.
Himself Charles was well at that time, education: he knew Greek and Latin, loved read books, but write so by the end of life and not learned. He is invited to involve themselves and to public administration scholars from across Europe. They created circle at the court of the emperor under the name "Academy" - such as the philosophical Greek philosopher Plato's school - where she, in the presence of Charles, works ancient philosophers and theologians of the church, made up poems, freely exchanging views on various topics debated.
By with members of the "Academy" Carl founded the Bishopric of school facilities, where educated people were preparing for governance. He issued a decree Compulsory education of all children of free people. Organization of the schools and writing the first in their textbooks engaged faithful ally of Charles Saxon Alkuin. However, the order could not be done via lack of enough teachers. Of the schools, based at Charles Bishopric, later medieval universities there. The school, which prepared people to public administration, existed at the court.
Charles Great interest in history. In his order gathered and rewritten old Roman and Greek manuscripts. He instructed to record all annual events occurred in the state. These records are called annals (From Lat. annus - Year). He orders built stone palaces and cathedrals, new roads were laid. Charlemagne initiated a grand project canal between the Rhine and Danube, which had connecting the North Sea to the Black (The project was not implemented at that time).
Cultural growth had become apparent and fairly broad construction. It was constructed over 300 palaces, cathedrals, churches and monasteries.
In his residence in Aachen Karl built the majestic Dvirtseva complex. In the center was a large hall for receptions, imperial chambers. Lateral wing of the complex, where there schools, libraries, archives, `yednuvalo hall Choir - Dvirtsevachurch. Church, which survived to the present, adorned sculptures columns and mosaics. But it was all taken away from Italy - was feeling the shortage masters, who would be all it could do. Contemporaries estimated the chapel as a "miracle strange and high beauty. She was a shining example.
„Karolinska Communities "was short. It not pose any known masterpieces. But because it saved a lot of ancient heritage and laid the foundation for prosperity in the future Medieval European culture.
In the next two centuries (IX-X cent.) Again observed in culture decline and they "shut" behind the walls of monasteries.
2. Scholastic. Thomas Aquinas
In the silence of the monastery walls were the most favorable conditions to reflect on the eternal. Thinking people in the Middle Ages, educated in Christian dogma, was interested primarily the whole problem relationship God, the universe and man. None of them denied the existence of God. Most arguments between medieval philosophers raised questions as relate faith and reason. But without the development of concepts without a clear logical thinking can not reach the truth, to understanding the subject study.
Growth in interest in Western knowledge Europe contributed to that through the European intellectuals Arabs closer acquainted with the works of great thinkers of antiquity. The greatest influence on the Western science had labor Aristotle. On the basis of his works medieval scholars developed a method of logical thinking and cognition. This method of knowing the world and God was named scholasticismThat derived from the word "school". Scholastic came out of that faith and knowledge revelation and reason can not just reconcile, but also help each other teach.
Scholastics taught that know the truth need to mind does not deviate from the letter of Scripture, and to logical chain of proof has crept none that could lead to deception. Therefore scholastics lot of attention to technique thought - logic. In Ancient scholars thought they borrowed method syllogism - special inference, which on the basis of several (usually two) different judgments appears new. For example:
1. No one just knows.
2. The scientist - a man.
Conclusion: scientist all one knows.
To the knowledge of the scholastics rarely used methods such as research and experiment. They was not required because the main source of knowledge for their logical construction was a holiday Scripture.
Later, when mankind gripped by the desire deeper the world, when research and experiment have become major source of new knowledge, the word "scholasticism" acquired negative traits, which meant fruitless thoughts, knowledge, bookish, endless dry logical building that did not give any result. But by then it was a big step forward in human knowledge of the universe. Scholastics called themselves "dwarfs that standing on the shoulders of giants "(ie on the shoulders of the ancient philosophers), but because they see further than their predecessors.
In sholastytsi distinguished three main directions that were sharp disagreements among themselves. The main issue that caused differences between different areas of scholastics, was the problem universals - General concepts (man, machine etc.).
Some of them, realists, argued that universals existed for life, being in God's mind. Combined with the matter, they are embodied in specific things.
Another group - nominalist- Argued that universals is the product of mental of a man who learns some things. In other words, learn some stuff, man distinguishes them something in common, which merged into the general concept.
