§ 19. Novovavylonske (Chaldeans) kingdom
1. Formation Novovavydonskohokingdom
Babel state as its capital - the city of Babylon is notonce was occupied by conquerors. Around 1600 BC Babylonia hety won but could not hold longit. Instead of them came kasytyWho ruled overBabylonian state four and a half century.
Even enslaved, Babylon remained one of the largestsecond anniversary of cities, its political, economic and cultural center. RevivalBabel independent state began in the reign of King Nebuchadnezzar І (бл. 1124-1103 BC). His rule was the beginning Serednovavylonskohokingdom. However, due to fighting by powerbetween the ruling elite, manor coups, numerous intrusionsAssyrians and residents Elam, The state existed onlyabout 150 years.
In the IX century. BC territory Babylonia Chaldeans came napivkochovi tribes. Some timethey were familiar for themselveslifestyle, engaged in farming and ranching. Subsequently, they not onlysettled in the southern cities of second anniversary, adopted the culture and religion of the Babylonians,and possess a dominant position in the Babylonian society. Members of thispeople have become kings city states that fought for the championship in second anniversary.
But TyhlatpalasarIII,powerful king of Assyria, in 729, the BC defeated Chaldeans. 120 thousandpeople were taken prisoner and. TyhlatpalasarIII proclaimedhimself king of Babylon. And the Chaldeans not resigned and continued fierce fightingagainst the Assyrians, lifting one at a rebellion.
In 689, the BC Assyrian king Sinaherib again destroyed Babylon. To combat Assyriaresidents Babylonia united with his formerenemies, and now the enemies of Assyria - arameyamy andresidents Elam. This struggle led by the Chaldean king Nabopalasar (625-605 BC). Win itstarted to restore the state with its capital in Babylon. Board Nabopalasara consider starting Novovavylonskohokingdom (625-539 BC).
Seal of Babylon
His son NebuchadnezzarII(605-562 BC) was a great conqueror. He extended the boundariesStates won the territory from Iranian Plateau in Egypt. However, Nebuchadnezzar launched a grandiose building in the capitalstate - Babylon. We have built many palaces, temples, canalsand fortifications. His rule - a period of peak Novovavylonskohokingdom.
As in The ancientkingdom, the top of society was the royal court. Besides the king, itbelonged to high officials, ambassadors of Babylon in other countries, foreign prince,who were at the court as a hostage, the king's relatives. Population Babyloniandivided into free men and slaves, as well as ministers of churches and laymen.
Nebuchadnezzar II of Babylon
I am surrounded Babylon with a strong east wall,dug a trench and strengthened its slopes using asphalt and fired bricks. NearI built a den high solid wall. I did a wide gate of cedarobbyv trees and their copper plates. To enemies who conceived evil, notcould enter Babylon from the flank limits, I'm surrounded by its powerful seawaves waters. Overcome them was as difficult as the real sea. Thatprevent breakout on this side, I lifted up on the shore of the shaft and it fired oblytsyuvavbrick. I thoroughly fortified bastions and turned into a fortress city of Babylon.
Inquiries to document
1. What in the descriptionBabylon defensive structures built NebuchadnezzarII,is exaggerated and what is not?
2. What defensefacilities defended city of Babylon?
The temple was the state in the country. Yes, the temple Esahila lands owned half of the country. Representatives of the templeresponsible for trade relations with other states. They traded wooland barley in olive oil and wood. The temple also handed over his fields in leasedfarmers who paid for this agricultural product.
Among the laity the lowest stratum were slaves. However, the levelslave life in a wealthy household may be higher than in the free peasant.Free citizens were engaged in handicrafts. Among them stand out weavers, masons,tsehlyari, blacksmiths and others. Usually profession was hereditary.
2. Babylon - the largest city Dvorichchia
Gate Ishtar. Among gates dedicatedgods, distinguished by its beauty goddess gate Ishtar.They were the main entrance to the city. Massive high square towers, connectedarch, decorated with glazed brick reliefs. On a clear blue background575 notable relief depicting sacred animals - the yellow and whiteyellow with a red mane bulls, and a mysterious beast "sirrush» – napivzmiya-napivptahalegs of a lion, forked tongue, with a horn on a flat head and body,covered with scales.
Presently in PerednoaziyskomuMuseum in Berlin with about 100 thousanddebris gate reproduced in this manner in which they existed in Babylon.Over the land of the former city of Babylon, also played majestically riseGates goddess Ishtar.
