§ 10. Christian Church in XII - XV Art.
Christian Church in Europe VI-XIIIArt.
1. Why with the time the Crusaders ran their campaigns not in Palestine?
2. What is the significance of the Crusades in the historical development of Europe?
3. What is heresy? Why they shyrylysya in Christian Europe, and as with them 4. fought church?
5. Why once mighty power of the Pope of Rome XIV Art. decline?
1. The second, third and fourth cross hiking
Despite the posbe constantly stay alert, the situation of the Crusaders in the East was not strong. In mid-XII Art. Seljuks attacked. They declared jihad- Islam's holy war against Christians, defeated the host graph Trypolitanskoho and captured Edessa. King of Jerusalem, having lost more part of their possessions, enlisted the help of Пups, who in response announced second crusade (1147 - 1149's). Despite significant military (50 thousand soldiers), leading from a German emperor Conrad III and King Louis II, march ended checkmate. City of Damascus - the goal campaign - the Crusaders withstood the siege.
In the second half of the XII Art. Crusaders in the East the situation further deteriorated over Egypt tours Sultan Salah al-Din or Saladin as he referred to Europeans. Saladin gained considerable territory and created a mighty empire, which became the center of Egypt, and States tried to destroy the Crusaders. He captured Jerusalem and took the life Domestic huge ransom.
Egyptian Sultan Alladin
The event was organized third crusade (1189 - 1192's). To prepare the army all people should have to pay a special tax - "Saladinovu tithe. Lead the march three European kings: French, English and German. But from the outset pursued marcher failures. While crossing a mountain river in Syria vtopyvsya German Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and then most of the German knights returned home. French King Philip Augustus II and English King Richard And the Lionheart were old enemies and instead work together, doing only one obstacle one.
Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
Vysadyvshys 1191 in Syria, British and French troops surrounded the fortress of Acre and after a long siege captured her. But then Philip II Augustus and Richard I the Lion heart finally had a falling out, and the French, the British left to fend for themselves, home.
Richard And Lion Heart tried three times to Jerusalem, but failed. He only made in 1192 by agreement with Saladin by which Christian pilgrims Sultan guarantee the unimpeded visits to the holy city - Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem for three years.
The second and third Crusades showed that western Christendom has not had that religious enthusiasm, as before. Debates among European countries took a prominent role, and the Catholic Church was unable to overcome their grand idea of service to Christianity.
2. Fourth crusade
Early XIIIArt. it became clear that critical the fate of the Holy Land is Egypt, which constantly threatened the sultan possession Crusaders. Pope Innocent III began to prepare for a new crusade. But in Egypt Crusaders never came.
To get to Egypt, heads turned to the campaign Venice, which had the best fleet, with a request to forward their troops. Doge Enrico Dandolo - Chairman of the Venetian Republic - agreed to carry Crusaders for a large sum of money - 85 thousand marks silver. In June 1202 , when the ship were ready, on the island of Lido has gathered only a third of the Crusaders. Campaign managers were able to collect only a portion of the required amount. Then doge offered to postpone the payment if the Crusaders to help him destroy commercial rivals - the city of Zadar on the eastern Adriatic coast. Despite the prohibition of the pope to fight against Christians, the leaders joined the campaign on such proposal. In November 1202 they captured and looted Zadar. Innocent III excommunicated the crusaders and Venice from the church, but, desiring destroy the Egyptians promised to withdraw weaning if hike will take place.
However, the Doge of Venice persuaded the Crusaders to march against another one of his opponent - Christian Constantinople. The reason for war desire was the son of Emperor Isaac II Angel away from Uncle Alex throne, which he captured oslipyvshy brother. Imperial son promised for this generous reward vital crusaders - 200 thousand silver marks.
What pushed the old dozha Venice the path of struggle against the Byzantine Empire? This is a vivid example of how strong can be the desire for revenge.
Venice was ruled by the Byzantine Empire and then separated and turned to its commercial rival. The competition quickly escalated into hostility. In 1171 on the orders of one thousand Venetian Byzantine Emperor merchants were thrown into prison, and the ambassador of Venice Enrico Dandolo blinded. During 1930 doge cherished hatred of the empire. The dream of vengeance warms and gave him strength to live. And now, finally, 94-year-old made his doge desire and destroyed the Byzantine Empire Crusader hands. The human hatred - terrible power?
Summer 1203 by Crusaders began the siege of Constantinople. Soon they took the city and back Isaac throne II. Then had to pay "Liberators" but in the imperial treasury did not have so many money. When their power began to charge people revolt broke out, result of which the new emperor declared enemy crusader Alex Duku. He tried to protect the city from the "liberators". The Crusaders started the new storming Constantinople April 13 1204 р.taken the city, savagely he was robbed and killed thousands of residents.