The third group of scholastics - kontseptualisty - Occupied, so to speak, intermediate position. They argued that any thing kryye a general concept.
The peak of activity was the medieval scholasticism Thomas Aquinas (1225 - 1274). He was born into a noble Italian family. Raised in the famous monastery of St.. Benedict Monte Cassino, studied at the University of Naples. The family supported his desire a monk, but until I heard that he wants to dedicate his life to zhebruschym Order of St. Dominica. Despite the ban, he fled the house and entered the Dominican Order. As a monk, he studied in Paris and Cologne. Students nedolyublyuvaly high, smooth, witty, quiet, good Thomas and mild. Even gave him the nickname "dumb ox." But his teacher Albert the Great was able to discern in Fomi great talent.
Home work Thomas Aquinas "Sum of Theology" united all ancient views about God and man. Each section contains a discussion of the work of any philosophical thought, it denial and statement of the conclusion that the author thinks is right. Designed Thomas Aquinas was later to teaching the Catholic church official as contained some "evidence" the existence of God.
In scholasticism in the Middle Ages there was another area that led her fierce controversy. This direction in philosophy called mysticism.
Mystics rejected the need for logical proof of the foundations of faith. They believed that the foundations of faith and pious prayers recognizable reflections without help, as they said, "pagan science. That is, they argued sense of superiority over the mind. They believed that only in his mind, detached from Indeed, a person can communicate with God. From this conclusion was made that person to conduct charitable life and fight against sin.
Mysticism became especially widespread in the XIV - XV centuries. When European civilization crisis struck, and all the people turned to God.
At the end of the XIV century. in the Netherlands is a religious movement that espoused the idea of mysticism. The founder was Gerard Groot. Being a wealthy man, he refused wealth and became a preacher. Despite the risk of being accused of heresy, his students founded the secular society that lives were similar to Chernets'ke. They preach individual worshipGod and a close relationship with him. The principles of this movement was put in the work Thomas Kempiyskoho "On the imitation of Christ" (1427), where describes the meaning of love of God to man and God's grace.
3. Schools and Universities
Educated people in the Middle Ages was relatively few. In the early Middle Ages, as you know, educated people lived mostly in monasteries.
The rise of Europe that began in X century. Caused thirst for knowledge and need for educated people. Education began to go beyond the monasteries.
In medieval Europe can distinguish three levels of schools. Lower School were attached to churches, monasteries, giving elementary knowledge of those who would devote themselves to serving God. It studied the Latin language, which was conducted worship, prayer and the very order of worship. Secondary schools often formed near the residences of bishops. They studied seven "free science" - grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry. Last contained geography, astrology and music. The first three were science "tryvium ", four -kvadryvium ".
Since the XI century. Europe's emerging high schools, which are subsequently called universities (from Lat. universitas - set). The name was derived from the fact that the first universities were communities, which brings together teachers and students (students still called Universityalma Mater - Sweet mother). These associations had their own distinct rules, the structure and claimed its independence from the authority of the city where they located.
The first such association emerged in the Italian cities Salernoand Bologna, studied medicine and Roman law. During the XII - XIII century. number of universities has grown steadily. The most famous was the Paris (Sorbonne), Oxford and Cambridge (England) Salamanca (In Spain) and others. In 1500 Europe there were 65 universities.
Model for universities in Europe was the University of Paris. He came back in first half of XII century. and there was a "free school". In 1200 King of France Philippe II of France gave the "school" special rights. The university had four faculties: artistic (Preparatory, which studied "seven free sciences), medical, legal, Theology (Philosophy).
Teaching in universities was conducted in Latin language. This gave students the opportunity to start training in one, and ending in another. There is no clear course of study at universities was not, and so some Students learned a long time. Students who traveled from one university to another, called vahantamy(Vagrants). The main forms of training were lectures and debates between professors.
Culture and Education in Western Europe XI-XVArt.
4. The birth of research knowledge, alchemy
The focus in the Middle Ages to the study of Scripture is not only satisfy people who wonder surrounding world.
