§ 6. The emergence of the medieval city. Craft and trade in the medieval town (textbook)

§ 6. The emergence of the medieval city. Craft and trade in medieval Hotels

You will learn

·        Why does the average ever revives urban life?

·        What different from the medieval city of ancient?

·        What is a urban society?

·        As developed craft and trade?

·        Why are there guilds and guild that their role in cities?

·        What is of commune and why the city fought for self-government?

 

 

1. The emergence of the medieval city

In the Roman Empire there were many large and prosperous cities. They performed primarily political, administrative and military functions that have been centers, located where governments, armies and so on. In addition, they were the centers Trade and handicrafts. With the demise of the Roman Empire went out and urban life. The street turned into the fields, orchards and pastures. Number of residents reduced to a few thousands or even hundreds. Almost 500 years in Western Europe dominated the rural landscape. Only a few cities of Italy and southern France maintained their pace and standard of living due to international trade and residence bishops.

 

           
Roman ruins. Trier, Germany

 

In X - XI. Recovery began Some of the old and new cities in Western Europe, which, though appeared to based on the old Roman, but differed significantly from them. First they were economic centers - centers of handicrafts and trade.

What has therefore led revival urban life in Europe? First, in the economy, rural development economy. Thus, X - XI. increased grain production, developing gardening, wine, gardening and more. Carter surplus agricultural products, which could be exchanged for craft products. According increased skills of rural artisans. They have not had time apply for agriculture, it only distracted from their primary work. After all, the workmanship separated from agriculture. For sales artisans focused in those cities where there were significant crowd: at the crossroads of important routes, river crossings annually, under the walls castles residences of bishops and kings. Gradually, these cities formed permanent settlements artisans.

Thus, through the development of handicrafts and separating it from agriculture and have a European medieval city.

Causes of cities

With stories about the origin of Bruges (IX century).

Then, for the needs of the inhabitants of the castle began to flock to his gate bridge traders or sellers valuable things later, merchants, then the owners inn for food and shelter those who lead in doing business presence of the prince, who was often there, began to build houses and hotels, were located where those who could not live inside the castle. And it was their custom say: "We go to the bridge. This settlement has grown so much that soon The big city that is still in simple language is named "Bridge" because their dialect "Bruges' meant "bridge".

1. How did the city Bruges?

2. What are the main causes of Bruges?

 

Most cities in Italy was (Half the population were residents of the cities) and Flanders (2 / 3 people - townspeople). Medieval cities were usually small - 1-3 thousand residents. Few cities in Europe had a population of 100 thousand residents. This Cordoba, Seville, Paris, Milan, London, Florence. Compulsory elements by which the settlement could be considered a city, the walls, citadel, cathedral, market square. Also, cities could positioned fortified palace-fortress of feudal lords, monasteries. Building Plan medieval city, unlike the ancient, as such was not. Cities rozbudovuvalysya concentric circles from the center - a fortress or market area. The streets were narrow (only sufficient for the passage of the rider) is not lit, long had drainage and paving. Drainages were open, and sewage flowed along the streets. This led to outbreaks of various infectious diseases.

Buildings were quite closely and had two - three floors. Often the top floor of the lower navysav for high cost of land through the foundations built narrow. Long time city preserve rural appearance: buildings located near the gardens and orchards, in the court held the livestock and poultry. Behind the walls of the city residents were land and vineyards.

 

2. Population bridge

The main mass of citizens were burghers(On him. Burg - Fortress). They were full residents lived with trade and handicrafts. Some produced and traded trifles necessary townspeople and peasants from the vicinity. Other, richer, were trade with regions or countries, buying and selling large lots goods. In addition to these groups, much of the population consisted loaders, waterman, collier, butchers, bakers, that is, those who were engaged in service. Seniors and their environment, members of secular and spiritual power, that is notable people owned the best houses in town, they had access to municipal authorities and with prosperous burghers formed bourgeasy- Ruling the city. The poorest segments of urban population called plebs. In various cities plebeians were 20 to 70% of the population.

 

Opinion historian

French historian A.Piren stated:   "The medieval city was born and received their just due to development   economic functions. The town was established and was restored trade   brainchild merchants.

