§ 32. Greece in the XI–VI. BC
AfterAheyskoyi decline of civilization and began invading Dorians Polisnyyperiod in the history of ancient Greece.
Greece in the XII - VIII.BC
AfterDorian invasion of Greece as if history began anew. The former royal city andpalaces and destroyed zarostaly grass, and their cities with new `appeared tosettlement. Later on there were some settlements of the city that objects around yednuvalya surrounding rural district. Thus arose the city-state - policies.
In Greeksconsidered the most powerful city-states Athens and Sparta, the richest -Corinth, the largest and beautiful - Miletus.
Terms and Notions
Police - City-state, community citizens, with their ownadministration, law, military, court.
1. PoemsHomer's "Iliad" and "Odyssey"
HisHome, which is reflected in the writings of the legendary ancient Greek poetHomer historians call "Homeric." Think that was about 800 BCHomer made two poems - «Іliada "and "Odyssey." In "Iliad" (Name - from "Ilium"so the Greeks called Troy) told about the war between ten and aheytsyamyTrojan. Heroes of the poem are close to the gods and mythical creatures.
Homer lived on the edge of IX-VIII century. BC Precise biographical informationnot to be preserved. According to legend, he was born on o.Hios.There was a blind poet wandering. He attributed record Trojan War Mythand a poem "Iliad" and "Odyssey."
Homerdescribes recent 41 day war. Author of "The Iliad" enthusiastically wrote not only aboutAchilles and Patroclus aheytsiv, but also their enemies, the Trojans - the king Priam and warrior Hector. Demigod Achilles after nine yearsrefused to continue fighting the war and transferred his armor nearfriend Patroclus, who headed aheytsiv and led them to attack Troy.
NearGate City Patroclus met in a fight with Trojan hero Hector, by handof which died. This made Achilles again take up arms. He took revenge bydeath of his friend - killed Hector. But he lived long after that: poisonousarrow brother Hector - ParisDirected by GodApollo, caught it. Homer wrote these things, not very glorifying warand courage, courage, strength, dignity and sense of duty Greeks and Trojans.
Continuationstories about the Trojan War was "Odyssey" - Description of the fabulous adventures of the king o.Itaky Odyssey. Ten years of this Greek hero fought withThree. After capturing the city he decided to return home to Ithaca, but histrip dragged on for another ten years. During the voyage he was lost andlanded on the island lotofahivWhere, having tried lotuslost memory and forget about home. Then Odysseus visited the islandCyclops. With his friends he came to the cave one eye giant Polifema, Son of the god of the seas Poseidon,where he was captured by a monster. Only through wit and cunning Odysseusthey managed oslipyty Cyclops and escape. Then Odysseus with theirfriends visited the island of the god of winds EolaFoughttribe of giants, cannibals, witch was in possession of Kirk, whoturned his satellites pigs visited the Underworld god Hades.Miracle was that he remained alive after meeting with monsters and Stsilloyu Haribdoyu. Ten years of hardship under the Odysseyguise of a beggar came to Ithaca, where his faithful wife waiting Penelope.
Byfabulous adventures, described in poems, we see life, everyday life, beliefs andideals of ancient Greek society. So "Iliad" and "Odyssey" is invaluablehistorical sources. In Homer's poems also describe the Trojan War and adventurecharacters, contains valuable information about Greek society in the initial periodDorians rule. Therefore, his works reflected the achievement of Minoan Aheyskoyi and civilizations, no descriptionmajestic palaces, no mention of highly educated people.
2. Ancient Greek society
Doriantribes who conquered Greece, lived in small communities generic. Supervisedcommunity life of its members elected governor - basylevs. Combining several families called phratry. Sometimes manyDorian families united in fily. Frompoems of Homer shows that at this time there was a wealthy elite kind - aristocracy,who owned many lands, passed by inheritance. Gradually fily united, and these associations were the basis forlater of small city-states - policies.
Centerspolicies were restored Dorians cities, which were located around smallsettlement of agricultural lands.
Incity-states for periods of war or danger of economic hardship amonginfluential citizens elected governor with special powers. He hadright alone to decide all matters related to city life. Suchrulers called tyrants.
Abecause the power of contemporary society has rested on the labor congregation, the tyrantstried to improve their lives by promoting the development of agriculture, crafts,trade.