Entry Crusaders in Constantinople
After winning Crusaders divided between land empire. Latins (the so-called Byzantine Crusaders) formed on the ruins of the empire its possession, which at West called the Latin Romania and historians later called the Latin Empire. On the extension campaign, of course, it was impossible to say.
Fourth crusade, and in particular the destruction of the center of Eastern Christianity - Byzantine Empire - revealed a deep crisis Crusaders movement. All four Crusades were directed not to Palestine.
У XIII Art. West tried return to the idea of Crusades. Spread the idea that only innocent children can make a miracle and liberate Jerusalem. In 1212 was one thousand adolescents Western Europe went hiking liberate the Holy Land. Some children who came to the port of Marseille, the owners of ships seized and sold to Muslims and the rest simply disappeared. Children's Crusade ended utter failure.
After termination Crusades Crusader state was doomed. One by one they fell Crusader fortress city - Tripoli, Tyre, Sidon. In 1291 , the Egyptians conquered Acre - the last capital of Jerusalem Kingdom. The era of the Crusades ended.
The Crusades 1202-1291 biennium
3. The meaning and implications of cross hiking
The Crusades as a military expedition to the liberation of the Holy Land failed. They caused considerable loss of life among the population of the East, and among their participants. During the marches were destroyed many monuments of culture, libraries, palaces. Because fourth crusade was destroyed Constantinople - the center of Eastern Christian culture. The Crusades caused the deterioration of relations between Europe and the East, Christian and Islamic worlds.
However, age Crusades are not completely passed to Europe. Much quicken trade the Mediterranean Sea. Especially great benefits received Italian city-states - Venice, Genoa, Pisa, to which came first place in trade with Eastern countries. Byzantium as a trading rival Italian city-states after fourth crusade disappeared. Trade relations of East and West during the Crusades already a regular basis. Number of products that are European merchants brought from the East has increased tenfold.
The Crusades helped familiarize Europeans with new plants and rilnytskymy launched their cultivation in Europe. It then came to Europe rice Buckwheat, lemons, apricots, watermelons. Crusaders familiar with the production sugar, silk fabrics and glass mirrors, borrowed from the East and pigeon mail windmills. Meet the East had a great impact on everyday life of Europeans. Knight learned Oriental manners, courtly politeness, began to follow his body and face. That since the West pryzvychayilysya wash hands before eating, bathe and wash in hot baths. In a new knight castles exciting game - chess.
In Western Europe increased yearning for delicious dishes, sweet wines, spices. In fashion includes nice clothes, objects of Eastern life, quilts, rare stuff, expensive weapon. To buy everything necessary to make money and feudal lords were more likely to require dependent peasants pay their taxes with money instead of giving food as before. Then in Europe has picked up trade, collapsed in the old natural economy.
Causes of failure and consequences of cross hiking
Causes of failure
Significant loss of life, Contingent difficulties and resistance of Muslim conquerors.
The fall in popularity of the idea of hiking the Holy Earth in the population of European countries.
Losing your sense of movement Crusaders because its members turned their weapons against Christians and became ordinary robbers
Destroyed Constantinople - the center Eastern Christian culture.
Significant loss of life and destruction of monuments Culture of the East.
Deteriorating relations between the Christian and Muslim worlds.
Strengthening trade ties between East and West through the Mediterranean.
Introducing the new Europeans rilnytskymy plants, crafts, changes in everyday life.
Increased knowledge of Europeans and Muslims about each other and the world around
The prominent French historian Jacques Le Goff argues that the Crusades "for the West were most likely detrimental than favorable, but nevertheless they are in their psychological stress expansion are top of the medieval Christian world. "
4. Yerytyky and fight with them. Inkvizitsiya
Church in the Middle Ages took care not only external problems, but also internal. Already in the first century of the Christian church views were the nature of Christ and the Triune God, that differed from those officially adopted by the church councils. Such views were called hereticalAnd figures that they expressed, condemned and cursed as heretics. But even after The establishment of Christian teaching heresy broke out repeatedly in medieval Europe.
Incineration heretics in Italy
Why emerging heresy? In everyday life people Middle Ages was a major concern for the salvation of souls. But people seen that the church, preaching obedience and renunciation of earthly goods, accumulated great wealth and assumed enormous political power. In an environment artisans, merchants, knights, priests and monks simple, sometimes even know appeared from time to time people who thought about the tensions between evangelical teachings and what they saw in life. They came to thought that the church teaches is wrong. Only a complete rejection of wealth and power can save the soul of man. Thus, heretics were people who were involved doubt that the official doctrine of the church is able to save their soul. Moreover they that sought a more just social order. Thus heresy was as religious and socio-religious.
The main centers of heretical movements were. It because the population concentrated in cities, there were contacts between people from different cities and countries, sharing knowledge, ideas, focused literate people who could read and interpret Scripture.
