§ 47.Political struggle in Rome. Reforms brothers Hrakhiv
1. Reforms brothers Hrakhiv
After many victorious wars of Rome finally prevailed in the Mediterraneanpeace. But now threatening the country's domestic problems.
Large number of small farmers did not maintain free competitionwith the large slave-owners, and turned into rozoryalasslaves. This situation affected the army base is made availablepeasants. On the one hand, falling into slavery, and the farmers could no longer bearmy, on the other - while all the time in campaigns, they could not keepits economy and put into slavery for debt.
Weakened by Crisis army lost military efficiency. A lack of newconquered lands, which are distributed to citizens, creating tensionssociety. Society needed a change. The most far-reaching policyunderstood the dangers of the situation in the country and sought ways of overcoming it. One of them,Stsypion Emilian, suggested large landownersreturn the land by the state in order to then distribute it to poor men. Such reformcould reduce the dissatisfaction among the people and withdraw the army from the crisis.Around the reformers began to unite advocates the interests of the people - popularization (From Lat. populus- People). Rich, who did not want a society in crisis was overcome bytheir expense, grouped around optymativ.
Plutarch ondeath Tiberius Hrakha
How to pass, after the expulsion of the kings it was the first in Romedispute that ended in bloodshed and murders of citizens, all the others, althoughand bad and not petty reasons arose, managedstop through mutual concessions and those who held power and feared the people, andsame people who had respect for the Senate.
Inquiries to document
What do you think why thiscontroversy, unlike previous ones, ended bloodshed?
U133 was BC Representative popularization Tiberius Hrakha (163-133 BC) was chosenPeople stand. He introduced a law by which a special commissionwas to take away public land to aristocrats and to allocate them landlesscitizens. Yet another stands - optymat Mark Octave vetoed that bill. Tiberius Hrakh supported by the National Assembly has made displacement Octavia. The Senate condemned the action Hrakha.Spread by enemies Hrakha rumors of his intentiondeprive the Senate of power and rule alone outrage Senators.Enraged, they are armed with senatorial seats legs, rushed to the area,where he was Tiberius Hrakh oftheir supporters. Tiberius Hrakhwas killed by a blow in the temple. Along with him were killed another 300 of its supporters.
But after death Tiberius Hrakhawithin five years established in his lifetime commission on land redistributiondistributed land of 75 000 citizens. In 129, the BC Stsypion Emilian persuaded the People's Assembly of the needstop the commission. For this he was strangled in his own bed beforeperformance in the Senate.
In 123, the BC brother Tiberius Hrakha - Guy Hrakh (153-121 yearsBC), becoming the people's tribune, introduced a law by which every citizenRome received two monthly pudy bread for each family member at reducedprices, several thousand peasants received plots of land as punishment for crimesbecome less violent. This is the support of the poor in large quantitiesbegan to move to Rome. However, reforms aimed at poverty reduction,led to the spread of idleness and parasitism.
At the end of the second year of his reign Guy Hrakh,which could limit the power of the Senate and the focus of government in theirhand, proposed to grant citizenship to all of Rome, who lives in the city. ButNow the crowd opposed, and third time it did not choose the stand. Voidpositions Hrakh became exposed to theiropponents. On fire by armed conflict between parties optymativand popularization. Supporters Hrakha - Popularization - abodeon Aventynskomu Hill. The Senate took up the war. Undera storm Aventino killed 250 of its defenders.Grove Hrakh tried to escape in a grove on the Tiber, butwas exposed. The servant by order Hrakha killed him.Thus attempts have been brothers Hrakhiv change in lifeRome.
2. Dictatorship Sully
Reforms that have sort of life in the country, continued to Guy Mari (86 BC). Son of the Roman poor, heof the ordinary soldier was the army chief and leader of popularization.Selected Consul Guy Mari in 107 p. BC, without changing the structure of the army, which baselegions were held military reform: introduced hired permanent army;established state retention of soldiers and pensions for them, allotted landVeterans who served for 16 years. Based on the army, Marihas made a declaration of the emperor. This title granted to military leaders, whowon a significant victory over the enemies of Rome.
