§ 1-2 Birth of Medieval Europe
· What differed barbarian and Roman worlds?
· Which medieval heritage of Europe has grown?
· How got the Frankish Empire and why it collapsed?
· What is the role of Charlemagne in the formation of medieval Europe?
1. Rome and barbarian world in the middle and the Millennium.
Birth of Medieval Europe preceded the decline of the Roman Empire (of III century)., Big Migrations (IV-VІІ cent.) barbarian settlement in the Western Roman Empire and the formation of their barbarian kingdoms. Near the cradle Medieval Europe were two opposite and dissimilar worlds: Antique (Greco-Roman), since the beginning of our era hrystyyanizuvavsya actively and barbarous.
Barbarians Greeks and later the Romans disparagingly called and looked all foreigners who had no Greek and Roman education, were not involved in their culture, did not know their language.
Complex and difficult by combining these Worlds lasted several centuries (from V to Article IX.).
Scheme: Birth of Medieval Europe
The death of the Western Roman Empire in vortex of the Great Migrations
Barbarians in the settling Ryskoyi Western Empire and the establishment of their state structures
V - IX Art. Formation of Medieval Europe as a new cultural-historical community due to the complex and lengthy process of three components
The traditions of ancient (Greco-Roman) civilization
Christianity, the Christian church
Barbarian peoples way
· Roman law
· Cultural traditions
· Saving remnants of slavery
· Christian morality
· The church
· Support barbarian kingdoms of power
· Vtrachannya in political life and aspirations organize society
· cultural traditions
· justice based on ancient traditions
· tillage equipment, crafts
On the middle and Millennium Roman Empire was the only weak shadow of former power. The crisis and decline of empire, which began in the third century. made her unable withstand the barbarian invasions that nakochuvalysya waves at her. Termination aggressive wars resulted in reducing the number of slaves, which negatively impact on agriculture and remysli. To somehow compensate labor shortages slaves and free peasants were converted to the colonies - dependent on the landlords tenants, who paid one-third grown harvest. To compensate for the reduction introduced new tax revenues. Each year the tax burden became nesterpnishym. To collect their government resorted to brutal methods.
Preacher Salvian about to escape the Romans barbarians (Vcent.)
Poor destitute, widows chopping, orphans without patronage, and so many are even high-origin and well educated, flee to the barbarians. Lest die under the burden tyazhistyu state, they go look at the barbarians ryskoyi humanity for it can no longer tolerate barbaric nelyudyanosti Romans.
1. On this document?
2. What was caused the population to escape the Roman barbarians?
Despite the decline of the Roman Empire more preserved its attraction for invaders: big and beautiful city, rich wealth, well-groomed fields, vineyards, orchards, "eternal" Roman roads and so on.
It happened that the barbarians in Rome perceptions are primarily people who lived in areas of Europe: Celts, Germans, Slavic`Yana. Most on the fate of the Western Roman Empire had Germans.
Teutons. Roman relief
Rome learned of the early Germans. Those expressed themselves loudly and forcefully. At the end of the second Art. BC Romans had to repel the attacks of the tribes kimriv and Teutons. But then Rome was in Zenit did not feel the power and future threats.
Most of the Germans in the I-VArt. settled in the border of the Empire areas. Teutons do not build cities, a small settlement on selyuchys Hidden among the woods and marsh plains, fields and meadows. Germans were engaged in agriculture, cultivated rye, barley, wheat and oats. Liked that there were many cattle. Hunted and gathered in forests and swamps berries, mushrooms and more. From swamp ores extracted iron from which produced tools and weapons. Also among Germans have trained many jewelry makers.
Seven`th Germans were great. Under one roof lived several dozen relatives of the nearest future. Several families formed a family. Families consisted tribes in III-IV Art. were at`yednuvatysya in powerful tribal alliances.
Teutons are free. Servants have been bit and walk with them enough m`KIND. Every free man had a weapon and if necessary left the labor peace and the war came.
