§ 27. Chinese Empire Qin and Han
1. Empire Qin
In 246, the BC tsinskymthe ruler becomes Tzarevich Ін Zheng.With the help of experienced advisers and military leaders, he created a huge well trained and armed forces.This Ін Zhen to221r.doBC succeeded in bloody warsbreak alone the rest of Chinese kingdoms and unify all China under hisauthorities. From this moment began to exist only zahalnokytayskaempire Qin. Special Decree Ін Zheng was proclaimed Qin Shihuandi - "The first ruler - EmperorDynasty Qin. He announced that his son will"The second winner Qin"And then gothird and so tens of thousands of his heirs. To destroy the memory ofkingdoms were abolished and the boundaries themselves, the names of former kingdoms.The territory of the state was divided at the thirty-six regions, led bysquire. The whole population of heaven, which had previously been shared on tsintsiv, Weitz, chustsiv etc., was named "chornoholovi. Specialdecree of the emperor in the heavens all the weapons were removed from the population. Allsubjected from now were to use only coins and measures of weight,have uniform laws and writing style.
Soon after the establishment of the empire Qin Shihuan di 500,000th mobilized the army and beganexpeditions against neighboring countries. Before China joined the state were largeregion in the north, west and south, inhabited nekytayskymyits people.
To protect the country from the devastating attacks of nomads,Emperor began construction of the Great Wall of China. It is there totamped earth, bricks and stone blocks.
The Chinese people made grim legends about it.Construction was carried by three hundred thousandth army. In support of her was thrownlarge number of convicted criminals, public servants and free congregation,who served labor conscription. Many people died from exhaustion andoverwork. zaryvaly them here, near the wall. This - the longestcemetery in the world. "However, no visions in the history of constructionbuilding was completed.
Great Wall of China stretching thousands of kilometers (6450 miles). Heightwalls reached from 6,5 to 10 m, width 5.4 m, so that it could roz'yihatysya two counter-chariot, the wall is to review gaps and loopholes. At every 2.5-km fromsettled for improving watchtower. At the bottom of the tower soldiers live, andtop floor, they carried their service. They lay ready for firewoodfire. When the soldiers noticed the danger, they immediately fueled bonfire. Onneighboring towers, seeing this sign, too, burning firewood. Since the signal arrivedwhere in full combat readiness was a large group. He immediatelyhurry to help.
Vileness Qin Shihuan di made his name hated in the country. In peoplewent saying:Epan, Epan!Dies Qin Shihuan!For the smallest transgression man was beaten on the heels of bamboo sticks or vidrizuvalynose. If the offense seemed more serious, could be executed, boiled alive inpot.
The guilt of one person punished all his relatives, andseveral neighboring families.
Scientists in the soul of the Emperor deeply despised and hated.Thousands of scientists were thrown at hard labor building the Great Wall of China, and460 scholars were buried alive.
Qin Shihuan di very afraid of conspiracies. He then spent the night in onePalace, then in another, so no one knew where he was.
In 210, the BC Qin Shihuan di died. The next emperor was hisyoungest son. He, like his father, afraid of conspiracies and began his rule withdeath of their brothers, sisters and famous generals. Meanwhile, the situationpeople deteriorated. People were dying en masse, with a desperation zapodiyuvalydeath. Forbearance people came to an end. Armed with sticks and hoes, peoplegathered in groups. In counterinsurgency army abandoned, but many soldierscrossed over to the side of rebels. "All four sides of the world rebelled againstDynasty Qin"- Wrote historian. Horrifiedemperor committed suicide. Unable to heirs Qin Shihuan di serve "tens of thousands of generations."Tsinska dynasty lasted only 14 years. In207 was BC people dropped their hated oppressors. The new rulershad to make concessions people, to help the situation.
2. Empire Han
Dynasty Han came to poweras a result of popular uprisings. One of the leaders of a village headman Лю Van. In 207, the BC he threw the lastdynast Qin і founded a new dynasty Han,which ruled China from 207, the BC to 220, the BC
Among the contributors Лю Bana there were many scientists. On their advice, the Chinesethe governor went to some concessions people. First, he abolished the bloody tsinski laws, stop the big building thatrozoryuvaly country. It released a lot of people turned into slaves bydebts and crimes. For farmers Лю Banreduced 20 times the size of the land tax. They were distributedforest reserves, parks and reservoirs tsinskyhrulers.
Chinese emperors believed that all the surrounding nationsthey must obey. Once dynasty Hanstrengthened, its rulers began aggressive war against the steppe nomads -Huns and against the hill tribes of Indochina. Of course this war was closedvictory for China and conquered lands robbery. During one of the aggressiveChinese army marches reached Ferghana (city in Central Asia). In the second century.BC was laid way from China through Central Asia and Persia to the MediterraneanSea, which later was named the Great Silk Road. This way from China toWest silk, porcelain and other crafts of high quality. Reversetowards imported horses, wool products, purple fabric, glass, jewelryproducts.
