§ 33. OldSparta
1. Formation of the State Spartan
In the XI century.Dorians conquered the Peloponnese peninsula. It was about 900 BCthey founded a settlement Sparta, whichsubsequently turned into a city-state. Sparta, which united under his powersurrounding land areas Laconica, Also called Laconica or Lacedaemon.Local people Dorians turned into slaves - helot. With the appearance ofState helot become its property and no longer belonged to individual Spartans.Since helot was much more than the Spartans held them in subjection,annually killing the strongest - is called kryptiyamy.Another layer of subjugated people were perieky- Residents of the surrounding land that saved liberty, but were obligated to paySpartans tribute.
AsSparta in the fertile land was scarce, the Spartans had invaded the neighboring Messeniyi. Started MessenskiWar. The first one lasted almost 20 years. Losers messentsiwere forced to pay tribute in the amount of half the crop. But then theyrevolted against invaders.
Startedsecond Messenska war. The most vivid episodeWar was the siege of eleven Eyra.The defenders bravely defended themselves against the attackers and plagued daring sortie. Duringthese battles head messentsiv Aristomentwice been getting burned out. The first time it dropped from a cliff, but it is not onlysurvived, but again led the defense surrounded the city. The second time he helped a youngspartanka who drunk wine duty, and Aristomenagain escaped.
Plutarch on elections Gerontius
In this case began greatest race in the world competition, wherefought for every last effort. The point was not about to be announced nayprudkishymRapid in running, the strongest of the strong and the best and brightest amongbest and brightest people ... For their moral superiority winnerreceived in life ... power in the states became ruler over life and deathhonor and dishonor ...
Inquiries to document
1. What was to prove a person to be elected Gerontius?
2. Is Gerontius were asPlutarch says, "ruler over life and death, honor and dishonor"?Give your opinion.
Siege Eyry ended tragically. Spartans stormed into the city;three days long bloody battle. Even messenskiwomen took up arms. Forces were unequal, andAristomenvyshykuvav past defenders, and he bowed his head and spear asked enemiesrelease them from the city. Spartans that appreciated the courage and military prowess,rozstupylysya gave way. After the war part messentsivpermanently left the country, and those who remained were converted to helot.
2. State System of Sparta. Laws of Lycurgus
AboutSparta polity we learn through laws which are attributed to Lycurgus.He belonged to the royal family, but gave up power in favor of the nephew.After a long journey Lycurgus returned home and brought in Spartanew laws. Later he went to Delphi, but the Spartans took on a promise tohis return would not change the rules imposed by him. Of Delphi Likur went to o.KrytWherestarved himself hunger. Lycurgus body was burned and the ashes scattered over the sea.So Lycurgus never really returned home, and none of the Spartans notcourage to change the laws.
Lycurgusestablished procedures of the public meetings - Apel.Participation in these meetings were entitled to only citizen-soldiers. These feesendorsed laws, selecting officials to guide the court. Votecarried out by screams. Lycurgus changed the form of imperial authority. Ledstate were two kings, commanders - arhahetyThatelected annually from the two most powerful and warring tribes. Itgave the assurance that none of them will become a tyrant. The kings had unlimited poweronly during the war. In peace time the most pressing issue solved CouncilElders - herusiya. It consisted of 30 persons -Gerontius. All of them were age over 60 years. Gerontius discussed the laws and carried them to votepublic meetings.
Lycurgusfounded the Collegium (Board) of five eforiv. They calledPeople's Assembly and directing their work, followed by strict compliance with the Spartanslaws and traditions. Their main objective was not to allowSparta absolute power of kings. Efory alsowatching the stars and planets, depending on the location predictedfavorable or unfavorable days for war, fees, court.
Lawsground. High owner of all land under the law, was the policy. But the earthwere divided among the citizens of Sparta in 9000 equal parts - Claire.forbade them to sell or crumble between the children. Clairetreated are not the owners, and helot.
Legislationagainst luxury. To maintain unity and prevent the division of Spartan societyfor rich and poor, Lycurgus directed its laws against the possible enrichmentindividuals. Yes, it was forbidden under pain of death to usegold, silver, precious stones. Housing and clothing Spartans were simple andmonotonous. Buildings, by law, had to construct onlywith axes and saws. Death Penalty attempt ended Spartanleave the boundaries of the state in any case. Lycurgus introduced a new gimmickmoney that anyone not occur to accumulate. One coin, thatvyhotovlyalasya of iron, weighing tens of kilograms.
3. Spartan Life community
Spartanswere brave, hardy warriors. Usually they did not pursueretreating enemy, believing below their dignity to kill those who fled.Three hundred of them become the best personal protection of the king - hippeyamy.Residents of the city considered themselves invincible in battle, and so the city of Sparta was notprotected by walls.
