§ 40. Greek science and art
1. Scientific knowledge
Elladahumanity has many outstanding scientists. The most important science Greeks believedphilosophy, which originally united the knowledge of all industries. its origins date back to Article VI.BC The basis of Greek philosophy and the arts put an idea ofpower and beauty of man, his personality, which is in harmony with the naturalenvironment and society. Famous philosophers were Thales (625-547 yearsBC) Anaximander (611-547rr BC.)Heraclitus (530-470 years BC) Pythagoras (582 (580) -500 yearsBC) Socrates (470-399 BC) Plato (427-347 yearsBC).
Mostphilosophers tried to figure out what elements were created in this world. Thalesbelieved that the water, Heraclitus - the fire, Anaximander - Ofair. Later Democritus (460-370 yearsBC) created the doctrine of atoms - the smallest particles of whichconsists of all nature. Socrates introduced the notion of "philosophy" - "love forwisdom, and all thinkers were now call philosophers. Bycatholicity Socrates was accused of "worship new gods, condemned todeath, and he took poison. Not writing a single line, Socrates your thoughtspassed through successive generations of his illustrious pupil - Plato, whocontinued his work.
Greecewas the birthplace mathematics. One of the first mathematicians believeThales. He explained the origin of life in the ocean without the aid of the gods,also movement of the planets, calculated the height of Egyptian pyramids. Viamathematical calculations predicted a solar eclipse, the 585 BCThales and Pythagoras's theorem first formulated.
In Greeceborn another science - history. her father called Herodotus (484 – бл. 426 BC). Scientific visit to Egypt,Sicily, Asia Minor, Northern Black Sea. He set a goal to describe the gloriousact Greeks, that they remained in the memory of posterity. His dev'yatytomnatold about the job Greco-Persian War historyEgypt, the population of the Northern Black Sea. Another historian was Eratosthenes (бл. 279-194 yearsBC). He instituted the first Olympic Games and the Trojan War.He is creating a new calendar has 365 days and leap year.This calendar, with some modifications, and enjoy the day.
FounderMedicine was Hippocrates (460-370 BC). In hisbelieve that medicine should help preserve health and prolong life. Hippocratestried to establish the cause of the disease to cure it. He believed thatbasic principle of the doctor - "do no harm!" high moral principles of Hippocrates,responsible attitude to his patients became a model for doctors around the world.Now all that devotes itself to this important profession, make oathHippocrates.
2. Ancient Greek Art
PropertyGreek architecture most clearly embodied in the Greek temples, which weretoday is a model of elegance and beauty. The earliest temples were built of wood andraw brick. Were wooden columns and roof. Subsequently this material was replacedstronger and more reliable - a rock. Temple served as the basis of preparedPlayground. It installed on the outside column. They consisted ofthree parts: base (support), trunk capitals (upper parts). On top of thecolumns relied roof.
InGreek architecture dominated by two styles - Doric and Ionian.
Doricinherent simplicity, brevity, massiveness. He personified the strength, courage,reliability. The peculiarity of this style was that the column had no base and installedimmediately on the site. their trunks were covered with vertical grooves - stria. Grooves were usually no more than 20. Capitalconsisted of two parts: a round stone pillow - echinus - and squareplates - abaca, lying on a pillow.
Ionianstyle was difficult to Doric. Columns Ionic style was refined andthin and consisted of more details. Unlike the Doric,they had the base and the number increased to 24 grooves. Just as the Doric,Ionian capitals of columns consisting of echinus and abacus, but were moreornamented. Abaka resembled entangled roll or ram's horn. Both stylesevolved in parallel, they even tried to combine. In the V century. BCbased Ionic emerged Corinthian style. He was still refined the previous. The columns were more slender,capital higher than in the Ionian. It resembled upside-bell.Echinus decorated with small thin tendrils that resemble lotus leaves.
MasterpiecesBuildings were decorated Athens Acropolis. On a small ground(300x130 m) Greek artists have built great temples and sculptures.First, those who ascended to the Acropolis, were Propylaeum - Paradeentrance to the Acropolis. He had two Doric porticos, which wasthe built library and art gallery. More vydnivsya secondsize of the house - ErehteyonDedicated to the legendaryking Erehteyu. Highlight of the Acropolis weresmall but elegant temple of the goddess of victory Nike and the largest building in Athens - templeParthenon.