One of the most famous and popular heresies was doctrine Cathar ("Pure"), which is called albihoytsyamy by City Albi - distribution center heresy. This doctrine spread to southern France in XII - XIII century. Catharism taught that the earth and the orders it is not God's creation, as generated by the devil. They taught that man must break with earthly world and only then will save his soul. Catharism created great church that was hostile Rome. They were austere lifestyle and were ready accept martyrdom for their faith.
Albihoyska heresy (from an anonymous source the beginning of XIII cent.)
Group heretics living in our region, believe and have courage to assert that there are two deities: the first - good God, and second - strange deity? They claim that the world and everything in it is a tangible, god created evil. They reject the baptism of children, because they have no faith and, quoting the Gospel, said that one who has no faith will be condemned. They do not believe in the resurrection of the flesh and quoted St. Paul, who said: "No flesh, no blood does not get into the kingdom of God. " They called the Catholic rites blank and stupid, because, they say, these teachings from people and have support ...
1. What teaching basic provisions albihoytsiv?
2. What is the attitude of the author to albihoytsiv?
At about the same there was another heresy - Waldensians. The legendary founder of the teachings of Pierre Waldo - monskyy rich merchant, moved by the pages of the Bible, which was about "Holy poverty" - distributed his property to the poor and with her students was preach the Gospel. Waldensians were divided into "perfect" that all poryvaly relations with the outside world and taught her supporters to follow Christ and "Brothers" who were allowed to work. Qatar and Waldenses denied the existence of the Church hierarchy and called for the establishment of religious communities that existed at the time of Christ and his disciples-apostles. Call to a "poor church" was close to those who wanted "cheap" and the church independence from the folder.
Persecution Waldensians and the Cathars could not stop the spread of heresy Europe. Then Pope Innocent III called on all Christians to crusade against the land, contaminated heresy.
The fight against heretics was convenient French kings, who sought, after the unification under his authority northern France to join his domains rich south. Crusades against heretics in the south France had the name Albihoyskyh wars(1209 - 1229's).
Christian host of fire and sword proyshlosya rich Southern provinces. Once the question warrior how to distinguish heretic by orthodox Catholics, the papal legate (representative) said: "Beat them all, God recognizes their "Albihoytsi do desperate resistance, but ultimately were exterminated.
This victory over heresy promoted the unification of France, but also led to the devastation and destruction of many cities and entire regions, killing thousands of their inhabitants.
Pope understood that defeated heresies can easily recover. To combat them taken serious measures.
All the laity were forbidden to have read and even more - interpret the Bible. Only people who have received education in the church could do it. So The outstanding book of Christianity has become even more inaccessible to most Christians.
In the Bishopric of special standing committees were created to were to investigate any signs of heresy, interrogated and condemn heretics. These committees then stuck title inquisitorial Tribunals (Latin inquisitio - investigations). Inquisitor allowed to torture, to obtain recognition of heretics at worst sins before they publicly burned at the stake.
But many of the heretics could not bring repentance even under torture. Religious belief as Catholics and heretics distinguished bigotry: people were absolutely convinced that only their belief is correct, because the heretics were ready to go to the fire, and inquisitors were convinced of the truth of the sentence.
Despite all efforts Church to eradicate heresy, it failed. Heretics were still cautious and more convinced of his rightness.
5. Zhebruschi orders of monks
Not all people been thinking over their souls, were heretics. Spiritual search for educated people by their ages were understand the teachings of Jesus. Part dissatisfied order that existed in the church, on the path of heresy, the other tried to act on the border between heresy and the official church.
The most famous in XIII Art. Christianity was the updater Francis Assisi(1182 - 1226's). Through his preaching activities acquired special importance. He became one of the founders of new zhebruschyh orders.
Francis was born in a family of merchant Assyzi Italian city. Youth spent in feasts and various entertainment but familiarity with the Gospel in his life made a revolution that changed the life Francis. Deciding to follow Christ in all, he abandoned property and left home, living as beggars, all forces gave prayer, fasting and preaching of the Word of God. Without the church education, he turned to the audience understand them in simple language. In the prayers of Francis proved himself to such a state that in the visions met with Jesus, God 's Mother and the saints, ba more - other people saw in Francis opened and started to bleed wounds on the wrists and feet - in places where the body of Jesus nailed to the cross.
With time, the followers of Francis were found, of which later formed a monastic order Franciscan.
Order of Franciscans differed significantly from all religious orders that existed at that time. Yes, they really lived in the Gospel Poverty, not usamitnyuvalys in silence behind the walls of monasteries, and went to the people brought him word of God. Franciskan were hermits, and with love attitude towards the world as the beautiful creation of God. The Order all were equal.
