§ 7-8. Generalization on
"Birth of the medieval world. Features of his Development
ІV-VІІ Art. - During the Great Migrations. His death was the result of the Western Roman Empire (476) and of this country barbarian kingdoms. However, these Kingdom were fragile entities. An exception was the Kingdom Franks, founded in 486 by Clovis.
Franks managed to stop the advance of Arabs in Europe (Battle at Poitiers, 732 р.).
In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne was emperor. Has been made the first attempt to restore the Roman Empire. But empire Karl does not resembled its predecessor. King viewed the state as part of possession that he owned. The basis of the state was a personal commitment to the monarch. The collapse of the empire was inevitable. What happened in 843, the by Verduncontract grandsons of Charlemagne. On the territories of the empire was facing three European States: France, Italy, Germany.
Starting from the ninth century. Europe confirms the order, which called feudal. Takes its name from the name of the ancestral possession, which was foreseen by military service - fief. Owners fief became known as feudal lords. They were As the dominant society. Medieval thinkers called them "those who war.
A symbol of power was feudal castle, which once was and home and fortress.
Between feudal lords formed a special form of relationship - vasalitetu. The strong will become seniors, those who followed them to the service and made oath of allegiance, became vassals. Gradually a kind of ladder vybuduvalasya (Pyramid) of seniors and vassals. On top of this design was king. However, the system of relations between vassals and seniors was so confusing that gave rise to many conflicts. Some seniors were richer and more powerful than Kings, which led to such phenomena as feudal fragmentation. But then Kings, based on different segments of society led the fight for union country under his power. This led to the late Middle Ages centralized state and civil monarchies.
As the most numerous medieval society was farmers - those who work. " His situation was nepovnopravnym and humiliated. Villagers caught in feudal dependence on and do all sorts in their favor duties (servage and serfdom).
Another condition of the society were "those who pray" - clergy. They performed, according to medieval man, the main task - Cared about the salvation of man. It provoked a huge impact churches the life of medieval man and its claim to power.
Three states: clergy, feudal і peasants. Medieval picture
In X-XI. Europe began the revival of old and emergence of new cities. Cities in the Middle Ages were the centers of handicrafts and trade. For the production, trade, protection from competition and artisans merchants united in guilds and guild. Life urban residents differed significantly from other strata of medieval society. As a result of a citizen new type of man.
Cities appeared in the lands that belonged to seniors. During several centuries was the struggle for independence and towns self-government. Some cities succeeded. They became sister communes. The symbol of independence became the town hall.
In the XI-XIII. Europe experienced an economic exaltation. As a result of internal colonization of new areas actively accustomed for agriculture. With the "European forests", she appeared in the "Europe of fields". Growing in population. Receded somewhat permanent ghost hunger.
The economies of Europe and the Middle East XIII-XV Art.
In XIV-ХVArt. Medieval society embraced the crisis swept Europe in all sorts of doom and disaster. Was the most terrible plague pandemic mid XIVArt. that in three years destroyed a quarter of the continent. But it's not the end of the world and life continued. Europe entered a new stage of development.
Plague in Europe (1343 - 1353's)
Tasks for generalization