§ 43.Hellenistic states in the IV-Article II. BCHellenistic culture
1. Fighting for heritage Alexandra Macedonian (323-281 years BC). Hellenism
Empire Alexandra Macedonian soon split into separateStates that had their kings and their dynasties. founded their former alliesand commanders of the Macedonian king - diadohy. Theydivided the empire and began to fight among themselves. In 311, the diadohy entered into an agreement of peace. But it was broken, andWar continued for almost 50 years. In this bloody struggle, as inkaleidoscope, changed and died rulers, including son AlexandraMacedonian - AlexanderIV, commander Lisimah et al. Eventually there were several states. Among themmightiest were Macedonia, Egypt Dynasty Ptolemaicand the Syrian kingdom Selevkidiv.
The collapse of the empire AlexandraMacedonian. The establishment of the Hellenistic
Stateformed from the wreckage of a great empire AlexandraMacedonian is called Hellenistic. Their political system combinedcontrols the eastern states, which are individually guided kings. Basistheir life was Greek (Hellenic culture, which supplemented gainsconquered Alexander Macedon nations.Culture that has resulted from complementarityGreek and Oriental cultures, called Hellenistic.
Onvast expanses of the empire Alexandra vynykliyi citythat buildings and architecture reminiscent of Greek and management policies. From the Eastkings came to worship. In the military sphere, the Greeks borrowed the use offighting elephants. In the Hellenes became popular Shiva, KibelaWho are revered in the East. In turn, the Greeks to the Eastbrought their gods (Zeus, Athena, Dionysus, Nick).Under the influence of Greek artists copied the eastern Hellenic designs in architecture,sculpture and painting. Now Corinthian and Ionian columns built fromGreece to India. Common for people Hellenistic world was also the language thatoccurred on the basis of the Athenian dialect.
2. The heyday of Hellenistic
Hellenistic world in the third century.BC
BlossomHellenistic States accounted for III. BC
HellenisticMacedonia. After the collapse of empire AlexandraMacedonian this state was economically weak, but withstrong army could keep her under his rule the city-stateBalkan Peninsula. The first king of Macedonia was Hellenistic warlord.After his death the country was enveloped in flames fratricidal wars and uprisings.Blossom Macedonia has achieved over the dynasty, founded by AntyhonII.It was a remarkable ruler, who believed that reign - honorable, but heavyduty.
Despitethat all the strongest Greek states revolted against him, AntyhonuII managed to successfully resist them and eventake Athens by storm, trying to break free from the power of Macedonia. Hesituation is complicated by the successors of the country. In Macedonia infringe Greek cities,insurgent tribes, the mighty Rome. In 168, the BC last kingMacedonia - Perseus - Romans lost the battle and was takencaptivity. It was brought to Rome and executed. In 148, the BC Macedoniabecame a province of the Roman Republic.
HellenisticEgypt. The founder of a new dynasty of kings of Egypt was Diadoh PtolemyAnd Soter(Ca. 360-283 BC). His son Ptolemy II Filadelf (283-246 BC) rebuiltneglected channel between the Nile and Red Sea. It has started and expandedtrade with India and other countries. King founded the city Ptolomayidu,residents who were fighting training elephants needed in the thenwar. Ptolemaic create a huge fleet, numbering4000 ships.
State Selevkidiv. Syrian kingdom, established Selevkidamythe wreckage of the empire Alexandra Macedonian, thereduring the years 312-64 BC It took almost the whole territoryformer empire, except Macedonia, Greece, Egypt and India. He founded his son simpleMakedonyan commander Alexandra SelevkI (358-281 BC). He wasauthoritative ruler. He attributed the words: "Always it is true thatking set. Height of its power state reached by Antiochus III,who ruled in 223-187 years BC As ever AlexanderMacedonian, he was able to come to India. His grandson Antiochus IV were famous asbuilder. He embellished the capital - the city Antioch - Amazingfacilities, promote the development of art. But to stand against the Romans Selevkidy could not. In 1964 BCSyrian kingdom conquered Rome.
Terms and Notions
Seven Wonders of the Hellenistic world: Egyptian pyramids. Gardens of Babylon.Sculptures of Olympian Zeus. Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. Colossus of Rhodes.Mausoleum of Halicarnassus in.