 

Typically urban population popovnyuvalosya by people from villages escaping from their seniors. If the fugitive lived in a year and one day, he became free. In some city documents even wrote: "City air makes free. "

 

3. Workshops. The workshop craftsman

The medieval town developed primarily as centers of handicraft production. Unlike farmers, artisans worked for meet market needs, producing products for sale. Production of goods was located in a workshop on the ground floor accommodation craftsman. All vyhotovlyalosya manually, using simple tools, a master of beginning to end. Usually shop at the store rules, where artisan sold it made things being so, and the main worker and owner.

Limited market for goods craft industry forced to find ways masters of survival. One including a distribution market and eliminate competition. Welfare craftsman depended on many circumstances. Being a small manufacturer, the artisan could produce only as much product as it allowed individuals and intellectual abilities. But any troubles: sickness, error, lack of the necessary raw materials and others. could lead to loss of customer, and hence livelihoods.

To solve some basic problems they began to combine their efforts in organizing workshops - closed organization (corporation) craft a specialty within a city, designed to eliminate competition (production and income protection) and mutual aid.

 

Scheme: Guild hierarchy

Members of the workshop helped each other explore new ways to craft, but they guarded their secrets of other shops. Shop tip an election closely watched so that all members of the department were approximately the same conditions, so that no one at the expense of rich another, not enticed customers. For this purpose, introduced strict rules, where clearly stated: how many hours you can work as machine tools and assistants to use. Violators excluded from the shop, which meant the loss of livelihoods. Also, there was strict control over the quality of goods. Except production and workshops organized and everyday life of artisans. Members of the department built its own church, school, celebrated holidays together. On hold workshop were widows, orphans, invali-ods. If the siege of the city department members under his own flag formed individual combat units that had to defend a piece of the wall or tower.

 

Wizards and workers of different professions. XV century.

 

Causes and the purpose of shops in the medieval town

Causes   and the goal of workshops

                     



Protection   attacks from robbers, knights.

Organization   defense of the city in case of war

Protection   from competition, the distribution market in a narrow market

Organization   life and recreation, mutual

Creation   for all masters level playing field, developing common rules in the production and   Products for sale

 

With the Charter of Paris shop wool weavers (XIII century).

§ 1. Nobody in Paris could not be woven unless you bought is right in the King.

§ 3. Kozhin weaver can have in his home two wide and one stall narrow.

§ 8. Each wool weaver can only have one student, also not less than 4 years of service. Fees must be equal to 4 of the Paris livram ... Or seven years free of charge.

§ 26. The fabric of any sort can have a width of seven quarters, or master pay five sou.

§ 31. No one with vydiltsi cloth can not taint to the present wool lambs wool under threat of a fine of 10 per su each piece.

§ 47. No one can start work before sunrise. Penalty 12 day.

 

What are the provisions on labor weavers contained in the Charter?

What are the requirements of the Charter to instruments of labor?

How is the quality?

Why such strict rules for students?

Why Charter does not allow the work previously than the sunrise?

 

Only masters were members of the department. They were elected chairman and council workshop. Apprentices - Aides Masters - members of the workshop is not considered, and therefore do not enjoy the privileges and were allowed to open their own business. To become a master, journeyman must was to learn the secrets and subtleties of their specialty, then pass test and create a product that testify to his skill. France This product was called masterpiece - "Hand work". Following on from apprentices hierarchical ladder were Students, Which is still in the infancy gave masters on training. First, they served as a maid. If the study went successfully (Masters in no hurry to reveal their secrets), the student could become an apprentice.

Over time, apprentices became increasingly difficult to obtain the status of wizard. Seeking to further restrict competition, workshops, the most restricted of new members. Members shop could become either the children or masters Brothers. Some apprentices remained the forever, turning virtually laborers. Over time workshops began to hinder the development of handicrafts. There are times when wizards destroyed inventions and inventors persecuted.

 

4. Trade. Userers and bankers

The development of trade, as well as crafts, a one of the prerequisites of the cities. Trade in the Mediterranean basin never never stopped even after the death of the Roman Empire. Prestigious products in demand, especially among the elite barbarian kingdoms. Dear tissue, vessels, weapons and spices - is that based on what the European trade in the early centuries of the Middle Ages. The main trade routes ran Mediterranean Sea and the rivers. Not surprisingly, there were the first towns on the coast or along navigable rivers.