Expensive. From the Gate Ishtar startedgreatest in the world at that time an expensive process ("Aybur-Shaba").it had been built to transport goods and people movement. On it, thoughtBabylonians, was himself a god MardukWhich theyworship. The width of the street was 23 m. It had a complex structure: onbrick flooring was laid asphalt, and on top - limestone slab adornedred stone. On both sides the road rose into the sky high walls, of which120 BGN looked threatening with the yellow-red mane.
Palace Nebuchadnezzar II. Another miracle was a huge palace of Babylon NebuchadnezzarII.King claimed he built it for 15 days. The palace was ornaterich bas-reliefs and glazed tiles. Queen's Hall NebuchadnezzarII had a width of 60 m in height andreached 20 of the palacekept military trophies kings of Babylon.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Not far from the palaceHanging Gardens were located, which ancient Greeks later called one of the wondersworld. This multilevel building that looks like a step pyramid, almost all werecovered with plants. At each level grow palm trees, cypresses and other trees. Fortheir irrigation Babylonians created a complex system of irrigation. Inside the buildingworked devices, which supplied water from the Euphrates to each of the floors.Ancient Greek historian Diodorus Sicilianargued that these gardens were built queen Shammuramat(Semiramis), about 800 wasBC However, other data Hanging Gardens NebuchadnezzarIIgave to his wife AmitisThis happened almostthrough 200 years afterSemiramis death.
Tower of Babel. called her Etemenanki - Homecornerstone of heaven and earth ", because it was conceived, was to connect the ground andsky where the gods lived. Babel tower was built on the basis of aoldest zykurativ in King Hammurabi.
Tower of Babel
The inscription on the tower of the king Nabopalassara(VII century BC.) Explained:Mardukcommanded me to build the tower EtemenankiThat to meOld and was brought to ruin, to build the foundation and set it on the chestunderworld, whose top was rising to Inferno ". Dobudovuvaly andTower renovations and successors Nabopalassara. EachThey felt honored to participate in the construction business Etemenanki.
The tower was located near the main temple of Babylon - Esahila. It has 7 levels and reached a height of nearly100 c. Each floor hadits color. On top was a sanctuary, decorated with blue brick, whichglittered in the sun. Tower of Babel was dedicated to the main god - Marduk and his wife. Locals believed that ithere he took brought him gifts. On top of the temple were kept coveredgold horns that were a symbol of power Marduk.
In 1899 began excavations of Babylon,which lasted 18 years. He headed an expedition Robert Koldevey.While studies have found the ruins of the Tower of Babel, hanging gardens,royal palace, the remains of the bridge over the Euphrates, walls and streets.
3. The conquest of Babylon by the Persians
In mid-VI. BC to rule inBegan to claim the second anniversary of the Persian state, which has strengthened and expanded.Persian King Cyrus II found the best way to defeat Babylon without bloodshed.He peremanyv on their side and Babylon know, slaves and prisoners. According to legend,in 539, the BC Cyrus II the Great approached the walls of Babylon and longpondering how to take the city. There were several options: attack, prolonged siegeor stratagem. Eventually, he stopped at last. Persian kingcommanded the excavated channel to divert water from the Euphrates town. When the river obmilila,it became a powerful army and fortified Babylon in its direction. MajorityBabylonians, including King Nabonid and Tzarevich Belshazzar, Did not suspect that the city capturedenemy. At the palace they partied until there is not broke Persians. Inhis last fight Belshazzar died. Although capitalescaped Novovavylonske kingdom ceasedexistence. After that not once stood the great city residents, but theirstruggle was not successful. Kingdom, which lasted more than 1500 years, declined, and Babylon has become a small village.
Herodotus of the capture of Babylon by the Persians
... For three days passed, as was Babylontaken, and some residents still do not know about it. Cyrus took the capital,not met resistance and dealt with Nabonidom ofinherent softness of the vanquished kings. Cyrus was also the firstconqueror, who left Babylon intact. His pride struck the city, andHe not only forbade anything down, but build on their orderedgrave monument of a miniature Tower of Babel.
Inquiries to document
Why Persian King Cyrus captured the cityBabylon, did not destroy it?
Questions and Tasks
1. During whose reign the king Novovavylonskekingdom reached its heyday?
2. Describe an imaginary trip to ancient Babylon.
3. Tell us about one of the architectural wonders of Babylon.
4. As the Persian king Cyrus II managed to capture wellfortified Babylon?
5. Which of the architectural masterpieces of Babylon, in your opinion,incarnate the power of the state? Explain why you think so.