The most important issues facing the tribe solved in popular assemblies, which converged free men can wear weapons. Women are not allowed in the assembly. At the meeting usually held the word Elder and leader. They discussed and took important decisions that shvalyuvalysya then at the meeting. Some of them even decided not radyachys with the whole tribe. The prince and the elders called nobility, because they use of power, authority and respect. Typically tribe`I chose courageous leader, a wise and experienced. But since IV-VІ Art. power leaders in some tribes is hereditary. The main prop was the captain's wife - detachment of brave and loyal soldiers personally, the main occupation for which was war. The war brought them not only fame but also prey. Victory successful leader raised its prestige and wealth multiplied. Neighbors not in skupylysya gifts soplyminnyky voluntarily donate agricultural products and livestock. A manner, though Germans were free, but equality among them did not exist.
Modes that existed in the Germans in the first And half thousand BC called military democracy.
Scheme: The administration of barbaric tribes
1. Is it true you think rozstashuvannya these structural elements of the scheme?
2. How would you portrayed scheme? His opinion justification.
From Rome the barbarians of the world, after several unsuccessful attempts to conquer it, vidhorodyvsya limesom - Fortified line on border, consisting of ditches, towers, military camp. But the border is not development`united two worlds, but rather combined. In border towns booming trade, more Germans went to serve ryskoho troops, some Germanic nobility adopted the manners and customs of the Romans their children learn the origin of ancient wisdom.
Already in the third Art. limes ceased to be a serious obstacle. He easily overcame some tribes penetrating deep into the empire. Rome not prevented it, and sometimes helped, rozselyayuchy these tribes as allies for the war such as they are. They reinforced failing rysku army. What happened, little seemed to win. There were gradual processes varvaryzatsiyi romanizatsiyi Rome and the barbarians.
Barbara. Roman relief
But IVArt. Events began to which contemporary wrote: "The Huns fell on Alan, Alans - the Goths, the Goths, who were expelled from their homeland, we took Illyria. And that's not the end ...". World barbarians came in motion, called "Migration" (IV-VІІ cent.). In the limit of the Western Roman Empire forth such a mass of barbarians, nor that it stop and not "digest" failed. Effects of the migration of peoples was the fall of Rome (410 ), the devastation his Vandals (455), the death of the Western Roman Empire (476 ) and a barbarian kingdoms.
Migration, Roman death Empire
Visigoths burst in Rome, 410, the
2. Barbarian Kingdom
First barbaric country in the Western Roman Empire - Toulouse Kingdom - formed 418 , with the consent of the Emperor Honorius Visigoths. Kingdom was virtually independent, and its capital was мna Toulouse.
Settling у Gaul, Visigoths took land that belonged to the Romans, and divided them among themselves. Best land captured the king and nobility vesthotska. Ordinary soldiers were littleand lot area.
Vesthotski kings. Thumbnail X cent.
Around the same time in Пivnichniy Africa emerged Vandalske Kingdom the capital of the ancient Carthage. Like the Visigoths, Vandals appropriated land and slaves belonging Roman nobility. Very quickly vandalska know, as she hated the Romans into a large landowners.
In the pool in the middle of the Rhone V Art. arose Burgundy Kingdom with its capital in Lyon. Small, it had a significant impact on the lives of Western Roman Empire. Burgundy kingdom broke Communications Empire Пivnichnoyu Gaul. Because the area of the Western Roman Empire actually limited only by Italy. Burhundy, like other barbariansв, Selected land in the Roman nobility and distributed them among themselves. But got to know a smaller share of land than in other kingdoms. Most of the land became the property of ordinary warriors who turned to дрibnyh landowners.
Odoacer Kingdom with its capital in Ravenna emerged after he was removed from power last Roman Emperor Romulus Avhustula. But the conspiracy against Odoacer Pliva emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire Zenon, a young leader who pidmovyv Teodoriha Ostrogoths. One in 493 he invaded Italy, killed Odoacer and proclaimed himself "King of the Goths and Italics." Theodoric (493-526 gg) of all the barbaric rulers of that time was most prominent, for what was nicknamed the Great. Country Teodoriha was the largest of the kingdoms founded by Germans in Rome Empire. Theodoric nalahodzhuvav links to other Germanic leaders (konunhamy) і пidporyadkovuvav them their power. Although Theodoric tried reconcile the Romans and the Goths, both sides were dissatisfied. Gautier believed that he betrayed the old customs, for the Romans it all the same remained barbarian. After the death Teodoriha his state ceased to exist.
