§ 26. State Formationin ancient China
1. Natural conditions
Northeast ofIndia is a country we call China. In the west lie the mountainsand desert in the north - steppes in the south - mountains covered with tropical forests. Witheast and south China seas washed.
West Countryfew are suitable for agriculture. Winter there is lengthy, and summers short and hot.Rainfall for irrigation is also not enough. The most favorable for settlement wasEast China, namely the East China Plain.
It runs two large rivers - the Yangtze and Yellow River. They originate in the mountainsand flow into the sea. These rivers like the Tigris and Euphrates, they are very violent,have a lot of silt and sand, often unexpectedly spill. Because of its colorYellow River is called the yellow river. North winds deposited there from the steppesyellow dust. He osidav on the banks of the river and the Millennium covered them with a thicklayer. During the rainy Yellow River flowing. Zatoplyuvalysya target areadestroyed crops. Often the Yellow River changed course. After the fall of water peopleshowed that the river nearby. Then they were forced to move afterher. The ancient Chinese called the Yellow River "Wandering River, DisastersChina, the one that nadryvaye heart, the river one thousand ills.However, soils in the Yellow River valley were very fertile and easily exposed soilhoe and a wooden plow. This and attract population.
In the river there were manyfish, and in dense forests that are centuries old covered most of China -Many game. Near Yellow River and Yangtze River was known for some while elephants,rhinos, buffalos, tigers, deer, antelope, leopards, wild boars, bears, foxesetc.. In the mountains of China had a lot of minerals.
Myth of the Great Юя
To punish people who pit of sin,celestial prince Huang God commanded water gong-hunuarrange a terrible flood. Were filled all the fields of crops, livestock pulled,pulled people. Could only survive in high mountains. But against godwater made the hero (as a dragon) to the Юй,that he had extraordinary strength. And he gathered the army, which consisted of heavenly gods.In a fierce battle army Юя victorious armyGong-Hun. This enabled the hero calmly deal with the flood. Юйbuilt a dam, blocking the old river beds and pioneered new to avertexcess water. The large turtle driving it miraculous land and created from itislands of dry land. River God Hae-bo presented Юю stone on which a plan outlining all the rivers andchannels. And then came to the rescue Юю dragon thathis powerful tail was dig channels under the plan.
Many made the intrepid exploits of the herocombat element. To make way rivers, mountains rozsuvav. Often itwas forced to join the fight with evil spirits and werewolves. Butthrough the good offices of heavenly gods Юю unable to copewith the flood. All abomination He was imprisoned in a dungeon, andforced flow of the river in East Ocean. So when the land order. Peopleable to graze cattle and cultivate the fields.
I decided to choose all ЮяCelestial Emperor of all. Юй taught peoplebuild canals, dams and river beds shunt water from major rivers into the ocean. Afterdeath Юй polynuv in the sky and took its place amonggods.
2. Ancient China. State Shang-Yin
First settlementsfarmers appeared in the Yellow River valley in V thousand BC This greatlylater than in Egypt and the second anniversary. The reason for this - plenty of rain anddense forests that covered the earth in ancient China ever. Because farmers do notfear of drought, did not rush to explore the valleys and tame the turbulent flowrivers. The first legends of Chinese rulers who built canals and dams,Related to 2000 BC Cities and States in AncientChina also emerged relatively late. In the middle of the second millennium BC inaverage flow of Yellow River State visible Shang (Percalled the ruling tribe), the neighboring tribes called it Yin.Therefore, often called the first state Shang-Yin.The main occupation of inhabitants was agriculture. They are cultivated: the simple,wheat, rice, and garden and garden culture. Hemp used tofiber and oil (instead of linen).Zroshuvaly fields with odvidnyh channels from reservoirs or wells.Held a population of bulls, sheep, pigs, was engaged in breeding, poultry.Trenches planted mulberry, whose leaves vidhodovuvaly silkworm (silkwormsworms). Silk fabric at that time become widely known.
