INTRODUCTION. What is the history of the Middle Ages? (textbook)

WORLD HISTORY. Medievalist Grade 7 Hisem O., Martyniuk, AA

INTRODUCTION

What is history Middle Ages?

 

The history of humanity ... Many people appeared and disappeared in the history of our planet. Coming into the XXI century., humanity peer closely at his past, trying to objectively evaluate long way through ages, understand why it was exactly that. In this way were different events - majestic, tragic, sad and funny, but not change the past, and can only try to understand.

Chronicler ago - history - collected variety of evidence about human history, systematize, study, analyze and reveal to us a picture of our past. With the V century. to BCE. when Herodotus wrote the first in the world "History, and to present this science has also changed and evolved along with humanity. Modern historians have searched for a lot of facts and events and specific people trying to understand their inner world and the motives of their actions. We offer with us delve into the history of the Middle Ages and try to understand it as life of people in time "And not just the thousand-year era history.

The death of the Western Roman Empire was a tragic ending stories Ancient and yet a new stage of world history - Middle ages.

 

Place Middle Ages in history

World History

 

Ancient History

From the appearance of man on earth - to   476

 

Medieval History

476-1492 years

 

The history of modern times

 

1492-1914 biennium

 

Newest time

1914 - until today

 

The first the term "Middle Ages" were used in the XV-XVI centuries. Italian thinkers. This name they described a great historical period of between two "illuminated" the era - Antiquity and the Renaissance. Twenty-four hours V-XV centuries. they sometimes felt the barbarity and cruelty until, until became known lost and forgotten achievements of ancient culture. Over time the term "Middle Ages" become entrenched and spread by the period of European history V from the middle to the end of XV century. although got slightly different meaning. In history Humanity is not lost in vain time. This period also has its achievements, and loss.

Middle Ages - A great historical epoch, chronological limits which are difficult to define clearly. Its beginning, as noted, historians have determined the death of the Western Roman Empire 476, when it was shifted last emperor Romulus AvhustulaThough this fact alone had a decisive influence and his contemporaries did not even noticed.

Middle a day in the history of Europe, covering approximately one thousand years and usually divided into three periods:

  Early Medieval (End of V-X cent.) - The origin and development of Western Christian medieval civilization;

  Ages developed (XI - first half of the XIV century.) - flourishing Western Christian medieval civilization;

  Late Medieval (Second half of XIV - End of XV century). - For successful expression of the XX century historian of the Netherlands. Johann HeyzinhaThis "Fall Middle Ages or age lush and beautiful medieval vidtsvitannya culture, which completes the history of the Middle Ages.

 

Why do we study Middle Ages? It is long past! But if you look closely modernity is closely connected with the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages was established history of peoples and nations of modern Europe, and established kulturnopolitychnaand spiritual community, called the "West". However, in the East in the Middle Ages changes also occurred, although not as dramatic as in the West. One of them - of Arab-Muslim civilization.

In the Middle Ages there was a calculating the current year, a written modern nations of Europe: on the basis Latin alphabet in Western and Central, based on the Greek - in the South and East. And Europe, which we know and most modern states have appeared just in The middle years. Finally, firmly established world religions such as Christianity, Buddhism and Islam.

Many traditions laws, rice culture had their roots in the Middle Ages.  Middle Ages preserved for us part heritage of ancient times and most have left us a rich legacy. So time we understand good and evil, honor and dishonor, decency and indecency as it is understood the people of those times. Until now in the cities can be seen operating medieval buildings, museums of outstanding works of masters, and now is popular books of medieval authors. People use the buttons, glasses, scissors, mechanical timepieces, upryazhzhyu horse - it was invented then. Also medieval craftsmen invented dresses and pants. This list can continue. Studying the past can better understand the present, and sometimes invent something new. Reason that there is a saying: "Everything new is well forgotten old ". And finally, learn something new is always interesting.

If history studying the ancient world civilization, which developed mainly in Mediterranean region, studying the history of the Middle Ages people who inhabited Europe and Asia.

Before you book that describes these events. Read it, embrace the world of medieval and Try to make your own impression of that era.

During the existence of mankind on Earth left many "trail their activities. Historians diligently searched for them, exploring and trying to play yaknayvirohidnishe lives in the past. As you know, scientists call these "traces " of human historical sources.

Historical source - All created in the process of human activity that reflects the historical development and provides an opportunity to study past human society. Exploring the historical sources, scholars will learn who were living in every historical epoch.

Middle Ages remote from our times smaller length of time, than ancient history, so historical monuments and a variety of historical sources for the study medieval era much more. To study the history of the Middle Ages use real source. They are the remnants of the material culture of the past, particularly in construction, tools, furniture, weapons, garments.

Great importance written source - Documents the historical works and chronicle or other written testimony. They complement what can be found in real sources, and help create a more complete picture of medieval life man opinions and views of people of that era.

Great importance ethnographic source. Ethnography - the historic features of the science of life, everyday life, economy, transfers peoples beliefs. Ethnographic, historical sources to study the Middle Ages is preserved to this day ancient customs, appearance housing, various technologies and folklore.

Only combining information from all these sources providing a complete picture of medieval life of man and his world.

 

1. Which periods of modern scientists share the history of mankind? Remember characteristics known to you the ancient world civilizations.

2. What is the origin term average forever "? What historical boundaries of the Middle Ages?

3. Name of the variety of sources, which are studying the history of secondary ages.

4. Do you agree with his statement: "How to get the water source or from historical source get knowledge about past '?

5. How do you understand the maxim that history is "the science of people time "?

6. Consider why now humanity has begun to think about which it to study history.