§ 21. Culture Dvorichchia
1. Mythology and religious beliefs
The surrounding world not shared by citizens Dvorichchiathe world of gods and human world. Heroes of their myths and gods lived near the normalmortal. Each thing or phenomenon had its spirit or patron. Sumerians Worshipped by more than 2 000 different gods. Why weremuch more than in Egypt? Because each urban resident to elect a godonly to defend it. According to concepts of Sumer, first there was initialocean from which were born of heaven god Anu and the goddess of the earth Кі.From their marriage were born the sun god UtuGodWisdom EnkiGod of the month Nunnet al.
In the high respect in Sumer was the creatorUniverse FLOODSWho taught the people cultivate the land andpasture, and the goddess of love Inanna (Later – Ishtar). they not only worship but also sacrificed andbuilt temples. Myths and religious ideas Sumerians most clearly reflectedin the era of Gilgamesh.
Epic of Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh -legendary king of Sumer city-states Uruk. Aboutit tells the adventures of one of the oldest poems - "Legend of Gilgamesh. it is written on twelve clay tabletswhich was found during excavations of the capital of Assyria - the city Nineveh.In the poem describes how the actual events and fictional. Gilgamesh – two-thirds god and one – man. So he was always lonely and did not know whereput extraordinary strength. He wanted to dig the mountains, rivers flow backback to build a tower of clouds and lightning many things that is beyond human beings.The people suffered from his tricks from his troubled heart. Complainedresidents Uruk gods for their hard fate.
Gilgamesh (With Schumer. - Ancestors - the hero, with Akkad.- The one that is seen) - 1. The legendary king Uruk(Keen, XXVII - beg. XXVI century BC.). Known as a builder of fortificationsUruk. 2. Mythical hero, god of justice, otherworldly court;hero of the epic Gilgamesh.
I decided to test the power of the gods Gilgamesh.And sent against He mighty Enkidu – napivzvira, Napivlyudynu. Both characters come into the fight,but endowed with the same force could not overcome each other. Then they entered into between the friendship and everlasting covenant.Podruzhyvshys, both heroes have made many exploits.
Decided Gilgamesh and Enkidu free from captivity goddess of love Ishtar. They journeyed to a distant country, the mountains covered withcedar forest. A forest guard scary monster Humbaba Gilgamesh and Enkidu enter intobattle with Humbaboyu and kill him.
Goddess Ishtar falls in love Gilgamesh. But that does not meet its love. Offended and angry Ishtarasks his father, the god of heaven Come, take revenge heroes. And createdAnu terrible god of the heavenly bull and sent it to Uruk.One breath just a few people burning bull. Yet the characters are killed andthis fine bull.
Soon after the victory Enkidu sick and died. Gilgameshbitterly mourned the death of his friend.
"Covered his second face, like a bride,
Himself as an eagle circling above it,
Like a lioness whose whelps are trapped,
Angrily rushes back and forwardhe
Like kuzhil, torn hair
It looks like a stain, coat disrupted.
Depressed fear of death, Gilgamesh leaving no grass lookdeath. At it again waited dangerous adventure and travel. Having won allobstacles, he found himself on the ocean Death. Here GilgameshMet carrier, whose name was Urshanabi. With itswith the king got to the other side of the ocean, where he met an immortal god Utnapipityma. Hero asked him the secret of eternallife. Utnapipitym told Hilhamehlu,how he managed to escape during the flood, organized by angrygods and obtain immortality.
He also informed about the amazing plants on the ocean floor,which could restore youth. Then Gilgameshtied to the feet of stone and dived into the water. He managed to get the plant. And when,seemed goal has been achieved, and the secret exposed, in the way King wassnake. She stole a magic plant, and now could rejuvenate itself by droppingskin. A Gilgamesh understand that people are doomed totime to grow old and die. He wept, returning to his native home. Andwhen Gilgamesh saw a great city built by him UrukHeard velychalni songs that sounded in his honor, hesaid to himself: "I am life without flowers will stay in people's memory forever."
Poem ends conversation Gilgameshwith the spirit of her deceased second Enkidu.
