§ 50. Roman religion (textbook)

§ 50. Roman religion

1. Myths and legends of ancientRomans

Roman myths that reflected the everyday lives of Romans, chanted unassumingway of life, severity of customs and rules. Ancient translations toldabout father-warlord who executed his son for violating militarydiscipline, the renowned leader, who cultivated his field after winningBattle again returned to the usual cases of probity Roman leaders, aboutsoldier who got captured, burned his arm on fire, to proveenemies courage Romans. Affected enemies let the hero and lifted the siege of Rome.

There were myths about the different sacred animals and birds. Prominent among themsat tales of a wolf. This animal and human magic nadilyalasyaqualities such as faithfulness. Not by chance Romulus andRem is rescued she-wolf. Based on the transfer of how Capitol geesesaved Rome, is wont to offer sacrifices to dogs who were silent andmissed enemies.

 

2. Roman religion

The ancient Romans believed that originally there was only dark and boundless chaos inwhich did not exist, even time. From Chaos emerged land that gave birth andmountains, forests, rivers, animals and people. At the same time, the first of Chaosgods. Among them was the time Saturn owner. According to concepts of the Romans, that it leadsCountdown life, thanks to him all life grows, changing seasons. FirstRomans worshiped as one god Saturn. In his honor heldSaturnalia - holiday, during which the Romans changed the place of slaves. Thisthey showed that before God all are equal. It was believed that at Saturnhad two cups. One was filled with happiness, and other disasters. God poured out forown request, the contents of the bowl on the heads of people, and they had to be happy ordisaster occur.

Since ancient times, Romans believed in many spirits, deities, which had nohuman. Each of them was responsible for certain phenomena, events in the liferights. Spirits were the guardians and protectors. Good geniuses guarded by a man during her earthly life. Penates cared for properties. Toour time has come to the phrase "return to their gods" which meansreturn home. Like the ancient Greeks and Romans believed that every bush, inriver, forest living supernatural beings who can be good or evil,help or hurt people.

 

BORROWING ROMANS GODS

Roman Gods

Greek gods

Jupiter

Zeus

Juno

Gera

Minerva

Athena

Diana

Artemis

Ceres

Demetra

Prozerpina

Persephone

Neptune

Poseidon

Dispater

AIDA

Venus

Aphrodite

Cupid

Erot

Volcano

Hephaestus

Mercury

Hermes

Mars

Ares

Bacchus

Dionysus

Oat flakes

Hercules

Apollo

Apollo

 

Divinity, spirits and supernatural beings sacrificed. The Romans believedthat the dead influence the living and the case may be revenge for disrespect to them.Dead parents become the children of God. When the Romans late VI - earlyV cent. BC acquainted with the Greek culture, the gods became more.Saturn appeared in children. Among them - Jupiter. When Jupiter grew, he decidedpower to deprive the father of Saturn and dropped from heaven. The young god - holderlightning and thunder - has become king of the gods. Later, the Romans gave their gods, notchanging their names, the same powers and duties, which were also Greek.

Jupiter had older brothers - Pluto and Neptune, and which divided the universe.Pluto became the owner of the underworld, and Neptune - ruler of the seas. Eachpopulation of Rome had their own gods. Riders - Riding and Neptunethe twin heroes Dioskuriv, Plebeians - Tsetseru and Lieber. Some professionswere also sponsors. In traffickers - Mercury, the artisans, artists,writers, teachers - Minerva. Common for people ApenninePeninsula were the gods Mars (god of war), Diana (goddess of the moon), Fortuna (goddesshappiness, success), Flora (goddess of flowers), Fauna (goddess of fertility and motherhood)Venus (goddess of spring and gardens then - love and beauty). Later in the pantheon of godsRoman Empire included gods Orientalism: Ozirisand Isis from Egypt Kibellaof Phrygia, Baal from Phoenicia, and others.

Roman and could doubt the existence of gods, but was obligedshow respect to them. Counting the aid of the gods, ancient Rometried to follow all rules of ritual, and rituals. Viarituals, even the enemy of the gods, according to the Romans, could gain overtheir side.

Any important matter not started by the Romans, not pokoldovav and not learnedabout the attitude of the gods. Priests will of the gods seen in the behavior of animals, birds,in natural phenomena, brought by the victims. In all unusual, they alsosaw hints of the gods. For unfavorable predictions priests could not evendefer military campaign.

Public figures ranging from StsypionaAfrica, emphasizing the divine origin of his power. WhenRepublic changed empire, the cult spread in the provinces of commanders andemperors were considered gods on earth.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What eastern gods borrowed by the Romans?

2. What place in the life of the Romans occupied guessing?

3. What you see differences between Roman and Greek religiousbeliefs?