Palace in Teodoriha
From the middle V Art. launched a massive invasion of the former Roman province of northwestern Britain Germanic tribes of Saxons, Anglo and yutiv. As a result of Anglo-Saxon conquest of Britain formed Seven Kingdoms. Later, they conquered the country became called England.
At the same time there is in Northern Gaul Frankish kingdom.
All the barbarian kingdoms were fragile structures. Some fall apart. Others were won by the following conquerors. Only Franconian kingdom that was strongest, had play an important role in the further development of Europe.
Table.: Top barbarian kingdoms *
Toulouse (Vesthotske) Kingdom
* Historians generally has 15 barbarian kingdoms
Europe in the first half VIArt.
3. Franconian State Merovingians.
Title "Franc" (It translates as "free", "brave") became use from the middle third Art. on Germanic tribeYuen, who lived in the lower and average trends Rhine. This union of Germanic tribes divided into two groups: coastal Franchiв (Salbloating, from Lat. salum - Sea), who lived along the lower flow the Rhine, and Coastal francs (RypuarskіFrom Lat. ripa - shore) who occupied the territory of the Middle Rhine. Salic Franks were stronger. In V cent. Franks seized Пivnichno-eastern Gaul. One of the most famous leadersв francs at the time was Mayor.Exactly he launched the first royal dynasty of the Franks - Merovingians. Most prominent representative this dynasty was grandson Meroveya — King Clovis (481 - 511 years).
Baptism of the King Clovis. Carving of the bones. IX.
У 486 by Clovis formed an alliance with other leaders of tribes and led them to conquest Northern Gaul. Near City Suasona was battle in which Franks defeated the Roman army. As a result of the conquest of the Franks Пivnichnoyi Gaul formed Frankish kingdom.
Having conquered a huge territory Clovis bestowed abundance of all Franchiв land. Бilshist Roman and Gallic landowners recognized the power of Clovis, has maintained its possession and with the Frankish leaders, who also became major landowners to become the ruling Frankish kingdom. Simple francs were дрibnymy landowners receiving areas that they could handle their own family.
Пince conquest of Gaul Clovis destroyed most of those leaders with whom he fought with against the Romans, and began to rule alone. Хthen tried to question his right to вorderHe mercilessly destroyed. Clovis was King - The only governor of the state. His power was far greater than the military leader (Konunhva). He has not ruled the tribe or the union tribes, and a territory. And for this he needed a different system exercise their power.
Frankish historian Gregory of Tours tells how King Clovis I was the only Franchiв
When Clovis I was in Paris, he sent a secret envoy to the son of one of Frankish leaders Syhyberta to that told him: "Behold Your father is old and sick of lame leg. If he dies, you are legally get together with his kingdom of our friendship. " Son of the leader, пidshtovhuvanyy Clovis, killed his father. However, when he reported this to Clovis, he sent his men killed the son Syhyberta.
Approximate another leader, by prompting Clovis, captured its ruler, gave Clovis. The latter accused the captive leader, that letting themselves bound zneslavyv it all свth generation. So he killed the captain and and two of his brothers for what they do not help him.
Third leader with the son of Clovis stratagem captured and forced to become a father priest and son - a deacon in the church. But after a while Avoiding conspiracy вothers ordered them executed and their land annexed to seize it.
So he destroyed most of the leaders and their relatives, fearing, they seize its power. But after a while he gathered his Friends and relatives started to say that he destroyed: "Woe to me I remained as an outsider among strangers and not Irelatives who could help me in misery. " But he said is not that sad for them, but accidentally counting find someone else with the family and take his life.
1. What means acting Clovis in the struggle for power?
2. What traits reflected in his work?
3. Give your answer in terms of Clovis of the king himself and the era in which he lived. How can we evaluate its activities positions today?
General People's meeting, which decided earlier Franc most important cases, stopped convene. Clovis allto solve it, or consulted with trustees. In it the king was permanent military wife for the maintenance of which, according to Roman tradition, started collected taxes. For the collection of taxes and пidtrymannya order in regions of the state governors appointed Clovis - Counts - with intimates. The most senior judge in the Frankish kingdom was itself King. Clovis regularly traveled from one area to another and in the presence of graphв judged for the crimes.
