Theme 11. Late Roman Empire
§ 54. The Roman Empire inIII and IV-V century. BC
1. Crisis of the RomanEmpire
In the II-III century. BC vast Roman Empire entered a long crisis. More and less people goingmeeting and to III. BCcompletely disappeared. The Senate has not rozv'yazuvav important state issues. In provincesalways been restless. Revolt not only conquered peoples, but alsolegions that were supposed to keep them in subjection. Some provinces declaredindependence. Army - bearing imperial Rome - lost military efficiency anddiscipline.
State treasury emptied by spending a huge army and luxuryImperial Court. Began depreciation of money - inflation. Silver copper replaced. Vtrachavsya connection withprovinces and the downfall of trade. Failure by the Romans laws, customs andtraditions led to unprecedented growth in crime.
Invaders to halt wars Rome has been received by the slaves. Soslaves forced to work more. To servants worked diligently,owners giving them a piece of land, allowed to have a family, own property, theircalled "the slaves of the cottage - columns.But usually columns failed to strengthen their economy, theygradually zaborhovuvaly wealthy Romans andruined. Then they immediately sold with land and debt.
Currently, among the Romans, a number of idlers, they were interested only"Bread and spectacle, and if the next emperor will distribute the money. All thisweakened the empire and approached her death.
Terms and Notions
Crisis - A difficult situation, exacerbatedcontradictions.
Inflation - Excessive increase in money and their rapidimpairment.
2. "Soldiers" and"Senate" emperors
After death Commodus renewedbloody struggle between different contenders for power, based on the army inpretoriantsiv provinces and groups. Sometimes the Senate lifted to the throne of hisemperors, but most often promoted army prevailed. In 193 p., supported by theirsoldiers seized power in Rome, the representative of a wealthy family Severoof Phoenician colonies in Africa Lucius Septimius Sever (146-211 years). He moved to Rome,when he was 20 years. Here Lucius Septimius made the military and political career. Becomingemperor, he began fighting for power over the state of Pestsenniyem Nihrom and Klodiyem AlbinaThat theirsupporters proclaimed emperor in other parts of Rome. Sever peace with KlodiyemAndanother opponent had to win on the battlefield. Subsequently Sever lost and Klodiya and becamesole ruler. To strengthen his power and get a huge inheritance,new emperor declared himself the son of Marcus Aurelius. Seeking to gain supportand love of the Roman people, he added his name Antonin that belongedpopular previous dynasty, which honored in Rome.
Enemy of the Senate Sever counted onlysupport the army. Therefore, the reform started with his army: dissolved the oldpraetorian guards, which consisted of Roman citizens, and took new unitsof Syrian troops and legions of the Danube; tightened borders ubezpechyvshystate from external enemies attacks. In 211, the emperor died, leavingtwo sons, heirs - Caesar Bassiana Karakallu (186-217's) і Авthick Geta. Brothers supported the Senate, legionaries and praetorian guard. Buttwo rulers was too small imperial throne. They are at enmity with each othereven divided into two parts palace of his father, one from vidhorodyvshysother. And decided to divide the country. Augustus Hetu hadleave eastern part of the empire with its capital in Alexandria, Egypt, Karakalli - West of the capital in Rome.
Mother failed to persuade children not discourage such a fatal error. Butenmity did not stop, and by order KarakallyAugustus was killed. To justify this action, Caesar Bassianall told that the brother was preparing a conspiracy against him. And finally the emperorrefreshed by the Romans in the traditional way - handing out money. Rewardingpretoriantsiv who supported him, one day he spent all the moneyimperial treasury.
Board Karakally was cruel. Emperorstrachuvav friends brother and their friends and enemies of the state. Anydisobedience caused his furious rage. So when residents of AlexandriaEgypt refused to order an additional set of the army, Karakalla ordered to destroy much of the city and killabout 10 000 people.
During his reign, the emperor bestowed the citizenship rights of residentsRoman provinces, held a monetary reform, built up the road. In 212-216 yearsknown to have been built public baths, which was called "terms Karakally».
As one mood, he declared war Parthian kingdom only becausegovernor refused to extradite him marry his daughter to the Roman emperor. ThisWar was the last event in the life Karakally. In 217, theit killed the commander of personal protection Mark Makryn. As stated contemporaries, Rome celebrated the deathemperor.
