§ 18. Hebrew kingdom
1. The emergence of Israel and the Jews
More than 3 thousand years ago came to Palestinenomadic tribes ibri - "Zarechnoye people. All these namesthe ancient Jews who belonged to a group of Semitic peoples. They ousted from therePhilistines. Over time, the Jews conquered the Egyptians deported to hiscountry turning into slaves. There they engaged in construction, craft, wereservants in wealthy Egyptians. In the XII century. BC Egyptian Pharaohsent Jews to their homeland.
Output 600 thousand. Jews from Egypt to Palestine, as the legend, led prophet Moses. It was for them and the leader and priest, and judge.According to biblical legend, 40 years Moses led his people in Palestine. During this time three generations have changed- A wise leader waited until they die, those who had been born a slave.
On the Edge XI-X century. BC in northern PalestineJews created the state of Israel. According to legend, the founder and first king of it was Saul (1020-1000 рр. BC). Meanwhile in southern Palestinethere was another Jewish state - Judea.
According to biblical legend, during the exit of Jews fromEgyptian captivity was a miracle: water rozstupylys Red Sea, and the Jewsswitched to the opposite shore. their pursuers, who were under the command of Pharaohthem back, rushed after him, but the sea swallowed them.
Seal the king of Israel
2. The kingdom of David and Solomon
After a bloody fratricidal wars of Israel and Judeaunited - formed a state known in history as the Hebrew kingdom.It is believed that the ruler of the newly formed state was David (1000–965 years BC).He was born in Bethlehem. According to one legend, David was a squire in SaulFor another - his brother in law and military leader. Glorifiedvictory over the mighty warrior Goliath the Philistines, which vested in the JewishPhilistines people land in Palestine. Becoming the king built the city of Jerusalemand declared it the capital of the state.
At the end of his life he wrote religious hymns, psalmsand preparing to build the most important temple for the Jews - Jerusalem, whichbecame a symbol of stability and unity of the Jewish people. The temple was built byreign of King Solomon.
Golden light fromTemple
Board son of David - Solomon (965–928 yearsBC) called "golden age" Hebrew state. Hisconsidered wise ruler. Biblical legend tells of a fair trialSolomon. One day he approached two women who have emerged inboy. One dream unintentionally zadavyla child in the morning and replaced himliving child neighbor.
Then each of the women claimed that child alive - justher son. Solomon ordered the guard to cut the baby in half and giveeach. One woman agreed to this and one exclaimed: "Better give your childit just does not kill! "She was the mother and boy.
Since that time and went the phrase "Solomon decision, whichmeans a wise decision.
Solomon expanded the territory of the state, capturing the adjacentland and divided the country into 12 parts, each month the king keptand his inner circle. King of increased taxes and introduced a mandatoryfour months of construction, which developed in the country.
Around Jerusalem Megiddo andother cities were built powerful protective walls. In the capital, built a grandroyal palace and the temple god Yahweh. Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon was a politicaland religious capital of the Jews. At his behest was built shoppingFleet, which usually ships sailed with the Phoenicians. During the reign of SolomonThe international authority of our state.
Special role assigned in Hebrew kingdom prophets. Jews often suffered fromattacks of enemies, their land seized stronger neighbors. In these moments veryvaluable advice was wise and experienced people. Lived prophets are mainly composedfrom the bottom of society, of the king and the temples. They served asyasnovydtsiv and preachers advocated obedience to the king, but sometimes wereactive participants Dvirtseva intrigues. It is believed thatone of the first prophet Moses, who led the Jews from Egypt.
Prophets wrote the first five books of the Bible. In Judaism theyare called "Torah". History kept remembering that in XI century. BCprophet Samuel blessed to reign Saul. In the middle of IX century. BC prophet Eli prevented the association of Jews, Phoenicians and Syrians inone state, because such a merger would lead to the disappearance of the Jewishreligion and culture and fusion of these peoples. In Article VI. BC prophetJeremiah called on the Jews already had their own state, submit to the willBabylonians to preserve their customs and traditions. It is through the prophets and theirof the Jewish people, who for many centuries. experiencedpersecution by the rulers of Egypt and of the second anniversary, was not removed.
3. Hebrew state under foreign domination
After the death of King Solomon's Hebrew statedisintegrated. In 722, the BC king SargonIIAssyria established authority over the land of Jews and forced them to pay tribute. Then46 Jews were burned towns, and thousands of Jews were taken captive. Miraculously, you canconsider saving Jerusalem. The city did not fall under the blows of enemies just becauseAssyrians in the camp began plague.
At the beginning of Article VI. BC City of Jerusalemconquered ruler Novovavylonskoho kingdom NebuchadnezzarII, which killed Jews in "Babyloncaptivity. After the conquest of Babylon by the Persians allowed the Jews to return to the paston their land. But the land of Jews who have not united in one state,later, in 332, the BC, captured AlexanderMacedonian. Later they joined the Egyptian state. In 1963 BCland of the Jews became the Roman province. Ancient Jewish state ceasedexistence.
Questions and Tasks
1. What role in the history of the ancient Jews, according to legend, playedMoses?
2. The more famous for their kings David and Solomon?
3. What was the role of prophets in the history of HebrewState?
4. What do you think, why not save the Jewish peopleown religion and culture ruled by invaders?
5. What the rulers of Israel-Jewish kingdom youknow? How are they famous?