Franciskan created a new kind of monasticism. The monks, beggars quickly gained credibility among common people. The emergence of a new order put the issue before the Pope: recognize it or to declare religious heretics. Pope Innocent III understood that new order can be a pillar of the papacy and raise the prestige of Catholicism. Over time, like other orders, Franciscans have got property, built a monastery. In last years of his life Francis gave up the leadership award.
At the same time Franciscans emerged Order of St. Dominic. Dominique(1170 - 1221) was born in Spain but lived a long time in South France, where his preaching was trying to fight against heretics-albihoytsiv ideas. Here in France, Dominique was born the idea to create a brotherhood of monks specially to fight against heretical doctrines. Unlike the Franciscans, Dominicans much emphasis on the study of Scripture. Dominican monks were famous its vchenistyu often covered chair in the best universities. Outstanding Medieval theologians Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas were Dominicans.
Most prepared to dispute with heretics, Dominicans played a major role in the tribunals, conducting the interrogation and trial of committing heretics. Dominicans called themselves "dogs of the Lord" (Latin Domini canes). They were to illuminate the world and preach the truth, like dogs, guard church of heretical teachings. On the emblem of the Order was a picture of a dog that is in jaws flaming torch.
Dominicans sought to separate as far as the Catholic faith. Their preachers at the end XIII Art. read their sermons in China and built churches there.
6. Church crisis. Decline of the Papacy
With the XIV Art. Europe entered a period distinguished by all sorts of miseries and disasters. They revealed a deep crisis of medieval European society. Did not avoid this crisis and the church.
Church crisis was launched slap in the face of iron gloves Pope Boniface VIII Chancellor and keeper of the royal seal of the French kingdom Guillaume Nogaro. Not stand the abuse, the pope died a few weeks. His successor, ClementV, As mentioned, moved the papal residence to the city of Avignon, which, though owned Neapolitan kingdom, with all sides surrounded by possessions French king. Yes Papal authority was under French influence. 70 lasted years Avignon popes capture. Those events proved that idea union of Christendom under the spiritual and secular authority of pontiffs, not meet the realities of time, because life in Europe started to play the role of other factors, including government, national interests. The idea of universal state that unite all replaced by the idea of national power, that unite people only by certain signs: at the time it was some kind of allegiance the king.
Current problems of popery not ended. Return to the popes of Rome reflected the event which received name great schism.
After returning to Rome papal throne Gregory XI of his succeeded by Urban VI. However, last use his power so that he dropped the Cardinals, who chose the new Pope Clement VII. But Urban VI refused to surrender, making papacy appeared only two popes: one was in Rome, the other - in Avignon.
Both Pope excommunicated from the church to each other, and people like the opposite side. Started misunderstanding and at other levels: one church as claimed two priests. No one knew what is the real pope and, therefore, who had apply for the post of Bishop et al. Christian Europe split.
To tame passion, developed and offered all sorts of ideas and suggestions. Finally, Most began inclining to the view that the problem must be addressed to the church - clergy and laity, that is to convene cathedral. First attempt solve the problem at the cathedral in Pisa over a new division: two popes declared heretics and choose new. Pope, declared heretics, not recognized decision of the cathedral, and Catholics have been three popes. Yet the idea of the cathedral remained the only way out of the situation. In 1414 in Constanta was convened by the new cathedral, which solved this complicated problem. Widely Pope Martin was V.
Dissension in the church forced to think if society was going the right way to God. Again movements erupted heretics. The strongest movement for the renewal of the church erupted in Czech Republic. Ideologist it became Huss, then burned as a heretic by the decision of council in Constanta. On behalf of the movement that zburyuvav Central Europe for several decades, got called by Wu-Hussite.
Check how to remember
1. What was the result of the Second Crusade?
2. Monarchs of whom participated in the Third Cross campaign?
3. Who is Saladin?
4. What city was the final item, the cross campaign?
5. In what year the Crusaders finally lost Jerusalem?
6. When the crusader state ceased to exist on Middle East?
7. What are the causes of heretics?
8. Name the major heretical movements of the Middle Ages.
9. What is the Inquisition? For what purpose it was created?
Think and answer
1. Why the Pope was forced to call for new Crusades after the liberation of the Holy Sepulchre?
2. What differed from the fourth crusade earlier? What were its consequences?
3. Are Crusades your goal? His opinion justification.
4. Give a description of the views of Cathars and Waldensians. What is their views differed from the teachings of the Catholic Church?
5. What are the causes and consequences Albihoyskyh wars?
6. What causes zhebruschyh orders monks?
7. What changes in the religious life of Europe took place in the XIV-ХVArt.? What they were due?
Perform the task
1. Prepare a story about participating in the second and third Crusades, Crusaders monarchs.
2. Make a timeline of key events of the Crusades.
4. Identify the causes of defeat of the Crusades. Zyasuyte their results and impact.
For the curious
Why Europeans eventually lost interest in the Crusades?