§ 38. Religion of the ancient Greeks (textbook)

§ 38. ReligionAncient Greeks

1. Myths about the godsheroes

AncientGreeks, like other nations, adored phenomena that could not explain. Greeksworld filled with a huge variety of fanciful creatures. Theymade interesting story - Myths - About theirGods, humans and fantastic creatures.

Mythcreation and the origin of the gods. According to concepts of the ancient Greeks, even whenthere was no universe around was just chaos. There existed a fountain of life,from which was born Gaia - The Earth. Deep beneath it lies Tartar- Boundless realm of eternal darkness. Then in the universe came mighty forceLove - Eros. Birthday night - Nikta and day - Hemera. Since that time and daynight, light and darkness are changing each other.

OverHeyeyu land stretches sky Uranus. They came mighty Titans.The first was Ocean that its waters washed the whole earth. From him and the goddessThetis All rivers were born. Titans Hiperon and Theia gave the world their children: Sun - Helios, Month - Selena and star - Eos. Children ofGays were also Kronos і Ray. Kronos took away the power from his father Uranus. Gaia naprorochylato him that just as he stripped power Uranus his children away their powervery Kronos. So powerful god immediately swallowedtheir infants. Such a fate befell Gera, Demetra,Aida, Poseidon. When the next son was born Kronos - Zeus. Rhea hid him in o.Kryt,and Kronos has swallowed a stone. When Zeus grew up,he drinks a magic potions and father freed his brothers and sisters.

Fromcoming of the new gods of war began between them and the titans, which lastedlong 10 years. Defeated the Titans in Tartarus dropped. Zeus, who acknowledgedBut most important of the gods, distributed world. He himself took the sky, Poseidon gave sea Ayidovi - Hades, whereliving dead souls. Zeus was the ruler of winds and clouds, lightning and thunder.His scepter he nahanyav hurricanes, storms and hurricanes. Similarly, God could quickly andappease the forces of nature. Zeus was not the only ruler of the gods, and father andmany heroes - Hercules, Perseus, king Minos, Radamanfaet al. Zeus's wife was the goddess Gera - Defender homefire, patroness of women and marriage. She was vindictive nature and naklykalaevil against the gods, heroes and people.

Greekgods were like humans and lived in the clouds atop the majestic coveredsnow-Mount Olympus. They uyavlyalysya extremely wise, powerful,beautiful creatures, sometimes to good people sometimes - evil. Gods personifiedforces of nature, ruled the whole world, determining its fate and the fate of eachcreatures, including humans. All of them were a large family, that hadcommon parent. It was believed that gods live in the golden palace, created bygod-smith Hephaestus. There prevailed eternal summer, andclouds hid the gods of the human eye. No one hesitated to climbOlympus to not disturb the gods.

Amongmany gods and heroes were most respected by the Greeks. Apollo -patron of the arts. As a child he killed a giant snake PythonThat rozoryav Delphic land. Artemis -goddess of hunting and animals. She traveled through the forests on mountain slopesaccompanied by nymphs, wild animals and birds. Artemis did not like when people interferedin its possession, and punishing those who harm nature. Athena - Goddesswisdom, crafts, just war. She was born from the head of Zeus in fullmilitary weapons. its symbols - the owl and snake. Athena was depicted with a shield,adorned head of Medusa, which had the power to turn people into stone.

 

Terms and Notions

Titanium powerful mythicgiant. Nymphs deity in the form of young girlslived in the forests, fields, caves, personified the forces of nature.

12 major Greek gods Zeus Poseidon,Hades, Hera, Artemis, Athena, Hermes, Apollo, Hephaestus,Aphrodite, Ares, Dionysus.

 

Athenaacted as patron of heroes, potters, weavers and champion of laws. Hephaestus - God of fire and blacksmithing. Dionysus - God of fertility, wine andwinemaking. Hermes - messenger of the gods, protector of travelers, travelers,merchants. He was the intermediary between the world of the living and the dead souls to guidethe kingdom of Hades. Hermes depict a young man in a hat with a curved fields in goldenSandals, with wings of gold, magical wand, decorated with two snakes. Aphrodite- Goddess of beauty and love. According to one version she was born with dropsUranus blood, which fell into the sea. The Greeks imagined her surrounded by roses andbloom. Aphrodite personified goodness and joy of life. Ares - Godunjust war. His characters were spear, torch, dog, hawk.The Greeks believed that during this battle ran god in his chariot, bringingbloody tribute.