Land for cultivation and harvesting using variousequipment and labor: sohu wood, bronze and wooden hoes, harrows,sickles, wooden parasols for threshing. To clear land of bush andtrees on farmland used bronze knives and axes. First trenches divided intofour seasons: spring depicted sprouts, summer - please be zakolosylosya;autumn - wheat, winter - collected and posted ears. High developmentcraft reached. In the ruins, archaeologists found the remains of the capital workshop in whichproduced bronze ware.
Bronze figureDynasty era Shang-Yin
High level reachedceramics. Already a well-known potter's wheel. Houses and even palaces builtof wood. Money did not exist, because trade was the exchange. Measure ofvalues were special turtle - kauri, grains, leather, etc..
At the head of state wassupreme ruler - van. He led the militaryhiking, building canals and dams, made the sacrifice (was the mainpriest). At the beginning of field work it out in the field with the hoe and goldprooryuvav first furrow. Then turned to heaven with a request to grantfavorable for the harvest season. Wang had to reckon with the opinion of public meetings andCouncil of Elders.
Kingdom Shang-Yin was fragile. Subjugated nationoften arose, nomads do devastating attacks. Late second millennium BCstate Shang-Yin fell into decay, and about1000 BC Western won its nomads - Zhou.
3. Kingdom Zhou
Zhou were cattle breeders and farmers and were semi-waylife (like the Aryans). Seizing land Shang,they founded their own state - Zhou.
Originally living in the kingdom Zhou littledifferent from their life in the Shang-Yin. Graduallyaccustomed new land, built the city. In the VI-V century. BC Chineselearned to extract and process iron. Through the use of iron toolswork made possible the development of new, far from the river lands. Been cut andfarmland burned in the dense forests that covered the valley of the Yangtze River. Populationosushuvalo local marshes. This assault on nature has led to undesirable consequences. Exterminationforests has caused an increased destructive force turbulent riverflows. Yellow River turned into a real disaster for Chinese farmers.The Chinese had to build levees that protect flood plains,digging canals to irrigate fields.
With an instrument of iron becomes deeper plowing, improved technologycultivation fields. This period begins applying fertilizers. Highercrop fields has led to general prosperity of the country. High developmenttake on gardening, gardening. In cities and steppe regions of the country successfullydeveloping animal husbandry.
Further Developmentcrafts, especially the production of silk fabrics and products in thispozhvavishala trading period. In Article VI. BC there are metalmoney.
4. Decay of the country(Zhang Го)
Governors of regions over time grew more and more of the kinggovernors of independent tsarkiv. Some of them have become more powerful than the king whorozporyadzhavsya actually only a small region around the capital. Subsequently, statesplit into several kingdoms which fought among themselves.
IV and III. BC known time in Chinese history"Warring (Zhang Го).War was so long and bloody, which, as any documents inThey killed the whole army and many civilians. According to the rule in the countryfought mainly rulers of the seven major areas.
Chinese Coindays "Warring"
In IV. BC in the kingdom Qin werecarried out important reforms. They were conducted on the advice tsinskohodignitary Shang Yana. Reforms enabledcollect large sums of money, which helped organize a number of changes in the army. Theysporyadzhalysya iron weapons (previously bronze). Instead of fighting chariotswas introduced more limber and quick hired horses and learned how to usein neighboring steppe. In the army was introduced stricter discipline. Throughreforms Shang Jana army kingdoms Qinbecame stronger in the army other Chinese kingdoms.
In IV. BC kingdom Qin becomesstrongest among all the major kingdoms. Throughout the century kings Qin waged a bitter fight over dominance in China.
Questions and Tasks
1. Compare the environmental conditions of ancient China, Egypt and SouthSecond anniversary. What they shared and what is different?
2. Which Chinese river called "Wandering River" "China's disaster, to thosenadryvaye heart, the river one thousand ills?
3. Why is the first Chinese state called Shang-Yin?
4. Whatfeature was the development of economy Shang-Yin?
5.Describe the period of China's development during the kingdom Zhou?
6. Why IV andIII. BC China plunged into a period of "Warring (Zhang Го)?