For the conduct of international trade needed not only large capital, but also courage. Distant travel were Dangerous: pirates or robbers on the seas on land robbed merchants. Also the goods and money were ready to lay paws and some seniors, whose holdings laid the trade routes. Often fee for carriage of goods amounts to half of its value.

To protect their interests merchants, like craftsmen, cooperating in Guild. Later they established Trading Company - Association of merchants different cities with their missions.

In the Middle Ages international trade in the Mediterranean controlled by merchants from the Italian cities Venice and Genoa, where they competed with Byzantine merchants. In North Europe in the Baltic and North Sea trade in controlled trading Union wealthiest cities, called Hanse.

The main transactions carried out at city markets or seasonal fairs. Fairs - big annual auction in which participating merchants from different countries. On local fairs were brought from the nearest towns and villages of grain, wine, fabrics and other products; merchants came here to buy the goods to carry them further. In the thirteenth century. were the most famous international fairs in the four Champagne County towns in northeast France.

During its heyday (XII - the beginning of XIV century.) Champagne fairs acquired European importance. Here in Champagne, converged trade routes that went from England, Holland and Germany. Earls ChampagneReceiving huge profits from fairs, ensure the safety and security of merchants and their goods. Fairs were almost during the year. They met six times a year and lasted for 1-2 months one by one in four cities. The sequence of the fair was determined once and for all: TroisProvenTroisHind-Bar-Proven. Trade at fairs held with great magnitude. It sold cloth, silk, fur, leather, spices, dyes, salt, cattle. At the fairs were granted loans and debts were collected, were transferred and exchanged huge amounts of money. But in the early fourteenth century. through the development of marine trade around the Iberian peninsula, the political turmoil in France trade in the Netherlands and Germany fairs Champagnegradually declining. Centre for fair trade in the region moves into town Bruges.

Throughout the Middle Ages the main trade routes ran Mediterranean Sea. The most popular items - and oriental spices items prestigious consumption - from ports in southern France and northern Italy through Alpine passes caught in the Upper Rhine stream, and on the Rhine and rozvozylysya land in Europe for sale at fairs and markets.

At the end of the XIII century. in the areas of major trade routes change occurred. Genoese opened a sea route to North Europe through Gibraltar. The way by land through alpine passes were too dangerous and difficult. This allows cheaper transportation of goods and attract active trading Nordic city.

Efficiency transportation of goods L to Dantzig
maritime and overland transport

Transported

Duration
transportation, days

Total, t

Number of people
accompanying

Ship

4

120

25

Cart

14

2

A coachman protection

 

Any significant financial transactions impossible without a system of loans. People who borrowed money at interest, called usurers. Usury was quite common since the introduction of money. Money is needed by all, and they are few.

During the Middle Ages, the bulk of payments carried out in cash. Given that while in monetary circulation was a lot of different gold and silver coins minted in various cities in Europe and Asia, became urgent profession changed. In exchange the coins, they also monitored and their quality, because counterfeit money (from admixture of base metals) and cracked (weight did not meet face value) happened quite often. In the XIV century. userers changed and became the founders banks. First Bank provided two basic services: save money and provide loans, that money borrowed for a fee (with interest). Developed a new calculation system: bills.

Bill - A document whereby one person instructs another to pay a certain amount and a city of a third party specified in the document.

For example, if a merchant L would buy goods in Venice, he was not need to travel with cash to the city, but it was enough to make the required amount the office that represented his Venetian trading partner, get a bill, which, along with the order to send to Venice and get product. Money remaining in the LCould Venetians use to purchase goods in this city. Banks and bill gave a powerful impetus to the development of trade and industry. The merchants no longer need to carry a significant amount of cash.

The most authoritative European bankers were Medici and Strozziin Italy Fuhery and Velzery- In the Holy Roman Empire, Jacques Keren - In France.

 

5. City government. Cities commune

With the appearance of cities arose and system management. At the head of there was a person or group intended seniors, on land which city was located, or selected the most residents.