Scheme. Management system for the Franks Clovis
Residents of the Franks conquered Gaul were Christians. For order to strengthen the power and authority among them, Clovis, along with its 496, the wife to Christianity by zahidnorymskym Painter. As a result, pat first, Clovis and his successors have obtained strong support of its action on the part of the Christian clergy. It facilitated the further conquest of Southern Gaul, and has strengthened authority of royal power among the Franks. Clovis suit that, as Christianity taught, "all power from God and speak against it sin. Second, the adoption of Christianity to the Franks were pryluchatysya Roman Culture - romanizuvatysya and become one people, united by a common faith.
Before the conquest of Gaul to the Franks was written laws, but only existed traditions, passed down from generation to generation orally. Such rules behavior is called common law. Recording ActвFranks made by Clovis, is one of the greatest monuments of customary rights in Europe. He was named "Salic Truth.
Commanded record old laws, like Clovis пidkreslyty that King judged by the ancient customs of his people. However, Clovis played awasamong ancient customs only that it was arranged. "Salic truth" contained lots of information about farm life and beliefs francs. For most iniquities have installed fine: for stealing cattle or slaves, by пidpal commercial buildings or for killing people. Law banned blood feud between His family and killer, replacing it by a fine - blood money.
Most blood money intended for the murder of the royal druzhinnik - 600 Solidв. За simple free-franc blood money equal to 200 solid. Blood money for killing a Roman was significantly lower than for killing Frank. By killing his slave owner paid in 1930 Solid - стIlko same as fighting for stealing a horse.
For establishing guilt пidozryuvanoho used eyewitness or "God's court." Accused had, for example, to get hand with a pot of boiling water рIR, and then judge from how zahoyuvalysya care, determined, he is guilty or not. Franks believed that God protects the innocent man from burns.
The "Salic Pravda - First anthology of laws written in French - is that its appearance was свidchennyam beginninggradual transition from barbarism to civilization.
Пince death of Clovis Frankish kingdom was redistributed between the four of his sons. They continued their winning father. At the same time trying to destroy each other and seize another's land.
In the second half VI Art. struggle за power in the Frankish kingdom into a forty two branches of the war dynasty Merovingian dynasty. Especially "famous for their" two consort - Queen Brunhilda and Fredehonda. Brunhilda killed ten Princes of the royal house, survived his rival, Queen Fredehondu his man and began to rule the kingdom itself. She nobody definitein Laiddavaty royal power: first the rules on behalf of son, then - grandchildren. An end to its rule set conspiracy Frankish nobility which killed Brunhildu noire.
Important changes have taken place at the end of VI Art. in the system of land tenure francs. Land, Franks received пince the conquest of Gaul, were their private property - allodiumThat could be freely sold or bequeath. The emergence of private ownership of land свidchyla Decomposition of ancient tribal traditions and the foundations of a new society. Many lost francs its dilyanky - based independent existence, and the other by acquiring land, grew in large landowners.
У friendsecond half VII Art. Frankish Kingdom finally declined. Contemporaries called this day "sometimes lazy Kingsв. Kings of the Merovingian dynasty remained power, but really all the things the managers decided royal - mayordomy.
Europe in the second half of VI century. Byzantium under Justinian
4. Carolingians. Frankish Empire
End VII Art. single Frankish state does not actually exist, moreover, it threatened new invasions - Arabs, who had already captured the Iberian peninsula and advancing further west, in land francs. Struggle against the invaders headed mayordom Karl Martell(Molot 715 – 741 years). He understood that without its own cavalry can not stop the Arabs, which is based troops was light cavalry. Only well-armed cavalryman, able to distant walks and speed of movement, could be an obstacle invaders. But the rider's outfit was very expensive (equal value 18 - 20 cows), and simple Frankish воNear East is could buy it.
To purchase arms and horses Charles began to withdraw land church and provide them in the longichne possession by warrior terms of performance of his military service. Peasants who lived on these lands must were hold its work for new owners. This form of land ownership was called benefitsiya (From Lat. Beneficium - beneficence). З formation heavy cavalry was initiated medieval chivalry (On him. Words Ritter - rider equestrian warrior).
Based on the horse army Karl Martell defeated the Arabs in 732, the battle пid Poitiers. This battle, along with the victory and proclaiming for 14 years before Byzantine Emperor ЛеVOM III Isavrom under Constantinople, have been crucial to the fate of European Christian medieval civilization. It stopped the Arab-Muslim offensive свitu on Europe.