Parthenon (modern look)
Terms and Notions
Portico - Posted in front of the house opengallery formed columns or pillars that support the ceiling.
Insidesurrounded by porticos of the temple towered 12-meter sculpture of the goddess Athena. BasisThe statue was made of wood. Face covered with plates of ivory. Onclothing and weapons goddess Fidiy sculptor spent about 2 tons of gold. FriezeGraced the Parthenon sculpture composition length of 160 m - officialWalk Athenians.
Not onlyAthens and other Greek cities had their own architectural masterpieces. Wonder of the worldGreeks called Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. It was built on-site wetlands.To protect the house from earthquakes, the Greek architects built amuch mixed with charcoal wool. But they could not protect him from evilrights. In 356, the BC The temple was burned and died in Herostratomflame of fire. Another wonder of the world the Greeks believed Temple of Olympian Zeus. Hisdecorated the statue of Zeus in gold and ivory, which reached 18 m in height. ByZeus lifted using an elevator ritual meal.
Head of Zeus from Olympia
In Article VI.BC Greeks made another brilliant invention - theater. Theatreart grew from holidays in honor of the god Dionysus.The first theater is in Athens. First performances were in the area. Subsequentlythe southern slope of the Acropolis built stone theater. CalculationsArchitects had to fit it all city residents. that is about 17 thousandpeople. Theater consisted of three parts: teatrona - Seats for spectators, orhestry -orchestra, skeny - Placesplaced where the scenery and the actors acted.
Audience space located semicircular and divided into tiers andsectors. The performances to the theater assumed as citizens and those who werepersonally free, but had no civil rights, as well as foreigners. Women alsowere allowed to come to the theater, but they are not allowed to watch comedies, becauseThey sometimes spoke about social life.
Someperformances lasted all day, so viewers have with a meal, and if it wascold - even warm clothes. Played in only male performances. They performedseveral roles, including women using big and brightmask. Performances were accompanied by songs, music, dancing. Viewers, if theyliked the applause, and if not - loudly scolded actors and knocked down.
Painting OldGreece came to us in the pictures on vases and frescoes on public buildings.In the art of painting were distributed two styles: chornofihurnyy(Chornolakovyy) та chervonofihurnyy. The first was called so that the ceramic product caused picturejapan, second - that product zafarbovuvaly black andremaining natural images baked red clay.
Sculpture.Sculptors portrayed mostly men and gods. Famous masterswere Miron (V century. BC), Poliklet (V century. BC) та Affiliates (500-431 yearsBC). Miron worked mainly in bronze.Famous is his sculpture "discus thrower. Polikletportrayed the victorious athletes and soldiers. This artist has sought to emphasize harmonyand beauty of the human body. Fidiy worked in Athens, Delphi, Olympia. He wasparticipate in the reconstruction of the Acropolis and Parthenon decorated.
UniqueGreek was literature, especially poetry. In ancient Greece, highlyvalued art versification. Poems written and priests and politicians, and military.Sometimes even books on science and judgments recorded poems. Early Article VII. BC appeared lyric poetry - Poems about feelingsmood, feeling person.
Verseswere tragedy and Comedy. Tragedy - a solemn genreappeal to the gods. its creator is Aeschylus (525-456 BC).He wrote some 90 works, of which only seven survived. The most famous ofthem - "chained Prometheus", "Agamemnon." Athenian poet Sophocles (496-406 years. BC)created about 120 tragedies. In his writings he reflected the viewswealthy citizens. His most famous tragedies - the King Oedipus"and "Oedipus in Colonie. Creator comedy was the son of a peasant Aristophanes(бл. 445-385, the BC). Comedyreflected the life of Greek society and mocked human weaknesses.
Extremelyvalued in ancient Greek oratory. With a convincingwords of Greek speakers tended to their side People's Assembly, called for rebuffingenemy, raised the demos for rebellion against tyrants, argue case in court.Well-known speakers were Isokrat, Hiperid, Eshin, Perikl, Demosthenes.
Questions and Tasks
1. Imaginea traveler who visited the Athenian Acropolis. Describe your experience.
2. Name the most famous Greek philosophers.
3. Tell us about the Greek Doric style in architecture.
4. What do you know about Greek theater?
5. Discover the universal importance of Greek culture.