Inresponse they had supported the poorest residents. Based on them, tyrantspower is confined for longer than is required in the situationpolicy. Aristocracy, which lost its influence in the life insurance policy, sought tosideline of tyrants rule. Consequently, the fierce struggle forpower.
Wealthkind defined number of cattle in the household. Craft has not playedimportant role in the life of the Greeks, but, like Mycenaeanplaques, poems of Homer remembers many craft professions: blacksmith, carpenter,masons, painters, shipbuilder.
Basissociety in the period amounted HOMERIC congregation, their main occupationwas agriculture. They were grown agricultural products in smallof land that were in their property and worked on richfor a tiny fee.
All kindseconomic activity - agriculture, handicrafts, trade - the state imposehuge taxes. According to Homer's poem of the hero Achilles, lifecongregation was not much better than death and suffering of hell. And worse thanpeasants, congregation, lived slaves. they were used for hard labor in the homehousehold or they pastured cattle, work in the fields. Homer told that the housein the Odyssey were 50 slaves. Slaves were mostly prisoners of war andas peasants, debtors.
Everyday life basylevsiv, With descriptions of Homer, was very simple. Basylevsy, Although they were slaves, they plowed the same ground. and theirwife up in wisdom spun, washed clothes next to the servants and slaves. The rulers themselvesmanufactured items and weapons.
3. Military organization
Differencesposition in ordinary congregation and basylevsiv andaristocrats clearly seen in the military of ancient Greece. Basylevsy and aristocrats fought on the battle chariots. theirsupported the infantry in combat lehkoozbroyeni which were usually simplecongregation. Infantry weapons were mostly spears with bronze or ironedge. Description them often in the "Iliad". Spears served as for throwing,and to defeat the enemy at close range. Homer wrote that AchillesHector is killed by these weapons, and the length of the spear Hector reached5.5 m.
FormidableArms were swords, sharpened on both sides. The Warriors then had two panelstypes: one high, which completely covered the warrior, the other smallerround. Shields made of leather bulls and strengthened bronze plates.
4. Great Greek colonization
OfDorians conquerors-related decline not only of Greek cities. With theirarrival spread use in the manufacture of iron weapons and implements.
Improveagricultural tools was important to increase productivity peasanthe was already able to process larger plot of land. Very quicklyfree land left for expansion of agricultural lands.Increasing food production contributed to the rapid growthpopulation. There was a problem of overpopulation.
Samerapidly developing craft. Ancient masters need moreraw materials and markets.
Successfuldevelopment of economic life deepened the division of society into rich and poor.Aristocrats came to power. Aristocrats sharp struggle for powerin policies, as well as the struggle between rich and poor. The losers in thisstruggle had to leave home and seek better lives in exile.
Overpopulationcountries, the lack of available land suitable for farming, finding newsources of raw materials, especially metals, required a craftsman, a dramatic strugglebetween rich and poor - all the reasons for migration to the new Greekland.
Processdevelopment of new land by the Greeks, who took over the VIII-VI century. BCtitled the "Great Greek colonization.
Terms and Notions
Colonization - Migration to new lands and economic development.
Micmo-metropolis - A city which is the founder of a new settlement -colony.
Greeksfounded many colonies: Naples in southern Italy and Syracuse on o.Sytsyliya; Massaliyu France; Byzantium, Sinop in Asia Minor; Khersoness Tiru,Olvia in the Northern Black Sea (Ukraine). Cities that were foundedcolonies, called metropolis.
Greek and Phoenician colonies XI - VI century.BC
ColonizationNorthern Black Sea was part of the so-called Great Greek colonizationVIII-VI BC The main reason that pushed the Greeks to far-off land wasshortage of land in Greece, and therefore food.
The firstGreek settlement in the Black Sea (VII century BC.) were: Istria(InDanube) And Borysfenida(On the island Berezan). In VI century. BC in the lower reaches of the Southern Bugthere were city Olbia. On the coast of the Kerch Strait were founded cityPantikapaion (which became the capital of the kingdom of Bosporus) Hermonassa, Nymph, Mirmekiy, Phanagoreia. Early V cent. BC inWestern Crimea appeared ancient town of Chersonese. One of the last century in the third.BC here there was a city Ka-Lima. Dimensionscities do not exceed 50-60 ha.
Eachsmall town rural district (chorus) that provides its residents with necessaryfood. Generated sold in the city. Among the residents was Choirsmany people from neighboring tribes.