In 1988 BC Consul elected representative optymativcommander Lucius Cornelia Sullu (138-1978 BC). Afterstands before Sulpitsiy Ruth has antysenatski laws Sullaand captured the city ruthlessly with political opponents. Next, when Sulla went to war, popularization ledfrom Cornelia Tsynnoyu and Guy Mariaseized power in Rome. Died shortly MariAndTsynnu killed soldiers. Sullapopularization suppressed the rebellion, which swept the province from Spain to Africa.In 1982 BC it proclaimed dictator for life with unlimitedauthorities.
From the beginning Sulla deployed against terrorits opponents. The first was made proskryptsiyi, which made 4700 the names of supporters of Mary. Anyonewho could not flee, were killed. Killing about 50 senators and 1600 riders.The dictator has ceased distribution of bread has increased the role of the Senate, the limited powerpublic meetings. In 1979 BC he suddenly abandonedunlimited power and settled in his estate, where he died in 1978 BCDictatorship Sully, Limiting his power of national assemblieswas another step towards the destruction of the republican system.
3. Spartacus Revolt (74-1971 BC)
Numerous war, the spread of debt slavery, piracy resulted in a rapidincreasing the number of slaves in Rome. They are considered property used inthe most difficult jobs, killed during the holidays. In Rome there was a cruel riddle - gladiatorial combat. Slaves gladiators taughtarts weapon in the battle and special schools. In one of themHotels Kapu in 1974 BC frakiyets Spartak raised a rebellion of gladiators.Destroying health, Spartak and His 70 matesescaped and hid on Mount Vesuvius.
With nearby cities and towns to converge them slaves і impoverished peasants. They dreamed of a victory over the slaveowners anda just society.
Slave uprisingled by Spartacus in 74-71 years BC
In 1973 BC mountain surrounded by the Roman legions. The rebels descendednight on a ladder, wreathed with vines, and in unexpected placessuddenly attacked a sleeping legionnaires. Since gaining the first victory, afterby Spartacus began to gather slaves from all over Italy.
Spartacus on Mount Vesuvius led his troops to the Adriatic Sea, southItaly, freeing slaves and destroying the Roman military garrisons. Revoltquickly spread through the territory of Rome. The Senate cast against rebelsarmy under the leadership of Pretoria Publius Variniya. However, the latter could not resist rebelsand his army was defeated. Spartak continued popularity grew.The number of insurgent army was about 90-120 thousand people.
In early 1972 BC Spartacus decided to change direction andlead his troops north to escape the boundaries of hateful Rome. ButNot all agreed with his decision. One of the assistants Spartacus - Kriks and his supporters, among whom were many localfarmers separated from the main force and remained in southern Italy. Shortlydetachment Kriksa was broken, and he died.
Spartak successfully with the main army moved north to the Alps. Butfor unknown reasons, the rebels turned back and went again to the south, withintention to cross o.SytsyliyaTo establish therehis country. Spartak expected to help the pirates, who promised to smugglehis troops across the strait between the mainland and the island.
Going south, Spartak defeated army Consul CrassusWhich instructed the Senate to destroy insurgent groups. Frombattles and enormous losses to the rebels burst Bruttiyskoho (Rehiyskoho) Peninsula. But legions Crassus poridily much. Roman senate hadcall home troops from Spain and Pompeii Lukull troops from Thrace. Mark Crassus well understood thatwith Pompeii Lukull and they quickly winSpartacus's army, but have to share the triumph of three. So he decidedcrush the rebellion itself, the coming of reinforcements.
Crassus ordered to dig innarrowest place peninsula trench depth 3,5 m and a length of 55 km and buildstrong shafts. Romans managed to do it fast enough. The rebels they almostobstacle, as Spartacus was not going back. He waited for a rapidarrival of ships pirates that had to carry his army o.Sytsyliyu. But the pirates took the money and breached theirpromise. The rebels, left on the shore, caught in a trap.