After death Karakally power captured Mark Makryn. Hisfailed to rule lasted May 16218 p., when his own soldiers killed and another declaredEmperor Elahabala (204-222 years). Fourteen-year history of the emperor entered thenot state affairs, and incredible cruelty and waste.Named after one of the Eastern gods, he brought him to sacrificeboys and girls. In all Rome was aware of its lottery, which couldcamels to win 10 or 10 flies. Honest people he considered not worthyrespect.
In ordinary Romans called hate luxurious dinners Elahabalawith exotic dishes. Wellness, the emperor commanded the guests fall asleeppetals of flowers. Sometimes the petals were so many that some died fromchoking. Public affairs Elahabala wonderbut it is expensive to sell to all comers and position title. Board Elahabala caused a wave of indignation among the Roman citizens.Soldiers again revolted and killed the emperor. Even after his death from the Romanshate talking about the tyrant.
Syrian priests naprorokuvaly Elahabalovi death dueconspiracy. So for the life of the emperor prepared for the golden swords toriots themselves, poison the refined and decorated with precious stonescontainer. He said that death should be magnificent.
Successor Elahabala in 222, the was Alexander Sever (208-235 years).The new emperor won a good education, knew several languages, not bad paintedsang, played musical instruments, was a good speaker. Alexanderhad plans to revive the power of the empire. In particular, it significantly reduced the costs ofmaintenance yard, had a currency reform, replenished food stocks,spent Elahabalom, Opened new schools.But it did not help overcome the crisis of empire. The situation is complicated early III. AD when the empiresimultaneously attacked the Germanic tribes Alemana and the Persians.For a brief time Alexandru managed to get organizedarmy, and Rome was able to resist the invasion. But the Persian Empire causedsignificant impacts.
Alexander Sever was a peaceful man, to save power andcountry, also decided to negotiate with the Germans. Trying to make the emperorpeace agreement with the enemies provoked a furious rage legionnaires. Soldiers whobrought to power a dynasty Severo, Easily killed in235 was its last representative- Alexandra Severus. Moreboth in a kaleidoscope, changing emperors - natives of ordinary soldiers: Maksymin Frakiyets, Hordian, Herennius, Valerian and dozens of others. Althoughsome of them tried to think not only about themselves but about the state, they diedviolent death due to Dvirtseva conspiracies.
3. Reforms Diocletian
У 284 was RomanEmperor became commander Dvirtseva troops Diokl (243 - between 313 and 316 years). He changed the name to Cesar Guy AureliusValery Diocletian August. Diocletiandemanding environment of conformity and attitude as a god. Before it fellon the ground and kissed his clothes. On board Diocletian,when the old republican authorities finally lost their value, andpower and the emperor does anyone not limited to, entered a new period inhistory of the Roman Empire. He was named «dominat».
Terms and Notions
Dominat (Translatedfrom Lat. – domination) – state government in which power is the emperorUnlimited and republican authorities lose value
Diocletian an end of life suicide. Hereceived invitation to the feast of EmperorsConstantine and Litsyniya,but refused to take part in it, citing old age and poor health. In response emperors sent him threatening letters.Remembering the loss of many WinnersRome Diocletian decided to avoid embarrassmentviolent deaths took poison.
Diocletian inheritedweak and decadent empire. In Gaul revoltedfree farmers, columns, servants and local tribes, supported by legionsrecruited from Gauls. They destroyed the houses of wealthy Romans and Gauls, killedofficials. The insurgents tried to create an independent state, and even chosetheir emperors - Amanda й Eliana. The riots took place and inAfrican provinces. Persian forces seized the second anniversary. Outside RomeFrankish tribes threatened and Alemana.
Diocletian to strengthenEmpire had a series of reforms. As a result of military reform of the army wasD. The castle is situated on the borders of empire and the other was in the cities. Itgranted the possibility to control the local population and quell the rebellion on theirbeginning. In 296, the new army successfully overcome the rebels in Egypt.