Battle of Poitiers. Thumbnail XV.
Successor Charles Martell, his son Пipin III Short (741 - 768 years), originally also had the title mayordoma. In 751 he sent a letter to Pope, which asked: "Which is better: when one has the kingship, and another bears the burden of government, or when the one who bears the burden of government, has also kingship? "Pope Zacharias I, understanding of what it expected, said: "It is better to call the King addition, in whom there is power, than it is in him the royal power is not left. "
Having such reply Пipin Short deposed the last king of dynasty Merovingians and 751 he became King. Щstress on the sacred character his power, made the ritual anointing of the kingdom.
On the ritual anointing of the kingdom mentioned in books Old Testament. Пid rite this time senior clerics smeared with ointment (Special holy oil) forehead, arms and back of the king. Thus on monarch pass granted by the grace of God better, and he was пid God's protection. Later, the ritual anointing of the realm of the borrowed уFranks and other European rulers.
In a sign thanking the Pope Пipin Short defeated the Lombards who threatened Rome. This kingdom Barbarians formed even in the VI Art. in Italy. Win Lombard, Frankish king "gave" the Pope of Rome and the land around Ravenna. So in the middle VIII Art. there was the Papal States, which played a significant role in life of Europe. It existed until 1870 Modern State Vatican covering several quarters in Rome - mention of the generous "gift" a grateful ПShort ipina Pope.
New Dynasty was called Пipinidiv, or CarolingianThrough activities Charlemagne - the son of Pepin Short.
Charlemagne (742 - 814) consider not only the most prominent representative of the Carolingian dynasty, а й the most famous monarch of all ages. This is not weird. King of the Franks and emperor of the West quickly and brilliantly combined у within the empire he created most of the Western Europe. He ended the era "dark Biкs, which dominated by the death of the Western Roman Empire. All his life he spent in military campaigns, increasing the territory of this State (Makeв 53 hikes, 27 of them headed by himself). And Charlemagne was not mere conqueror. Despite the war, King perfected the management system State пikluvavsya on cultural development. No wonder this time called the "Carolingian Renaissance. It was a period of education, revival of interest in works of ancient Roman and Greek thinkers, almost completely neglected in previous centuries. At the time of Charlemagne was formation of a new Europe and the Western European medieval civilization.
Karl's success contributed to heavy cavalry, establishedCharles Martell.
When Charles Great became king, with пivnochi and northeast Franks surrounding land Germanic tribes, especially the Saxons, the South was Spain, conquered by Arab Muslims living in the east Avars and Slavs.
First of Charlemagne in 773 - 774 years finally destroyed the Lombard kingdom and annexed its land to its state. In desperate war against Arabianbe functioning gains were minimal. Only у 801 Charles was finally attached to their country on earth пivden from the Pyrenees to the Ebro River.
Empire of Charlemagne and its division
Longest and most difficult war against the Saxons were, inелися 30 years (772 - 804 years). First Charlemagne conquered almost all of Saxony and began her baptism. In response to freedom-loving, loyal gods ancestors Saxons rebelled. Cruelty caused the violence. Saxons killed всix francs and Christian priests. Charles ordered to execute one thousand Saxons. By tradition, sakskih capturing one of the settlements, Carl ustromyv his sword in the middle square, and ordered to execute all the men who were above the sword. Almost 20 years Saxons not obey Frankish king.
On пivdennomu east by 788 Charles captured the Bavarian duchy. He fought against the Slavic peoplesвAnd subsequently made with them union against accidents and started the war (788 - 803 years) with Avar khanate - the state-created by nomadic Avars in Pannonia. The soldiers of Charles Great defeated the Avars, and disappeared from the Avar khanate map of Europe.
As a result of gains Charlemagne пid his authority appeared territory that size resembled the former Western Roman Empire.
Among surrounding the idea of Charles proclaim him emperor like old Romans. In memory of many still preserved the memories of those times when свIT was a monarch, which provided peace and harmony, protected Christianity. Now, when Karl joined пid their power most nations of Western Europe, these dreams were, as ever, close to completion.
Then, as Carl Big Pope helped return power by defeating the Roman nobility, the Pope Lion III invited the monarch to Rome. Пid the festive Christmas prayer December 25 was 800 he suddenly to present uvinchav Poklonnaya imperial crown of the king and declared his Roman Emperor. In 812 Charles was named emperor of the West Вizantiya that at first was so indignant wrath.
