Theme 3. FrontAsia
§ 14. Nature and the population of the South second anniversary
1. Geographical location and nature of the South second anniversary
In the mountains Armenians originate two rivers: Euphratesі Tiger. They flow southeast and empty into the Persianbay. A country that was in antiquity situated on the banks of two rivers(In the middle and lower reaches), called Biennium. The Greeks called it -Mesopotamia their language means Mesopotamia. Due to riversediments for many centuries and millennia southern coast of the Gulf obmiliv,Gulf itself retreated to the south.
Spills of the Euphrates and Tiger is not like the Nile spills -short, rapid and often unexpected. When the spring in the mountains of Armeniastarts melting snow, the two rivers overflowed, out of coastand filled the neighborhood. Especially dangerous during flood tide when the water inGulf rises. Then pour the water of rivers throughout the country. It is inSecond anniversary of the myth arose Deluge, who allegedly destroyed almost everything inland. Therefore people who lived here were in constant fear of flooding.When water is gradually decreased, it left a thick layer of oil-sludge. This superficialsoil is very fertile.
Summer in the Southern biennium too hot: heat reaches 50 ° Cin the shade. From the scorching sunshine on the hills all vyhoralo. And in the lowlandszastoyuvalas water and formed impenetrable swamp. They swarmed differentinsect bites of some of them could be fatal to humans. So hereoften raging fever, malaria and other diseases.
Thus, in the earliest era of the Southern TerritorySecond anniversary was a few are suitable for the resettlement of people. The first settlers probablycame here, not willingly, but persecuted severe need (lack of food andonslaught of enemies).
The myth of the Deluge
Much time has passed since the will of the godsthe first people there. It was their lot on earth, and they began to clamor and noisetheir gods too troubling. The gods became angry at the people and decided to plunge the earth. But good god Еаreported a righteous man named Utnapishti,saying: "It is time to save his life! Build huge arkdurable equipment and cut roof. Reliable prosmoly his thick resin. ThenThe head to his loved ones, all animals with a take, do not forget to grain,and after you come alone, all doors securely pozachynyay and pitch them. "
And god Draw Еаon earth picture of the ark. Built Utnapishtiark, taking with him his family, skilled craftsmen, as well as domestic and wildanimals.
So black cloud draggedwhole sky, terrible thunder god of thunder. In the afternoon became dark as night. There was a big storm, andlater flood. All live on the ground were killed. Evenflood forced the gods begin to throb.
When six days and seven nights endinghurricane and sun peeked out, the water began to subside. Lukasevich has Utnapishtidove, and flew it back, he found the water-free space. Lukasevich has itswallow, and she came back with nothing. Lukasevich has crow, raven and found land. Itwas the top big mountain. Accost to land the ark, and it came out of people and animals.
At the top of the mountain Utnapishtipoured reeds and twigs and lit a fire and brought the gods of sacrifice. The gods were gladsacrifice and forgiven the people who survived the flood.
2. The first inhabitants of the South second anniversary
In the IX-VIII thousand BC in the valley of the Euphrates and the Tigerappeared first residents. In thousands of V-IV BC South Dvorichchiazaselyalosya from both sides. Up the valleys of these rivers moved Sumerians. Maintheir settlements were on the second anniversary south, in the Persian Gulf. Thiscountry was named Schumer.
From the west and northwest at about this timepenetrated immigrants who obtain title akkadtsiv. They differed from the Sumerians language. Settled akkadtsinorth of the Sumerians. They called the state Akkad.
The main occupation of the South second anniversary of the population in thousands VI-IVBC was agriculture and animal husbandry. Rivers, lakes and the Persian Gulfinfested fish. In canebrake hnizdylysya waterfowl. In neighboringsteppes ran wild bulls, gazelles, ostriches and small game. Therefore, residentsSouth Dvorichchia also engaged in hunting and fishing.Most dangerous predators are lions.
Stone, metal and wood in the South was the second anniversary. In placewere only abundant clay and reeds, which are widely used. Sofirst housing wove the reed, which daubed with clay.