Through this way in China was imported alfalfa,beans, pomegranates, grapes, nuts, saffron.
However, for extensive conquests requiredexpensive. Taxes and duties have reached an enormous size. Polltax levied even children and old men. It caused widespreadbidnyatskyh families in the murder of babies, sick and elderly. From the unbearabletaxes many villagers fled into the forests and mountains and engaged in robberies. In the countryoften spontaneous popular uprisings broke out.
At 8 years BC authorities in China seized power van for sale. Hepromised to return to the people long past the Golden Age,when there was neither rich nor poor.
However, reforms have failed Van Man. "Everything wentConversely, Chinese ruler than thinking. "products and goods disappeared from the markets.Sharp increase in prices (rice prices increased 50 times.) And speculation grewchasing false coins. Taxes were increased.
3. Revolt "Chervonobrovyh"
In 1918 BC through harvest major regions of Chinamet famine. The country began to riot. In Van Man accused of hunger.Soon these riots turned into a powerful uprising which spread throughoutcountry. Rebel leader preparing to head battle, ordered his soldierseyebrows painted in red to distinguish their troops from the Van Man.Therefore, this rebellion was called "Chimey"ie "Chervonobrovyh".
In 1923 BC The rebels captured the capital of the kingdom Han. Van Man was murdered. All his family rebelscut. Emperor announced one of the descendants of the dynasty Han.However "Chervonobrovi"Not accept this andkilled him. They elected king of a poor shepherd. Meanwhile, in east ChinaEmperor was proclaimed another representative of the dynasty Han.
Between rebels and troops of the emperor fight lastedmore than two years. "Chervonobrovi"Weredefeats, and rebellions were brutally suppressed. In this great rebellion killedpopulation of China.
4. Rise of the Yellow bandages and fallDynasty Han
In 184, the BC China broke a large peasantuprising. In his three brothers were headed monks Zhang.They called to reset the realm of oppression and build a "kingdom Yellowjustice. "Brothers Zhang were popularpeople, and they are very respected. These people were declared them heroes. The rebels linkedtheir heads and yellow armbands as a sign of struggle for the establishment of "yellowkingdom of justice. "Therefore, this revolt became known under the nameuprising of the Yellow bandages. It covered almost the entire eastern part ofChina. Army rebels took the town by storm, devastated and private warehousespossession, released at the will of prisoners and slaves.
King threw against the rebels picked troops, which wasnaverbovane mostly of nomads. This army did not know whatmercy. Holy warriors in the blood sunk uprising. In a sign of victory atmain gate of the capital was created by a huge mountain with hundreds of thousandscut heads of rebels.
Among the winners began power-sharing. Their internecine striferesulted in death (collapse) Hanskoyi Empire. In220 was BC it split into three kingdoms.
Folk songs of ancient China. (With BooksLyrics)
Hereshows the cycle of agricultural works of Chinese farmers.
In the sixth month we eat yellow plum. We gather in the afternoon on the roof of couch grass,
in the seventh we boil vegetables, beans, By nightwe strand rope.
Putting dates in eight. RepairSoon we, our house
And we will reap rice in ten. And therealready time to sow again.
For elderly syvobrovyh Tuk, tuk! In the second month wetunic
Wine juice young. much ice.
In the seventh will begin to eat pumpkin, Inthird - all this in ice, we
In the eighth zryvatymemo pumpkin lodovnyumove the.
In ninth brushwood and reed the fourth month we get upam -
Collect seed and hemp will - Onionlambs and lift spirits.
Men to our feed. Intenth frost, cold.
In ninth utoptuyemo we Tik Intenth are cleaning the area
In the tenth bear sheaves: Andseveral jugs of wine we ask
Pea and early, late bread. Sheepcut and lambs.
Even hemp, wheat, millet, sorghum. We comeall the king's house -
Oops! Peasants hubby! Takerhino horn with wine
We gathered together yield, and wish long life.
Vizmimosya same for the work in the house:
Questions and Tasks
1. How and who managed to unite all China under his rule?
2. Can I assume that the reasons were caused by aggressive warChina? Were typical aggressive war for other countries of the AncientEast? His response arguments.
3. What reforms conducted in the country Qin Shihuan di?
4. Tell us about the Great Wall. How and for what purpose it wasbuilt? What it represented a?
5. Why the name Qin Shihuan diwas hated in the country?
6. Can popular uprisings in China have ultimate success? How would lookthis success? What would the fate of China?
7. Name was formed when a single Chinese state?
8. What was the name of the first imperial dynasty of China?
9. As the Chinese call (call) your country?
10. What dynasty Han different fromDynasty Qin?
11. Tell us about great popular uprising in China. How are they completed?