In the portrait of Charles
Personal secretary of Charlemagne Eynhard left is the description of the emperor: "He was tall, well-composed man with big piercing eyes. As in many great men, he had a big nose. At the end of his life hair gray hairs but still the same thick, as in youth. His manners were Indeed, while the king's attracted. Always and in everything he save velychnfst and dignity. "
New Empire, however, significantly different from the old Roman. Standing in the capital Charlemagne was not. He traveled the whole country, stopping in numerous estatesOften in Aachen, the favorite palace. State divided into separate districts - County. Intended Counts collected by King Taxes, conducted proceedings, headed by local militia. For check their work there specialialni royal auditors with a close circle of Charles. They had the right to punish graphs, but the empire was greatAnd Auditors bit. Earls sought to turn the earth, which ruled on behalf of Emperor's own hereditary possession. This indicated a weakening and disintegration Frankish Empire in the near future. Karl, still collected annually всix free francs, but in March, as in the Merovingians, and in May (when there was plenty of feed for horses). Therefore, these meetings were called "Fields of May". They participated only knights and clergy. King listened to their reports on the case мistsyah and gave orders or collections regulations - kapitulyariyi.
Дрibni free land owners turned to mostly independent farmersFor none alone could sustain the burden of military service and to purchase necessary equipment. So Karl almost completely eliminated peasants units of military service and to pryzyvav troops only four owners of plots. Other villagers had or joint account to send troops to one кinnotnyka, or look for defenders who dismissed them from service. Defenders of the peasants were made large свitski or religious landowners. Dependent farmers were exempted from military service, and lost the old law: the judge and their master became defender. Dependent farmers (those who plow) were with the knights (those who fight ") and clergy (those who pray ") the main sectors of the population countriesMedieval Europe.
"Acts of Charlemagne and ideas (at least in part) found their print in almost all aspects of medieval life - territorial division, education, politics, spiritual and social life ... "
/ English historian M. Rowling /
5. Death of Charlemagne's empire, formation of Medieval Europe
Charles Great died 814 and he was buried in Aachen, where he lived the last years. In his death the empire he founded lasted long. Causes of decay I discovered у very nature of the state created by Charlemagne. He force united nations рizni on the development and culture, which was only a common Christian faith. Management had natural character: all the essentials and products not produced for sales, and for domestic consumption. Absence trade facilitated isolation of specific regions of the state of Charlemagne.
Earls, who ruled the land, wanted to secure them in a hereditary property. Even дрibni benefitsiyi rulers believed their property. County and significant or дрibni tenure turned into centers of political and economic life. As suchhad many possessions, and a strong management system in the Frankish empire existed, it was rapidly disintegrating.
By grandsons of Charlemagne - Louis the German, Lothair and Charles Bald - heightened confrontation. Two younger brothers - and Karl Ludwig - not would like to recognize the imperial title by older brother Lothar and started common fight against it. In 842, the Ludwig and Karl met in Strasbourg and an agreement on joint action. Maybe none of this event would not remembered, if not Famous "Strasbourg Oath"That it amounted to Ludwig German and Charles Bald. When speaking to an oath, it appeared that two groups Franchiв, якand came from brothers, do not understand one another. Ludwig asked the soldiers Charles German, and Carl Ludwig to war - ex-Roman (So Franks called learned Latin). This fact shows that Franc over four centuries of living among the Gauls and Romans lost рidnu language and merged with the local population. "Strasbourg oath is the oldest attraction French and German and, simultaneously, before compiling French, German and Italian nationalities. Folk - Steady community of people that formed to unite the tribes. Its symptoms are: common area resettlement, the existence of its own synonymous, common language, economic ties culture Publish pressihiyi. Lothar had sufficient forces to Allied troops to victory and was forced to make concessions - to accept division of the empire.
У 843 was at the Congress in Verdun granddaughter of Emperor concluded agreement the division of the empire into three parts. Imperial kept the title by Lothar, but no special rights on the brothers, who were independent kings, вothers did not. Verdun eventsл Empire of Charlemagne's grandsons started three future Western European states - Germany, Italy and France.
Frankish army. Article IX.
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