§ 37. Ancient Daily LifeAthenians
1. Housing and clothing
HomeGreeks were very simple. House consisted of two parts: male and female.Through the gate were the hallways on both sides of which were locatedcommercial premises. Next - the main hall of the male half of the columns.In the middle there was an altar dedicated to Zeus. On the sides adjacent to itRoom men. Corridor opposite the main entrance leading to the female half.She also had a pillared hall and rooms for women. For it - room forslaves and servants. If the house had two floors, it led to the second floor staircase.On the second floor were rooms for guests and servants. Only the top floor hadwindows, and the bottom osvitlyuvavsya through the door. Whitewashed walls both outside andinside. The floor was earthen, clay, sometimes stone. Some houses hadheating, drain. In Athens, unlike the Ancient East,luxury was not fashionable.
Greekclothing was just as simple. Consisted of a shirt (coat) and capes (himatiya) Or skirt. Clothes made of whole piecelinen or woolen cloth, later - cotton. Men wore short orlong coats. Women wore long, to foot, lightweight, embroidered andgold coats.
"Greek clothing consisted of two main parts: the lower garmentssimilar to the shirt, and a cape, or mantle. Neither the shirt, cloak or notvykroyuvalysya and made of whole cloth, which had an oblong shapequadrangle. All changes, which suffered Greek clothes, it only applied decorationmaterial, size, method of manufacture but remained unchanged fromancient times.
"Further changes in these clothes happened probably as follows:first his sleeves were cut above the shoulders and button buckles, andthen removed them completely.
"Men in Greece covering her head for protection from rain andsun on the go or in the theater during performances, which lasted throughout the day.Women wore headgear only as attire.
"Simple sole pidv'yazana belt, shoes were a common householdand exit; sandals, also prykriplyuvalysya to the toe strap, were morechic: their vzuvaly, going to visit or to publicmeeting.
"Boots were of two types: low, which only covered the foot, andhigh, are visited by ankle. In addition, discharge shoes belonged krepidis and endromidis. The firstwere often lined with nails. A high boots, similar to Assyrian, werefootwear mainly hunters and travelers and vzuvalysya floor stocking. However,and commoners shepherdsoften wore high shoes.
2. Family & Parenting
In Greececoncluded marriages of convenience of parents. Regarded as lawful marriage only betweenfree citizens. He headed the family traditionally people. Women from richFamilies almost always conducted in the female part of the building - hinekiyi.They were not only households but also playing the ball, carefor appearance, bathing, creating exquisite hairstyles. In low-income familieswomen work like men. Exit to the street woman could onlypermission of her husband. She had no impact on the social life of Athens, although in somepolicies for women had more rights. Childbirth in the Greek familymarked by lush banquet. If it was a boy, hung on the doors of homesolive branch, if a girl - tape. On the tenth day of the childreceived a name. Occasionally, the family rejected the girls or children who hadphysical disabilities.
Greeksbelieved that person all should be fine - and soul and mind and body.So they gave great importance to education and training. Boys up to sevenyears brought parents. Then they passed into the hands of the teacher - slave who ledchildren to school and watched their behavior on the street. Schools were the primary, secondaryand higher. The elementary school students aged 7-12 years not only studyingread, write, count, but also played sports and music. In the morningStudents piznavaly various sciences. Boys are taught to memorize the poem by Homer. 12 hoursthey did exercise.
Insecondary schools - high schools - were young men from 12 to 18 years. Asvalued oratory, it is studied grammar, rhetoric (the artconvincingly speak), were gymnastics. The boys ran, jumped, metalsdrive and spear fighting. All schools were private, so the fees paidmoney. The most talented young men trained in the famous thinkers such asPythagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle.
KnownPlato's Academy was founded in 388 by BC gardening Akademi. Above its entrance was the inscription: "Let not go down here, thatwho are not familiar with mathematics. Here studied mathematics, astronomy, basicsmusic. Academics (students) to sharpen their skills in disputes - disputes.Defined topic, and all take turns expressing their thoughts. With 18 years young - Ephesus- received military service. In 1920zanosyly their names to the lists of citizens of the city. Before that they were sworn inallegiance to the policy. Since that time they were eligible to participate in politicallife. Only in 1930 men gained the right to stand for leadershippositions.
Girlsfrom birth to age 15 years, when they had the right to be married, educatedmother at home. Like boys, they were taught to read and write, and even sew,weave, to perform a variety of homework. Have passed their knowledge todaughter in marriage habilis control management.
Questions and Tasks
1. Describe the home of the ancient Greeks.
2. Compare male and female Greek clothing.
3. What are the subjects studied in the Athenian boys school?
4. WhatAthenian education differed from Spartan?