One of the first interest in science professor at Oxford University found a monk Franciscan Order Roger Bacon. He argued that knowledge can not get into theological disputes, but studying nature through experiments. Bacon made many discoveries. He gave special importance to mathematics, physics, chemistry, trying to create microscope and telescope, explained the origin of the rainbow. Contemporaries believed Bacon magician and a magician: declaring that he had created a copper head, he was able to speak. Scientists believed that the vessel could be built samoruhomi and trolleys, make machines that would fly in the air and moving the sea floor.
The glory of his shyrylasya achievement across Europe. Rivalry accused researcher relations of the devil. Monk was thrown into prison, where he spent 14 years and out of the will just before death.
But the thirst for knowledge encompass an ever wider strata of society. In the Sicilian kingdom, where close combination of the Western European and Arabic culture, was translated numerous naturalistic works of the Greek and Arab authors. In the famous medical school in Salerno developed descriptions medicinal qualities of plants, practical advice on poison resistances, useful guidance on the health of others.
Important practical accumulating knowledge of alchemists and astrologers. The first cared searches "Philosopher's stone" by which the ordinary metals could be turn to gold. These efforts were in vain, but passing alchemists studied the properties of various substances, created a lot of research devices, etc.. Astrologers who prophesied the fate of people on location of celestial bodies, have many discoveries in the field of astronomy.
Enriched and geographical knowledge of Europeans. Venetsians-cue merchant Marco Polo traveled to China and Central Asia. He described his impressions in "The Book", which throughout the Middle Ages remained favorite reading Europeans.
In the XIV - XV centuries. Seeing many different descriptions of land. Along with credible reports they contained various fantastic stories, such as about napivlyudey-napivchudovysk. These fantastic descriptions were full of books about animals and plants. Travel Impressions expand knowledge about the world and contributed to an improved geographical maps. This zakladavsya foundation for the future of great geographical discoveries.
5. Heroic epic
Heroic epics - stories about heroes - dedicated leaders and kings early Middle Ages, the famous battle, fairy-tale characters. Previously, these transfers spread by word of mouth and from the tenth century. they were recording. The most famous heroes were knights Siegfried, Roland, Sid, King Arthur, fearless Beowulf.
On the noble Siegfried, beautiful Krymhildu, about Germans and their fight against Huns says "Song des Nibelungen. Siegfried possessed fabulous wealth - gold treasure Nibelungs- Underground dwarfs. He loved Krymhildu and married her. But his treasures did not give peace to the king, who ordered to kill Siegfried. Devoted wife decides to take revenge. She invited the King and his svyta a banquet here and kill him with the sword Siegfried, but very impressed with one dies vassals of the king.
One of the most beloved medieval hero was King Arthur - Brave fighter against Anglo-Saxon British conquerors. His image is depicted in dozens of novels. Knights of the round table, a charming sword EskaliburWife Dzhynerva, magician Merlin - Have become integral parts image.
Scandinavian hero konunh Beowulf Life fought with terrible monsters. He died. Killed the last dragon.
The most famous poems were French Song of Roland "and Spanish Song about my Sid ".
"Song of Roland" tells of the time of Charlemagne, against Arabs. Brave warrior Roland, covering the retreat, the price of his life saved Life Club. Roland was an example of knightly loyalty and honor for many generations of medieval knights.
Song about my Sid " of the events Reconquista in Spain, where the brave knight Sid rout two Muslim rulers and large number of their soldiers. Sid become famous for its courage, generosity, love for homeland and loyalty to the king.
6. Knightly culture
Chivalry, like other groups of feudal society, has created its own culture, which was finally formed in the XIII century. It was a complicated system rituals, customs, manners, courtesy of noble (kurtuaznist); various secular court, military (tournaments) entertainment. In addition, it left behind a knightly poetry of love, novels, largely Boeing heroic epic.
In romance dominated by two main themes: courtesan's love and knightly loyalty. These issues are fundamental and well known in poetic novels of Chr TroisWritten in 1160 - 1190 рр. The first theme widely disclosed inLancelot ", second - inPersevali ". “Perseval "launched a series of novels about the search of "St. Grail "- The cup which Christ used at the Last Supper, in which Joseph of Arimathea collected blood from Christ's wounds inflicted by the Roman warrior. But the most famous romance - a story about love and high tragic death Tristan and Isolde.