Needed reform of management system. Empire was almost uncontrollableacross vast distances. Sometimes the order of the emperor in the provinceWith only a few months. Diocletianinitially divided the empire into two parts - eastern and western - and its appointedco prominent commander Maximian.Later his co-western part Diocletianappointed Gaya Gallery (242–311 pp.). MaximianWho ruled the eastern part, also choseco - Flavia Constantia Chlorine (264–306 pp.). But in terms of division of the empire Diocletian remained sole ruler with unlimitedauthorities. This management system was called tetrarchy - Board of four. The new division, according to Diocletian, Was to increase power and improveof empire. Moreover, the empire was divided into 12 regions (diotseziv) And next to the old provinces organized 100new. Collecting taxes and counterinsurgency is now relied on localpower. There were separate military and civilian authorities.
Another task that Diocletian confrontedother, the struggle zhrystyyanstvom. In his view,Christians were a threat to the government because their communities have saved up moneyand were well-organized. In 303, the He issued a law that forbadeChristianity. It was ordered to destroy Christian churches and burn books. Eachprynarodno believer had to renounce his views and sacrifice to the pagangods and emperors. Those who refused were subjected to harassment,Torture, imprisonment and even executed. Capital Christian konfiskovuva-lyto the state.
In 305 Diocletian and Maximianrenounce power and handed her Caesar Gallery andConstantius chlorine. But soon the province began to proclaim their ownEmperors are killing each other, fighting for power.
4. Reforms Constantine
У 306 p. Britishlegionnaires proclaimed emperor of the talented and brave commander, seniorson of Constance Chlorine Constantine. Peace agreements and arms battled Constantine power. In this way he conquered MaksentsiyaSon Maximian,in 312, the near the town of Red Rocks, near Rome. Troops Maksentsiya were broken, and the commander in utonuvTiber. In honor of this victory was erected near the Colosseum triumphal arch, whichpreserved to our times.
Constantine went to Rome.Senators believed the promises Constantine reviveformer power of the Senate, declared his Augustus. But ConstantineState senators introduced for tax by dividing them into classes according to the numberproperty and money, and cared about increasing the number of senators-rich provincesEmpire.
In 323, the Constantine deprived of power Litsyniya - Winner of the East Empire, and later killed him. In 324 was Constantine,later called the Great, became the sole owner of the entire Roman Empire.
Since the decree Constantineof colonies
Anyone who finds a strangecolumn should not just turn himOn his place of origin, butpay a poll tax for him for the time that the columns in itabode. And most of the colonies, which decides flee, belongs in shackles zakuvatyas those that are slavish position that they were forced to perform as punishmentduties of slaves.
Inquiries to document
1. What are the penalties foreseencolonial decree for runaway and those who provided them shelter?
The emperor continued the reforms initiated Diocletian.It was intended to gradually attach to the land of free people or craft. With reformsConstantine, Peasant and artisan were alwaysreside in one place. Barring move was to ensure not onlyagricultural production and handicrafts, but also constantcollection of taxes to fill state treasury. Circle of taxpayersand extended as a result of increasing the number of colonies. Simultaneously Constantine issued a decree whereby the brutally punished byescape not only the colonies but also those who harbored them.
For the Board Constantine and changed compositionRoman army. If it is based were previously citizens of the empire, now inIt began to appear more and more mercenaries from tribes that lived onborders of the empire. Constantine entered the history asFirst Emperor, in which barbarians were even Roman Consul.
In 324-330 years Greek colony on the spot Byzantiumon the banks of the Bosphorus Constantine established a newcapital - Constantinople, whom they called 'second Rome ". To give it a grandeur andluxury, the Emperor ordered to take out a huge amount of Constantinoplestatues and precious ornaments of Rome and other cities in the state. The new capitalold temples built pagan gods and Christian churches. PartRoman nobility moved to Constantinople.
Constantine died May 22337 was He appointed his successor children ConstantineII,Constantius II, Constant and nephews and younger Dalmatia AnnibalianaWho immediately began to internecine struggle forpower.
Questions and Tasks
1. Why some Roman emperors II-III century.called "soldier?
2. What brought the Empire Board Septymiya Severus, Karakally?
3. Compare Board Elahabalaand Alexandra Severus.
4. What reforms had Diocletianand Constantine?
5. Why Diocletian persecutedChristians?
6. What is the difference dominat from the Principate?