When finished products, Spartak realized his mistake and quickly developednew rescue plan. At night rebels quietly approached the fortifications, stone ditchland, firewood and attacked the enemy. They managed to break through the defense of Romanlegionnaires, but they were terrible losses. Two thirds of twin Spartacusdied. Near Lukanskoho Lake of the rebels,are desperate to defeat the mighty Rome, has left their leader. Thisused Crassus. He immediately fell on this squad.Maybe all the rebels and would have been killed by the Roman swords, but in time for themSpartak help came. During the battle his troops succeeded even onceforce the Romans to flee. And yet the forces were unequal, and Spartacus retreated. Heunderstood that he could not escape all the time that his supporters are tiredof continuous hiking. Spartak ventured into battle. In 1971 BCnear r.Bradan was the last battlegladiator-Thracians and all those who followed him, dreaming of freedom.
On the battlefield, met with one hand-trained and disciplined enoughlegionnaires, and the second - a few already-tired and hungry rebels.Vyshykuvavshy remains of troops, Spartak dismounted his horse and his sword zakolovshy becamealong with his brothers, shoulder to shoulder, once in the arena of the Coliseum. Hefirst rushed to the enemy, providing only that, dying, grabas much as the Romans. Spartacus died bravely in this battle. His body was notfound. The army revolt was broken and suppressed the uprising. 6 000captives crucified on crosses along the road from Capuato Rome. The Roman state was shaken, but did not fall under the powerful blowsinsurgents.
Pirates have long dominated the Mediterranean. More of 560 wasBC settled on the island of Corsica Greeks, the main source of livelihoodwhich, unlike other Greek colonists was piracy. They robbedsurrounding cities and tribes attacked the ships of traders. Later pirateswere forced to leave Corsica, on the Mediterranean coast but there were manyoutpost pirates.
Terms and Notions
Gladiators - Specially trained servants who were forced to fight in the arenaCircus among themselves or with wild animals.
Triumph - SPECIALentry into the capital commander and his forces after a victorious war.
Typically noble Romans hadtwo or three names. Onexample, Guy (personal name), Julius (the family name - last name), Cesar (prizvysco).
Nick Caesar in ancient times sounded like a Caesar, thattranslation means elephant. It was given one of the people of Iulius imperial dynasty, becauseit in the second Punic War during the battle killed an elephant. Julius Caesar was extraordinaryability, could simultaneously do several cases: write letters, read, listencommunicating messenger.
4. First triumvirate
The power struggle in which the army took part, counterinsurgencyslaves contributed to the growing influence of military commanders. One of them - Julius Caesar(102 (100) -44 BC), his political career began as a defenderrepublican tradition, which ensured him respect plebeians. But in 1960BC Caesar made a deal with Hneyem Pompeii і MarkCrassus the capture and distribution of power andSuppression of the Senate. This union was named first triumvirate.
In 1959 BC Caesar was elected consul. A year later he, withsupport for other triumviriv was designed in the governor is connected to Rome, butnevpokorenu province of Gaul (the territory of modern France) for fiveyears. Caesar brutally suppressed several revolts Gauls. Legions of Caesar destroyedrebel troops, taken prisoner Gauls sold into slavery, burned theirhomes. But finally conquer the brave Gauls was not possible.
In 1956 BC triumviry gave consent to Caesar five moreyears, the governor remained in Gaul. In 1952 BC, winning theGallic forcefully combat the insurgency, led by the leader Vertsynhetoryhom,Caesar finally conquered Gaul. Having strengthened his power, he reached the English Channel andeven made several attempts to conquer the tribes of Britons in the British Isles.
Terms and Notions
Triumvirate - Union of three influential commanders toseizure of power.
Almost sole ruler of the conquered lands, Caesar had a rich treasuryand 10 legions loyal to him, well-trained, battle-hardened warriorsfor many years shared with him the challenges hikes.
In 1953 BC died Mark Crassus when it started the war with the powerful Parthianstate. An alliance of three left and Caesar Pompeii.
Ghneim Pompeii in 1967 BC by behalf of the Senate started the war against pirates. With 500 ships and 120 thousand milika, it divides its forces and simultaneously attacked all centralri pirates. By40 days he managed a lightning strike to destroy piracy in the western Mediterranean. Last Battleoccurred in the main nest of pirates - Cilicia. 10 thousandThey died and 20 thousand gets incaptivity.
Questions and Tasks
1. Objectives of the reform were brothers Hrakhiv?
2. Why Sullu called a dictator?
3. What famous Julius Caesar?
4. Why not beat Spartak Rome?
Theme 10. The fall of the republic and early empire