Tristan a devoted vassal of King Mark, brave warrior, hunter, poet, and knew many languages, and as a musician and kind, generous knights. King Mark decided Overseas marry a beautiful Isolde and sent her his faithful vassal. On the way back, the ship, Tristan and Isolde accidentally drank a drink of love and love each other. King decided to execute them, but Tristan decided to go into exile. There he was mortally wounded. His last wish was to see Isolde and he sent her ship. If it will then sail on a ship it had to be white. But when ships Isolde returns from then on it forgot to change the sails. Tristan see this color died of grief without waiting for the meeting. Isolde. What fugitive on shore saw lifeless body Tristan, Also as a dead drop.
In romance reflected the age-old dream of human love and are committed to high, there is no obstacles and distance.
An important part of culture knight was a courtesan (knightly) poetry, which was characterized only during the Middle Ages from the XI to XIII century. His most flourishing courtesan poetry has troubadours in the works. Troubadours called secular poets who came from different segments of society, the main theme of her works was courtesan love. Troubadours appear in the south of France in Provence, where the first time in Europe formed a literary language. Poetry troubadours was necessarily the song. Its performed to the accompaniment of musical instruments themselves or hire a traveling Troubadours singers, jugglers. We know almost all authors of poetry troubadours. Among them were even women, in particular Eleanor Aquitaine. At the end of the XIII century. with submission Provence and the French king with the support of the Catholic Church is rich culture of the region was deleted.
Along with the poetry of troubadours in German lands developed a tradition of love poetry - minezanh, which translated means "love song". Mizingers based on folk songs, along with the celebration of love high attention paid to descriptions Nature. Especially spring. The most prominent is mizingers Walther von der Fohelveyde.
The basis of culture was knight Code knight of conduct based on honor. In accordance with the unwritten collection moral rules, knight had to be fanatically devoted to God, faithfully served his seigneur, as lovely lady, took care of weaker, women priests and disadvantaged, consistently adhered to all duties and oaths.
But real life is much different from the ideal. On noble knights and commoners looked disdainfully using any pretext for harassment, robberies or image. However, its farmers they are less offended, because they fed them. In other countries outside Europe, particularly for non-Christians, Knights did arbitrariness. Meet the knights of the way everyday people could go any good.
Dual was the attitude towards women. On the one hand it idealizuvaly as the divine substance, and the other for "failure" of Eve, to her often treated as the way that has no price. While in the Middle Ages, women often become rulers or their behavior influenced the fate of entire kingdoms. Do not excist France appeared to phrase that indicates the search path for some unknown reason Event: "Find a wife!
Entertainment feudal lords. Tournament
7. Urban Culture
Commoners, who in his life differed significantly from other segments medieval society, too vytvoryly own culture. Urban Culture had a secular character and was closely connected with folk art. Among urban dwellers were popular poetical tales, jokes, which describes witted residents of cities that have found a way out of any difficult situations.
Bright display urban culture had in the development literature. The best known and beloved piece of urban residents was the French "Roman for Fox, which under type of animals of all strata of medieval society - feudal lords, Kings, priests, burghers. The protagonist - Nov. Renar, resourceful, resilient, able to find a way out of any situation. Renar represents a wealthy burgher. He always leads Wolf by the nose Izehrina Prima and his brother (Personified images of knights): it will force Izehrinafish tail, and that villagers beaten, then convince Prima serve in the church and he barely escaped the angry villagers. November deceive the Lion (King), making fun of nothing ass (priest). How true in November, he chases hares, chickens (Ordinary people), but with this it did not work out. Roman veselyv all. One abbot complained that his monks were more readily read the novel than the Bible.
Equally popular was the "Roman of Roses" in which nature ospivuyetsya and the human mind, asserts the equality of people.
City literature raised sense of humanity. It reflected consciousness of citizens who appreciate their freedom and independence.
An integral part of urban culture was the work of itinerant actors, musicians, singers, dancers and acrobats, magicians, called the jugglers. They were the darlings urban residents. Traveling from town to town, they showed their performances at urban areas in the open.