Appearing on the lands feudal lord, the city depended on it, and were obliged to pay or vidroblyaty, like a peasant community tax. Craftsmen gave part of their products, merchants - paid goods or money, others - worked on serfdom or perform other work. Cities obtyazhuvala such dependence, the residents wanted nytysya-releasing from it.

Fighting cities for freedom and privileges opened in the XI - XIII centuries. To address seniors townsfolk united in unions - Commune. After the uprising, gifts of kings who fought against the strengthening of government seniors, or redemption by the city government sought the law: a own elected authorities, courts, police, militia, tax, treasury, laws, etc.. Those who have gained self-government, was called communes.

The most important communes achievement - the achievement of personal independence of people.

First appeared in the commune Northern Italy in the XI century. Living in cities, using the struggle between papamy and emperors, proclaimed his government. All attempts by Frederick I Barbarossa suppress this movement were unsuccessful. Finally, he was forced to resign, and communal movement is spreading Europe. But Not all cities have managed to achieve self-government rights. Where there was stronger superior power, success communes were only temporary. The symbol of the self was City Hall - Premises where located controls.

Achieving freedom is not always meant to have justice. After independence to power in the cities came mainly bourgeasy that could establish such laws that the rest of the inhabitants found themselves in worse conditions than it was in the superior. Growl there was none, because the courts also controlled patrician. In XIII-XIV centuries. cities communes wave of rebellions plebs against the patricians, which ended with the increase of the lower strata of human urban population.

 

6. Townsman - a person of a new type

The emergence and development of cities undermined foundations Middle Ages. Thus the development of handicrafts, trade, banking contributed undermining of subsistence and development of new - trade. Cities changed the image of medieval life. So city residents markedly differed not only from rural employment. They looked at the world differently, were more energetic, have relied mainly on their strength and their hordylysya success. They know much more about the world around were the main course news. Rate their life was significantly higher than in agriculture and not be measured. They always slow, while appreciated, is no accident that the first clock appeared in the city. City residents wanted to succeed, trying to get rich and increase what they dostavalosya inherited. Many in the cities faced adventurer, adventurers, fraud, ie people who are at any cost were ready to win coveted wealth. Their understanding of wealth gave freedom and liberty - the largest value of the city. Over time, the descendants of the inhabitants of medieval cities of Europe and changed the the whole world.

 

 

Check how to remember

  1. Or      preserved urban life after the fall of the Western Roman Empire?
  2. What      century began restoration of cities in Europe?
  3. What city      were the largest in Europe?
  4. Seemed      medieval town? Describe its characteristic features.
  5. Name      major segments of the urban population and give them a description.
  6. What is      shop? Who is it worked?
  7. As      called the work that produced artisan who tried to become      master?
  8. What      were changed?
  9. Who  ob'yednuvavsya in the guild?
  10. What is      urban commune?
  11. Who was      Cities ally in the fight against seniors?
  12. What was      symbol of municipal government?

 

 

Think and answer

  1. In      European languages, many city names have the same parts:Bourg"(German) - Fortress"hafen"      (German) - Harbor, "Chester"(Latin). -      camp, "Furta"(German) - ford,"Bridge"(English) - Cities and more. Locate on the map atlas      cities which in their names contain these parts. Explain how these have      name. Make a conclusion.
  2. What was      population structure of the medieval city?
  3. That      pushed craft guilds to join in? What is their role in city life?
  4. Describe      trade with the Middle Ages.
  5. What was      the role of moneylenders, changed in trade and      production?
  6. Find      Main causes of communal movement.
  7. What was      caused by the plebeians against the patricians fight? What are its consequences?
  8. Why      people in urban historians call a new type of people?

 

Perform the task

  1. Using additional      literature, make a story: "Life in a medieval city, View      medieval city.
  2. Complete the comparison chart:      "Cities of Europe in ancient and medieval times"

Question

Ancient city

Cities   Middle Ages

 

 

 

  1. Make a plan for response to      theme: "A shop in the medieval city"
  2. With `yasuyte      positive and negative sides of buildings.
  3. Define      main features of  in crafts      Middle Ages.

 

For the curious

What is the role Komunar movement in the history Medieval Europe?