Myths aboutheroes. Favorite heroes of Greek myths were Taiz Jason, Achilles and others. They - or the descendants of the godsdemigods. Rescuers were strong, hardy, courageous, smart. Eachembodied certain virtues, was a role model and supported by the godslifetime made many feats in defense of humanity.

Personificationinfinite forces of good was Hercules immortal son of Zeus and the mortalAlcmene. Zeus prophesied to become a powerful king,owner of the Peloponnesus. But life is different. Gera constantlypersecuted hero. When Heracles was 8 months, she planted the bedbaby two serpents, whom he strangled with his bare hands. Once overshadowed Gerahis mind and he spryynyavshy their children with scary monsters, kill them.Otyamyvshys, Hercules went to the oracle at Delphi, which ordered him in 1912serve the king Evrysfeyu. Only then may the gods forgive his sin. By orderEvrysfeya Hercules performed 12 feats. When you travel a powerful herohelp Hephaestus, Hermes, Athena, but the mainZeus remained patron.

Anotherhero was Perseus - Son of Zeus and Danae. His king sent Polidekt in search of a terrible monster - Gorgon Medusa, which made a people their views onstone. Nymphs gave Perseus winged sandals, a cap of darkness. Hermes armedhis knife, Athena - shield-mirror. They won with Perseus Medusa.Perseus the task PolidektaBut the king did not believehim. Then the hero showed his head monster, and Polidektturned to stone. Chairman Gorgon gave Athenswhich adorned her own battle shield.

 

2. Undergroundworld. Erebus

OnUnlike the gods were mortal men. The Greeks believed that the kingdom of the deadlocated in the bowels of the earth, and the entrance to it, far to the west, the ocean, whichwashes the ground. Hermes accompanied the souls of the dead there, showing them the path.Having reached the underground river Styx, he passed them in the hands of the carrier namedCharon, Which transported the souls to the kingdom of the deadcollecting fees from them for crossing. Therefore, the dead always put a coin in the mouth,that his soul is wandering forever, and could pay Charonper crossing. Entrance to the underground kingdom guarded three-headed (in someTranslation - p'yatdesyatyholovyy) a dog - Cerberus (Cerberus).This dog would not allow anyone to enter the kingdom of Hades the world of the living. Kingdomdead, according to the Greeks, was divided into two parts - Tartarus and Elysium. Place inTartar occupied sinners. Souls of those who lived his life righteously, werein Elysium. The Court carried out the dead sons of Zeus - EAK,Minos and Radamanf.

 

3. Delphic oracle

CommunicationRights of the gods was in the temple. First, churches have not been a place of worshipgods. The Greeks believed that living in that house or that deity, and pray to himhave on the area before the house. The people in front of gods representing priests, whichelected during public meetings. They prayed on behalf of the entire community, carried outother ceremonies. Temples installed sculptures of gods. Standing at altarsquare in front of temples.

One ofmajor religious centers considered Delphic oracle of Apollo's temple.When the Greek State, any natural disaster, war rozpochynalasyaGreece or threatened epidemic, locals went to Delphi to hearprophecy oracle and ask him advice. Oracle prophesied priestess lipstemple of the god Apollo - Pythia. In the temple of Delphi could also be purifiedfrom grave sins. Later oracle took an important place in political lifeGreek society. Thus, the contention between different city-states were resolvedit is in Delphi. Who is right, defined the oracle. Apart Delphi,religious centers of ancient Greece were Athens, Olympia and other cities.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. What is the origin, the ideas of ancient Greeks, the world?

2. WhyZeus can be described as the main god?

3. Describeway into the kingdom of the dead.

4. Whatwas the famous temple of Apollo in Delphi?

5. Remember mythsof Hercules, which you studied, and prove that this character was the embodiment of goodforce.