"The culture of the Middle Ages - an integral and natural part global cultural development, which at the same time has a profound original content and original image "/ Russian Researcher W.Ukolov/
In the Middle Ages, books were rare. This is explained by the fact that each book was the original manuscript, as well as the fact that literate people were few. Books were written on specially treated calf or sheep's clothing - parchment. Parchment was enduring, strong and beautiful, but very expensive. Another way was and book cover. Also decorated with pictures of the book - book thumbnails. Therefore especially valuable books in monastic libraries were kept at tsepu.
Increasing number of educated people, spreading the paper led to increasing demand for their books cheaper. There were workshops on mass census books. In XIV - XV centuries. interest in the written text has grown significantly, especially the Word God. To meet growing demand, it was necessary to think about new method of producing books. In the early XV century. in Europe, the first books, prints made with carved on plates texts. But this way was time consuming and does not meet the needs of the time, besides copyist worked faster than this model produced a printed book.
Around 1445 German craftsman Johan Gutenberg (1399 - 1468) invented a way printing that uses it today. Metal cubes with convex mirror image of letters - letters - In the framework of special typed text, which is then printed by the press. This invention fundamentally changed the system of transfer of information: an oral form of hiding printed word.
Demonstration first printbooks з arithmetic. ІтAliya, 1478 р.
9. Architecture and art
During XI - XV centuries. other known two major artistic styles zastupaly each other - Romanesque and Gothic. The first style - Romanesque - ruled in XI - XII centuries., the second - the Gothic - in the XII - XV centuries. These styles most clearly manifested in the architecture of castles and churches.
Romanesque castle, accommodation and defense feudal structure, characterized by massiveness forms, which gave him special monumentality and the surrounding fortress walls reinforced that impression. All architectural appearance of the castle gave an idea of the power of his prince. Romanesque cathedral, characterized by the same style, was to embody the idea majesty and power of the church. The basis of the Romanesque cathedral lay Roman plan public (secular) buildings - the Basilica.
In the first years of Romanesque architecture the issue of overlapping stone building. It is technically challenging it was decided the construction of napivtsyrkulyarnoho vault in building a Romanesque masters have made remarkable skill.
An example of Romanesque buildings may serve Vormskyy cathedral(Germany) with a massive stone arches, massive walls prop. The small windows pierced in the thick walls and similar to bell, horizontal division walls napivtsyrkulyarnymy arches only emphasize grandeur and monumentality strict construction. Clear architectural grandeur enhances the sculpture, which only conditionally passes phenomenon.
In the XII - XV centuries. in Western Europe grew rapidly and developed cities. Bloomed and new architectural style, which later was named GothicAnd then he called new French manner. In the XII - XIII century. France is the rapid construction has been prepared, which, according to scientists at construction of temples has been spent over the stone than in ancient Egypt. Among the buildings erected at that time, strike the imagination and now Cathedral in Reims and Amiens, And Lani Bove, Chartres and Paris. The foundations of these buildings were set on depth of 10 meters, and their towers rising to a height of 40-storey building. These majestic cathedrals were fit almost all the inhabitants of that time. Yes Am'yenskyy Cathedral vmischav 10 000 believers.
Gothic - One of the few whose date of defined sure. Abbot of Saint-Denis, the tomb of French kings, Suheriy(1080 - 1141) would provide an unusual form of his abbey church. Based works on Greek theologian Dionysius, who lived in the V century., Suheriybelieved that divine beauty can be transferred through the creation of beautiful things. From this it appeared that the architecture of the church has held the beauty, ease and grandeur. In 1137 this idea was implemented.
The main features of the new style were thin walls, high arched ceiling rapid, large windows, decorated with colored stained glass.
All this can be achieved only thanks to the new system and Engineering building. The design relied on the bearing frame erected outside the cathedral. This allowed the builders build cathedrals unprecedented heights with thin walls and large steep windows. Verticalization building has become an important feature of the Gothic style.
The emergence of large windows gave rise to flowering of stained glass. In the XIII century. they spread across Europe. Stained Glass - a mosaic of colored glass, which by means of communication (in the Middle Ages used lead) was connected to a song. Stained Glass in Catholic churches depicted biblical subjects and took the painting. The real miracle remain Cathedral stained glass Chartres. 173 stained area of 2000 square meters. m made in XII - XIII century., evoke biblical subjects.