AllBlack Sea city-states, except monarchist Bosporus, were democraticor aristocratic republics, where slaves, women and foreigners had no rightscitizenship. The highest legislative body were the national assembly. Executivepower was in the hands of boards and officials. Separately, there was the judiciary.
Inpolitical development of the city-states are two phases: the first(VII - I century BC.) They were independent entities, on the second(Middle and art. BC - 70-ies the IV century. BC)Depending on were in Rome.
Greekcolonists were mainly farming and viticulture. Significant roleplayed by livestock and fisheries. High level reached craft.The most common of the crafts are ceramics, glazing, jewelry, weaving,metalworking, tanning leather. Exquisite jewelry produced in particularOrder wealthy Scythians. A significant number of these products found in Scythianroyal burial mounds. Most were massive ceramic production, whichpopulation provided the necessary utensils. The important role played by trade.The main export commodities were grain, which bought the merchants in the Greek colonistsand neighboring tribes, as well as livestock and slaves. In trade with the United Scythia Olbia played a leading role, which called"Torzhyschem Borysfenitiv ". Local populationNorthern Black Greeks sold mainly crafts, weapons,wine. Trade was conducted with local tribes, mainly the exchange. In city-statesfor the purposes of trade minted its own coins.
Inforeign policy policies initially oriented towards Greece. In the II-I century. BCOlbia trapped in addiction to the Crimean Scythia. Onboundary II-I century. BC Black Sea, Ukraine was involved in orbitstruggle between the strongest states - and Rome Ponte.King Pontus Mithradates VI Eupator conquered the Bosporus, defeatedCrimean Scythia and distributed power to allBlack, including Olbia. Having finally defeated by the Romans, Mithradates caused a death in Pantikapaion (modern Kerch)and the Roman army took possession of his kingdom. Politics Greek citiesreoriented to Rome. In turn, for Rome, Greek states werekind of barrier to the onslaught of the nomads and other barbarian tribes. RomeChersonese helped in his battles with the Scythians in Greek cities locatedRoman garrisons. In the middle of the second-third century. BC Tyra,Olbia, Chersonese included in the Roman province Moesia.In political dependence on the Bosporus and Rome falls.
Household andGreek culture of the Black Sea countries had much in common with the methodlife and culture of the ancient world. Residents of cities considered themselves Greeks, soofficial language was Greek. Physical and intellectual education of young peoplecarried out in schools, gymnasiums. Population of cities was sutsilliterate. In social and cultural life of the important place occupied the theater. Verywas a popular sport. Worked in the city scientists philosophers and historians. In the V century.BC Olvia visited the "father historyHerodotus, who left the oldest description Ukraine-Scythia.
Basisreligious beliefs of the colonists was polytheism. Especially popular withgods was Apollo - Vice colonists. Along with the cult of deities existedcults of heroes: Achilles and Heracles. Worship led priests. Somewidely Scythian and Sarmatian and fertility rites, and Romantimes - cults of the Roman emperors.
EndAnd art. BC Greek city states became one of the ways to share Ukrainianland burgeoning Christianity.
InHellenic art dominated artistic tradition, although considerably extendedbarbarian elements. The artists painted religious and mythological subjects,creating portraits. The interiors of houses, tombs were painted with frescoes. Floormany houses vymoschuvaly mosaic. Beautifully painted vase. Citiesdecorated with statues.
CultureGreek city-states of the Northern Black researchers define asBlack Sea version of ancient culture.
Lethalattack the Greek city-states caused barbaric invasion which the two waves (inIII. - Goths in the fourth century. - Huns). In the third century. Pressure readyOlbia was killed and other cities, and in the fourth century. invasion of the Huns destroyed the Bosporuskingdom. Survived only Chersonese and Panticapaeum which eventually came underpower of the Byzantine Empire.
Greekcity-states were the centers of ancient civilization in the Northern Black her.They have had a significant impact on the local population of this regionUkrainian lands. Thanks to the local populace Greek settlers receivedopportunity to join progressive for its time, the achievements of ancientcivilization.
1. When started Polisnyy period in Greek history? Why hegot its name?
2. What were the causes and directions of Greek colonization?
3. Tell us about the participation of Greek heroes in the Trojan war.
4. Remember the course "Foreign Literature" the legend of Achilles and explain the origin of the expression "Achilles' heel."
5. Why "Iliad"and "Odyssey" are valuable historical sources?