Theme 12. Ancient Slavs and their neighbors
§ 57. East Slavictribes in Ukraine in I-V centuries.
1. Origin of the Eastern Slavs
Any of the existing nations was a long anddifficult path for its formation. Our direct ancestors - Eastern Slavic Jana - notexception in this general process. For them it began as a thinkScientists in the second half of the third millennium BC
In the history of Eastern Slavs can be identifiedseveral periods: protoslov'yanskyy, praslov Slavic and Slavic davnoslov(Slavic).
The first period lasted from the third quarter of the third thousand BCthe third quarter of the second millennium BC During this period between the Dnieper andVistula, south of Pripyat Polesie yatskoho, formed a group of related tribes, whichthe resulting mix of Indo-European tribes who were engagedmainly cattle farming with local tribes pislyatrypilskoyidays.
During the second period, which lasted from the lastquarter II millennium BC And for the third quarter millennium BCthere is further consolidation praslov Slavic tribes. They recognizeits distinctiveness. Master new areas on the left bank of the Dnieper. During this period praslov `Jana enter into complicated relations with nomadicUkrainian steppe peoples - Cimmerians, Scythians. For some time they enterto the Scythian state and known to us as written sources Skolots. Due to the Scythians praslov `uswere involved in a civilization that have taken place in parts of the MediterraneanSea and the Middle East.
After the death of ScythiaSlavs in stepped a new stage of development. Began to form their own Slavicsociety. They formed their own association with the tribes in their social,political structure. In Slavic society are bundlesrich and poor. Building a ruling elite. Significant role in its formationplayed Sarmatians (Roksolany). Subsequently formedfirst great Slavic confederation of tribes known to us under the name anti (IV century. - 602 town). Aftercollapse antskoho Union in the Middle Dnipro region `th was formed rannopolitychneassociation "Ruska groundWhich became the basis forbecoming the first state of the eastern Slavs - Kievan Rus.
Complexes Slavic peasant dress and nobledruzhinnik
2. Facilities Slavs
Slavs were sedentary, and that resulted intheir primary occupation - farming gave not only food, butcreated the opportunity to conduct trade. Since the pre BCsurplus agricultural products came true in the ancient cities of the NorthBlack. Slavic Jana sown rye, wheat, barley, oats, millet, beans.Cultivated vegetable crops - turnips (which was as prevalent as in our timepotatoes eaten it in a guy), radish, onion, garlic, cabbage. Exceptof cultivated flax, hemp, which were raw materials for weaving.
Slavs in the first half thousand BCtwo systems were widespread farming: pidsichno-fire and fallow. Firstmethod has been typical for forest areas. It lies in the fact that in the first yearcut down the forest, vykorchovuvaly roots of trees. Once the wood dried, theirburned. Heavy sukom boronuvaly new field, mixing the ashes with the top layerland and then sow seed. Treated so earth gave high yieldwithin three to four years. Then rozchyschalasya new woodland andold field for many years left.
In the forest-steppe zone was extended fallow systemagriculture. Plots planted for several years, and after itsdepletion moved to another. For land used to SohaOral iron-tipped.
Bread was the main food Slavs. OldestSlavic name of bread "rye " derived fromSlavic wordlive. With food cooked Slavic Janadrink - kvass. Kvass not just drink. `Yakshuvaly him softened leather for manufacturingleather products. Kvass bathed in the bath - he replaced soap.
Jug with agricultural calendarIV.
Along with the significant place in agriculture sectorEastern Slavs took cattle. They bred horses, cattle,pigs, goats, sheep, poultry.
Slavic Jana also engaged in fishing and hunting.The surrounding forests, bogs were rich in bird and beast, and was located in the riversmany fish. Auxiliary role in the economy played a beekeeping (collectionhoney of wild bees).
Facilities jointly conducted a large patriarchal family.Earth, obroblyuvalas, was in collective ownership and distributed betweensome farms. Pastures and forests belonged to the whole community.
Slavonic tribes were well aware of a variety of craft:of iron, pottery, woodworking and others.
Significant impact on the economy during the second-V century.had a provincial-Roman culture. Under her influence perfected agriculturaltechnology has been developing craft (with `appeared manufacture of glass, jewelry andetc..) vnutrishnopleminna and tribal trade.
Roman influence zhladzhuvav ethnic differencesvarious tribes that inhabited the then Ukraine. These are monuments Cherniahivs'kaCulture II-V centuries.
3. Settlement and housing
Slavonic settlements mostly placed nearrivers, where the fertile soils. Settlements were small and most often nothad fortifications. Fortified settlement were distributed in areas that underwentattacks of nomads.
The most common type of housing at the beginning of our erahut, whose walls were made of twigs and clay. The area of such buildings reached 45-50 m.
Late fourth century. Transition tonapivzemlyanok. Wall zemlyanok consisted of logs. The construction of suchhousing vykopuvalas pit depth 70-100 cm Frame was made from logs or theytaught around the perimeter of the pit and pidpyralys pillars. The roof consisted ofwooden frame drunk and roofs with reed or straw. Construction of housing waslittle: the bench along the wall, desk, couch, oven (sometimes open fire).Nearby residents were economic pit depth of two meters.
Questions and Tasks
1. Where is homeland of Slavs?
2. In what was a historical formationSlavs?
3. What was the main occupation of the Slavs?
4. Can I claim that the Slavswere settled agricultural tribes?
5. What were poselyannya housing and Slavs?