All menpolicy constituted a powerful army. Citizens of Sparta had no right to engage intrade or craft. Among the Spartans was neither poor nor rich.Spartan society in some way remind society of India. Itdivided into two main groups: free of soldiers and dependent farmers.The transition from one state to another was impossible. For treason or cowardice Warriorcan execute or expel from the city, but could not convert on helot. Similarly,despite any achievements and services to Sparta. helot or aliencould become a full citizen of society.
TraditionSpartan society were common meals - sysytiyi.It was not easy eating. At the table was going about 20 menwith a military detachment associated strong friendship and lovely one and diefor one. they were called sysytamy. Members sysytiyi monthly contribution made products - wine, cheese,olives et al. One who did such a contribution, prevented two jointdinner, and he lost civil rights.
In Spartaparents had no right to dispose of their newborn baby - her fatesolved Gerontius. They carefully examinedchild and, if deciding that it is weak, ordered her to throw into the abyss.
Plutarch on the Spartan army
When the troops lined up for battlebefore the enemy, the king sacrificed a goat and ordered all soldiers to wearwreaths, flutist play ... He himself began a military song, which went underSpartans ... their ranks were closed, do not lose heart beat with fear, theywere the plunge to the sounds of songs, easy and fun ... King wentsurrounded by enemy soldiers ...
Inquiries to document
What helped the Spartans to support morale before the battle?
LifeSpartans held in regular military exercises. Boys seven yearslearn art of war in special schools. Here they grow together,indoctrinated, then together they fought. Spartan childhood learning to accurately and childrenclearly express their views. In 1912 they wore no clothes,slept on straw or reed viscous. The most durable cast to his makeshiftnettle beds. With 14 years they were allowed to bear arms. Since 1916and an old Spartan had to serve in the army. In 1930Spartan was considered an adult and had the right to get a piece of land andmarry. Single Spartan society punished. It could break underduring religious holidays.
Terms and Notions
Quick and precise statements that valued Spartans, known asconcise (from the name "Laconica»).
Spartanwomen were the most free and independent comparison with other Greek womenpolicies. They like men got physical training, competed inat sports games that Gary prysvyachuvalysya goddess. Women and indivisible wholeruled the house, while men were engaged in military affairs.Spartanky brought their own children: boys - to seven-year agegirls - to marry. But they had no right to participate in the National Assembly.
OverallSpartan life pidporyadkovuvalosya rigid rules of society andby a very unpretentious way of life, not the priority of labor or farmercraftsman, and voyinskiy prowess, mastery of weapons, power andendurance.
Plutarch. BiographyLycurgus (excerpt)
16. Once the boys was turning sevenyears, Lycurgus vidbyrav their parents and rozpodilyav in pens so that theylived and ate together, pryvchalysya play and work side by side. Ledunit they asked him who was more subtle than others and horobrishym in fights.Other rivnyalysya to it, comply with its orders and silently suffered punishment asthat the main result of this way of life was habit to obey. For gamesChildren and adults frequently observed svaryly them to each other, provoking a fight, andmost watched what qualities boys gifted by nature. Scripture theystudied so far could not do without it, otherwiseeducation was reduced to the requirement blameless, bravely endure dissentand defeat enemies.
Plutarch. The ancient practice Spartans (Excerpts)
If anyone would punish the boy and after hetold that her father, then heard a complaint, the father must punishboy again. Spartans trust each other and felt that none of the faithfulcitizens do not command the boy no harm.
Young men, wherever there is opportunity, steal food andso learn to attack the sleeping guards or lazy. Those who fell,punished by starvation and whips. Lunch at them so miserable that they escapeof necessity, have to be audacious and stop at nothing.
Boys in Sparta shekel whips on the altar of Artemisall day, and they often died under the blows. Boys and proudlyfun competing, of them longer and more worthy of holding penalties. One whowon, praised, and he became famous.
Beside other valuable inputs,introduced by Lycurgus to their citizens, and it was important thatlack of employment is considered somehow unseemly. Spartans were forbiddenengage in any trades, and the need for the accumulation of money in themwas. Lycurgus made the possession of wealth shameful and inglorious. Helot,cultivating their land for the Spartans, have made them servage setin advance, pay the claim was strictly forbidden. This is toTo helot receiving benefits, working with pleasure, but the Spartansnot wanting to accumulate.
Questions to the documents
What purpose is pursued, in your opinion, is education?
Questions and Tasks
1. DescribeSparta polity. What are its features?
2. What lawsLycurgus?
3. What positionhelot different from periekiv?
4. What virtues valued in Sparta?
5. Describe the Spartan life of children.
6. Why Spartanswere skilled and hardy warriors?