Another important element is the Gothic sculpture, which sings like, fills the building movement. Gothic sculpture in the temple played a role, one hand, architectural decorations, but on the other - encyclopedia of knowledge and understanding of the world of medieval man. Along with the statues of saints, angels, Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, the demons were sculptures of ordinary people. Moreover, all sculpture acquired human traits of character. So in the depths of Gothic style shoots emerged interest in human world in which she lives. This nuance already developed for the next era - the Renaissance.
Medieval Castle in Scotland
10. Early Renaissance humanism and
Late Middle Ages in Western Europe culture change. They were caused by many factors. One of the main one was that the man was rely on their own strength and not humbly submit to the behavior of the group to which she belonged. Personal interest, commitment to success focus on a new path opened up in human development. Man begins to new look at the world, to itself, to man's place in the world. These new views coincided with a period of intense interest in antiquity. Antiquity considered ideal period in history when science flourished, the arts, the State and social life. Proof of this are the things that the ancient manuscripts, are impressed by its excellence.
The above was most noticeable in Italy, where boiled urban life and remains of antiquity lay directly under their feet. Expressions to antiquity accompanied by efforts to revive and imitate it. That is why the new epoch, started called RevivalOr in French Renaissance. Although actually was not revival, and a new culture, which unites elements of ancient and medieval.
From the fourteenth century. lovers of antiquity based on the knowledge gained considered that should primarily be engaged "studia humanitatis” that "human learning". Those who have studied men with late fifteenth century. were called humanists. On Currently, the word "humanism" we call love for people and so understanding world in which man is the highest value.
In those times humanist could become anyone who passionately loved antiquity and had time and ability to learn it. But in reality there were very few humanists. They massed in numerically small groups. However, knowledge these people gave them the opportunity to occupy high positions in Italian cities, in the office of kings, cardinals and popes.
In contrast to the Christian humanists have made their own virtues, the most important of which proclaimed the dignity and valor. Although all were sincere humanitarians Christians. Each of the humanists sought to become fully developed human capable of creativity in various fields of science, literature and art, ie become a "universal man."
On the threshold of great culture was the famous Renaissance poet and philosopher Dante `Alih yeri (1265-1321 biennium). Life It was not easy. He was born in Florence and is very fond of their city, but most of his life was forced to live in exile. Taking an active part in political struggle, he was in the camp and who lost. He started writing early poems. All of them were devoted to one girl - Beatrice. As a boy Dante saw it on the children's holiday and passionately loved her at all life, though seldom able to see her only from afar - in church or on the street. Itself Beatrice became the wife of another and died early. Most Dante's famous work "The Divine Comedy." Comedy in those days called works of happy end of unusual events heroes. Divine called for her outstanding artistic performance.
For his work Dante chose the form of visions: in a dark forest, he suddenly meets the famous Roman poet VirhiliyaWith which departing flights to the other world. With him he held nine circles Hell, then with the other heroes Purgatory and Paradise. Poem tells of Italy, Florence. Popes, emperors, monks and saints and sages of ancient generals. Its main character - Dante himself and his contemporaries. And some he severely criticized by other admires. Everyone who meets Dante in the next world continue to experience this life passions: anger, Pride, contempt. It is this aggravation passions are saturated world was new to the literature.
Yes, if Dante was a predecessor of the Renaissance, the first Renaissance man can definitely be called Francesco Petrarch (1304-1374 biennium) It does not he held no official position, but was so well known that in his opinion were considered kings and popes. Petrarch glorified "Book of Songs" - 366 poems (sonnets) dedicated to his beloved Laura. Like Dante, he fell in love with Laura in childhood. But his love for her remained undivided. Laura herself died of the epidemic plague. For his poetic talents he, as in ancient times, was crowned laurel wreath on Roman Capitol.
Follower and friend of Petrarch was Giovanni Boccaccio(1313-1375 biennium). He also wrote poems about his beloved Mary. But his fame brought the collection of a hundred stories "Decameron." Stories written on behalf of cheerful company of seven girls and three boys in furthering the ten days are in the country house, hiding from the plague. In furthering ten days they zabavlyaly each other all sorts of life stories love, separation, travel, adventure.