У Babylonians among many gods had main Marduk.According to myths Babylonians, he created the Earth. And it happened in the battle with the goddess Tiammat. At first he ozbroyivsya 15 lights and caused7 typhoons. Having collected them, he rode his chariot and ran towards danger. Marduk killed Tiammat and divided itbody in two, creating one Earth and Sky. Then he created the starspopulated planet and people.
Along with Marduk in Babylonrespect Ishtar (Inannu).She was the goddess of sorrow and beautiful goddess of love. Winadherence Ishtar was not easy. She oftenobrazhalasya and persecuted those who offended her. According to the Babylonians, Ishtar people watched as the planet Venus. Thisstar was the symbol of the goddess Ishtar. When she performedas a goddess of war, its symbol was a lion. Myths also tell thatlosing in a fight her sister, the queen of the world dead Ishtarhad to give her own head. But she told her husband DumuziThat he gave his head. Therefore it was consideredcruel goddess.
Persians worshiped many gods. Priests offered sacrifice to themdifferent animals. But then, during the reign of Cyrus II the Great, the Persiansformed a new religion - Zoroastrianism, in which the main gods were Anhra-Maynyu and Ahuramazda (translated from the Persian - "wiseLords). The founder of this religion was the prophet Zoroaster.According to legend, when he turned 30, he saw a God whospoke about the eternal struggle between good and evil and eternal life for the righteous man.Then he began to preach a new religion. Gradually Zoroastrianismspread in the Persian Empire, and the Zoroaster wasperson of influence at the court of the king.
Jews initially, as well asEgyptians, Sumerians and Babylonians, had many gods. In pre BCthey went to worship one God - Yahweh (Jehovah).This religion was called Judaism. Observant Jews regarded themselves as God's representatives.They strictly followed in ancient times and still follow the commandments (rules)that define Jewish life. Basic Judaism in the 10 commandments, which,Jewish belief, God had written in stone (tablets) and kept in ark (Trunks) in Jerusalem. These commandments: "Honorparents "," thou shalt not kill "," Do not steal, "" Pray not to idols, "do not recall the name of godunnecessarily "," do not work on Saturday and others.
For business correspondence, required a simple and cheapmaterial. But the rush on the banks of the Euphrates and Tiger is growing up. Residents Dvorichchialearned to write a sharp stick to small plates of damp clay. Ifdocument was important, the table was dried in the sun or fired. Thereafterit can be stored for very long. Many of these tablets survived to the presentdays.
First, second anniversary, as in Egypt, "wrote" drawings.But on a damp clay is difficult to draw a complex character or letter, moreover, itrequired a lot of time. One could only cough separate dash - shims.Therefore, residents of ancient writing called Dvorichchia cuneiform. Eachsign was
Descendants of several shims. It marked or a warehouse, orwhole word, like Egyptian hieroglyphics. Overall they produced about a thousandsuch signs. Originating in South biennium, cuneiform quickly spreadFront among the nations of Asia. Cuneiform signs have been read equally by anyliterate person - n't, akkadtsem, Hittites, Assyrians, Elamites orPersians.
Learning to read and write in the biennium was no lessdifficult than in Egypt. Here there were schools for children, where trainedofficials-secretaries. Schools were called "houses of tablets. He headed the schooldirector, who was called the "father of home plate. Students were called "sonshome plate, and assistant teacher - "Big Brother". Big Brotherproduced tablets sample, which then rewrote students. He reviewed the writtentask and forced to tell students studied their lessons.
To school recorded 5-7-year-olds, mainlyboys. By teaching parents brought charges, not counting the extra gifts.
Student Life was not paradise. Lessons were heldand continued daily from east to west. Students sat on mats,outspread on the clay floor. "School supplies" only consisted of lumpsclay, water bowls and chopsticks for painting.
Class does not exist, junior and senior students learn together.In one school children enrolled 20-30.
Junior learned to mash and sculpt clay tablets.Senior rewrote the words. Errors washed with water. The eldest rewrote the mythsand legends, works of Christmas stars and math, the laws of kings.
We had to learn in school in different ways. Some assimilated materialwell, others carelessly. Not quite talented and lazy students were punished. For this, theschool held a special guard, who was called - "whip holder" or"Armed with a cudgel.