Mausoleum of Halicarnassus in
3. Culture and Science era Hellenism
AgeHellenism left many names of prominent scientists and thinkers. Among them was studentPlato - Aristotle (384-322 BC). Nearby Athens he foundedown school - Likey. Students gained knowledge ofliterature, political system, nature walks in the alleys of the grove of Apollo Likeyskoho.
Aristotlebelieved that explore the world around you only through experience. On hisopinion, the best political system is a monarchy, and the worst - tyranny. More oneoutstanding philosopher of the Hellenistic era was Epicurus (341-270 BC).It was in 306 BC founded in Athens own school "Garden Epicurus. It lasted for nearly 800 years. Goallife, according to Epicurus, Is the absencesuffering the physical and spiritual health. His main work waswork "Pre nature, consisting of 37 books.
In 324, the BC in Susa byOrder Alexandra Macedonian simultaneously held 10 000 weddings. King set a goalcombine the local population and conquerors Cypriots. Married the king, hiscommanders, ordinary soldiers. Among them was Selevk.
Plutarch on Aristotle
... The king summoned most famous and nayvchennishohoof the Greek philosophers - Aristotle, and rewarded for teaching it in a waybest and worthy of greatness of the scientist. Philipperebuilt hometown Aristotle StahiruThat oncehe destroyed ... Alexander first admiredAristotle and even loved him no less than his father because, as he saidone he owes his life to another - a sense of beauty of life ...
Inquiries to document
1. As PhilippeII thanked the Greek sage?
2. What, according to Plutarch, AlexanderAristotle owed?
Considerablecontribution in those days was done in the development of mathematics and engineering. Knowledge of geometrycompiled an outstanding mathematician Euclid(III century BC.) In his book "Home". Numerous discovery made Archimedes of Syracuse(287-211 BC). He formulated the law of lever. Archimedes said:"Give me a fulcrum and I will move the Earth". His knowledge he used to createmany mechanisms. In particular, it made military vehicles protect people Syracuse from attacks of enemies.
FollowerArchimedes (II century BC.) Created a gear wheel, a water clockpump. The outstanding mechanical era Hellenism was Heron Alexandria(150-100 BC). He designed fountains. Steam engines,invented Heron, Used duringtheater - it driven puppets and scenery, creating the impressionthe reality of action.
To ourbeen preserved works of popular authors at the time plays. One of theauthors was Friedrich Nietzsche(343-291 BC). He wrote more than 100 comedies. Eight ofThey won the competition poets.
Outstandingspeaker called Demosthenes (384-322 yearsBC). His ideal was democratic Athens during Perikla,where the ruling People's Assembly. In his brilliant speeches, he opposed PhilippeII, king of Macedonia-invaders. These speechesphilippic was called.
Greeksappreciated the art of architecture and outstanding works of human hands was calledwonders of the world. In the period of Hellenism was built Lighthouse on the island Pharos in the Nile Delta, nearAlexandria, Egypt. Island connected with mainland manmade embankment.Here was laid rails, which in pidvozyly car to the lighthouse wood. Thenraised them to the top of the tower, which were also burned. Flashlight that hadheight of 135 m,was visible for 60 miles.Another miracle - trystupinchasta tombking MavsolaThat uvinchuvala chariot drawn byQuartet horses. Masterpiece was also ColossusRhodes - A giant, about 36 meters high, Statue of Sun God Helios on o.Rodos in the Aegean. Twenty years it took tobuild a miracle. Unique Alexandrialibrary resembled a beautiful city. It was equippedstorage for books, reading room, a fountain and even a zoo.
Demosthenes came from a rich family, but remainedwithout parents, lost heritage. He decided to return stolen property through the courts.Young man he was afraid to speak to the crowd. Demosthenes overcame this fearconstant work on them. He went to the beach and tried to speaklouder than the roar of the wave and wind. Having a blemish diction, Demosthenes overcame them,typing in the mouth with stones and trying to accurately and precisely deliver the speech.
Questions and Tasks
1. Name the major Hellenistic state.
2. Nameprominent political figures of days Hellenism.
3. Describeday Hellenism.
4. Describearchitectural monuments of the Hellenistic era.
5. WhyDemosthenes deserves to stay in the memory of mankind?