All the above works were written in Italian folk live. This they proved that people's language can be written outstanding works from, transfer all range of feelings.
Among the founders were a new culture and artists. Due art this period was the appearance of linear perspective. Medieval artists always paintings depicting more meaningful figure things more, regardless of where they are depicted: on the front or back seat. Paintings in linear perspective portrayed as the human eye sees the world: objects in the foreground larger in the rear - lower. Also artist tries to convey the individual traits of his character. Quick take a picture spread of secular character, appears so new genre, like a portrait.
As Dante in literature and art in a new culture founded Florentine Giotto where Bondone (1266-1337 biennium). According to legend, when he fed the sheep in his childhood, he stones painted pictures of nature, which he saw. Once passed near artist. Who said: "The Lord has given you great talent." Since children capture is turning into a professional activity Giotto. He painted portraits, icons, frescoes. His first major work was mural dedicated to the life of St. Francis. The most famous work Giotto was painting the church in Padua. In the frescoes he depicted Jesus, Virgin Mary, the apostles as the earth's people - intelligent, honest, beautiful, hard spirit. On their faces human emotions and experiences. Scene "Kiss of Judas" shows the artist's attitude and evangelical events. Giotto did a lot for your hometown and was buried as an outstanding citizen in Cathedral City.
Physicality of objects container shapes, linear perspective in its entirety for the first time with appeared in Florentine art Masaccio (1401-1428 biennium). Although he lived a short life, he managed to get loud glory. The most notable was the scene of the Expulsion from Paradise "with Murals of one of the Florentine churches.
All of these artists studied at the Renaissance paintings of Giotto and Mazochcho. Early peak Revivedin art is painting Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510 biennium). His painting "Spring" "Birth of Venus Beauty convey an understanding of both internal and external artists Renaissance.
Recovery Principles are reflected in the sculpture. So Florentine Donatello(Bl.1386-1466) revived the ancient tradition, departing from medieval traditions, has created a round sculpture. This statue was creation of an independent artist, not part of the decoration of the house. It could contemplate on all sides. Foremost works Donatellosteel sculpture Bible David.
The origins of culture in Renaissance architecture laid the architect and sculptor Filippov Brunelleschi(1377-1446 biennium). He developed the laws of linear perspective and ordered the solution difficult engineering task to create a huge dome over the cathedral. The main thing in his work was the creation of the dome of the cathedral Santa Maria del Forein Florence.
Medieval Renaissance Culture changed of the world, earthly life of man and his virtues. Man was put in center worldcreation.
Check remember how
1. From what sources has its origins in medieval culture?
2. When the first rise of medieval culture?
3. What is scholasticism?
4. Who is Thomas Aquinas and that its contribution to medieval culture?
5. Where you can get an education in Middle Ages?
6. What is a university and how they learn?
7. Who is Roger Bacon? Which his contribution to science?
8. Name the main characters of the heroic epic of the Middle Ages.
9. What was devoted to topics knightly literature?
10. What are the differences small town culture in the Middle Ages?
11. What is a heroic epic? Name the main characters of the epic Works.
12. Who are the Troubadour and miezinhery?
13. Who in the Middle Ages called jugglers?
14. Who was the inventor of printing books in Europe?
15. What was the subject of literary works of the Renaissance?
16. What architectural styles prevailed during the Middle Ages?
17. Name the most famous medieval architecture.
Think and answer
1. What conditions have developed in the early Middle Ages? Can these favorable conditions to call?
2. What a royal revival? What are its features?
3. Why Charlemagne paid much attention to the development culture?
4. Why in the IX-XI .. culture developed mainly by walls of monasteries?
5. What are the main issues raised medieval philosophy? What is scholasticism?
6. Why did the need for universities?
7. What was the essence of the invention I. Gutenberg?
8. What can explain the slow development of scientific knowledge and weak interest in science?
9. How connected between a heroic epic and romance?
10. As evident in Renaissance art?
11. Why is there this culture of Renaissance Italy?
1. Fold comparative table of the "Architecture of the Middle Ages."
The period of dominance
2. Identify the main differences from Renaissance art medieval art.
3. Specify the main features of knight culture.
4. Make a story about one of the leaders of the Renaissance.
What humanists views diverged from traditional medieval worldview?