Training at school most students finished in 20-25-year-oldage. Graduates of schools appointed to lucrative positions: officer, clerk,warlord, tax collector and so on.
4. Scientific knowledge inhabitants Dvorichchia
The greatest success has been achieved by residents in second anniversarymathematics and astronomy. Day they divided into twenty-four hours ahour for 60 minutes and one minute - 60 seconds.
The Babylonians knew four basic arithmetic and leftwe multiplication and division from 1 to 180 000, which is widelyused in everyday life. The Babylonians were known theoremlater was called the Pythagorean theorem.
In the biennium created the calendar that got spreadCutting across Asia. Year divided by twelve months, each of themit consisted of 29, then 30 days, so that year was 354 days. Errorcompared with the solar year vypravlyalasya introduction leap year, whichnot composed of twelve and thirteen of months.
Already long ago people began to observe the second anniversary sky.Babel priests created a star map. It has been marked all of heavenbody visible to the simple eye. Then it was found twelve signssign (Aries, Taurus, Virgo, Scorpio, etc.).. Priests were able to predict solarand lunar eclipses.
Earth uyavlyalasya flat platesfloating in the ocean. At the top of its cover transparencyryy cover the sky, through which move the stars. The Babylonians believed that the starsaffect the fate of people and nations. ThereforeHaving the second anniversaryare widely practiced divination bystars. People who engaged in suchfortune tozyvalysya astrologers (Fromaster» – star).
Some accomplishments achieved in the second anniversary of medicine. Doctorsdivided by physicians and surgeons. It was believed that the cause of disease issettling in the human evil spirit, demon of disease. Therefore practitionerhad to kick them out through incantation, prayer, witchcraft, burnedwitch figurines and more. Medicines produced from plants: tinctures, ointments, powders.
Babel surgeons were able to do complex operations on the eye.And in case of failure of expected severe punishment (chopped brushhand).
Culture of Ancient Dvorichchia had great influenceneighboring peoples and countries. Many cultural achievements, which usesmodern humanity, in rudimentary form was already known to Sumerians, akkadtsam and Babylonians. They referred to these achievementsother peoples who developed them further.
5. Architecture and sculpture
War and destroyed the most deadly time of architecturalDvorichchia monuments. Besides the basic building blocks of Sumer, akkadtsiv and Babylonians was neobpalena brick, unfortunately,durable. Temples and palaces built on artificial increase to save themfrom flooding.
Each building, housing, temples, palaces, massive walls ofbattlements and towers were a kind of fortress, as had alwaysdefend themselves from enemies. The buildings have a square or rectangular shape. Outside inThey had no windows, doors only. An example is The Palace Sargon II in Dur-Sharrukeni. Hestood on a high rectangular bulk earthen platform. There were the samebanity defense, as in ants. In the center of the palace - a large yard. Left ofit housed the living quarters directly - holidays, right - economically.Each of these three parts was smaller than the central courtyards, located almostchaotic.
Unlike the Sumerians and Babylonians, Assyrians builttheir temples of stone and decorated with sculptures and reliefs of whichdepicting scenes of hunting and military exploits of kings. Particularly striking wereIn animals Novovavylonskomu kingdom artists refusedfrom traditional subjects and have achieved excellence in ornamental buildingsornaments.
Already on images Sumerian craftsmen can be seenbrass, percussion and string instruments. The most common was, apparently, harp.There was even a special "House of Music, where townspeople gathered in orderto enjoy playing virtuoso musicians.
On the second anniversary of the appearance in this art form showscuneiform tablet from the ancient city Uharyt,which was written in Assyrian music songs. It is the oldest knownscientist, recorded music, which almost 1500 years older thanPapyrus of notes from Greece.
Questions and Tasks
1. In religions which existed only people Dvorichchia god?
2. What differed Temples of Ancient Egypt and the second anniversary?
3. What Sumerian cuneiform differed from Persia?
4. Imagine yourself a student of Sumerian and describe her? Schoolday.
5. What are the scientific achievements of the people second anniversary, youopinion, the most important for mankind?
6. Why Gilgamesh decidedreveal the secret of eternal life?