The main wealth was the second anniversary of the Southern land. Veryfertile soils give good harvests. Herodotus told: it was enough to throwseeds in the soil since the recession of water, let there herd of pigs that they vtoptalythese seeds into the ground, then you can collect the harvest is ready. One sowngive a grain of fifty to a hundred grains. On one palm tree grown for the yearto 50 kilograms dates. In these harvests human labor gave more thanneed for a worker living.
But do farming in unfavorable naturalconditions were difficult. In the north, in AkkadNot enoughwater for irrigation. And in the south, in Sumer, in contrast, often flooding occurred andarea was waterlogged. But they did not retreat before difficulties. Theybuilt canals for irrigation and land drainage of wetlands. Constructed artificialembankments, dams and reservoirs, and the Mound goals hills on which the city emerged.
Terms and Notions
Irrigation - Irrigation system and water drainage inagriculture.
Hard work residentsSecond anniversary of the South building of water works turned this river valleyflourishing in a country where good harvests were gathered bread, vegetables and fruit.
3. City-states. Facilities in Southern Dvorichchia IV-III thousand BC
First and Sumerians akkadtsifought among themselves. They founded many cities: the South Ур, Uruk, Eridu, Lagash, and in the north - Akkad, Marie, Assyria. Each city was the capitalsmall state, which included the city and urban districts. Therefore, suchsmall polity historians call city-state. Headedcity-state owner, who called the Sumerians Lugal ("Great man") and akkadtsi – sharru.
Of course the city was near the canal, from which werewater for irrigation of fields and gardens. On small boats, interwoven with flexiblebranches covered with skin, people swam channels from city to city.
Construction materials in the second anniversary was clay, from whichmade bricks. With mud bricks built everything - houses, temples, palaces. InSecond anniversary of fuel was scarce. Because brick is baked, but simply dried in the sun.But neobpalena brick crumbles easily. As a city wall built of suchthickness to the top on it could get visas.
On the second anniversary of cultivated crops - millet, barley,wheat, which gave high yields twice a year. Also planted vegetables - garlic,onions, cucumbers and more. The main fruit trees was the second anniversary Finikovpalm. its called the "tree of life". From the dates produced differentsweets and flour, seeds used as fuel in vyplavlyanni metalsfibers of bark rope and wove baskets. Local farmers invented the plow, whichwas easy to plow the soil. Sumerians bred sheep and cattle. Underwhile plowing in a plow harnessed oxen and donkeys, with their help and threshed grain.
Worked in the city skillful craftsmen. Almost everything in the bienniummade of clay: wine barrels, dishes, toys, sickles with stone teeth,nails, pipes and even a coffin. It was the second anniversary of first appeared clayenvelope in which invested clay sheets. The legend that the man of God zlipyvclay, also occurred in this country. In III thousand BC artisans began tomanufacture of bronze tools and weapons.
Cities were also the bustling trade and exchange. ResidentsDvorichchia traded in other nations grain, wool, fabric and dates on the tree,stone and metals.
On the second anniversary of the great flood happened sometimes - floods.Major floods have occurred around 3300 and 2900 BC Weredestroyed almost all the cities and killed many people. But with timeLife resumed. Sumerians began to keep count of their histories of these events.Time counted in generations, for example: "In the third generation after the Flood inUrutsi ruled Gilgamesh».
4. City-states of III thousand BC
In the south second anniversary, when there in the IV thousand. BC Sumerians came already existing agriculturalsettlement. In their place later, almost simultaneously with the emergence of state in EgyptSumerian cities were formed. Usually they were placed on increasing and were protected by walls. The population in some ofthey reached 40-50 thousand. people.
The largest cities in the south were the second anniversary: Ур, Uruk, Lagash, Babylon et al. Gradually they became smaller countries, to whichentered the city and the land around it. The most important buildings Sumerof irrigation system and was the main temple. He could have a stonefoundation, although most residents living in small huts of clay.First, the important questions of life were resolved at the meeting. But in situationswhen decisions must be adopted quickly (turbulent flood, urgent workor repair of irrigation systems), urban dwellers were prescribed person who decidepressing issues of daily life. He was called «ensi». In the hour of danger Sumerianselected kings - LugalWho served asmilitary commander. Sometimes the power ensi and Lugal concentrated in one hand. Subsequently begantransmit power in the inheritance. So the government, which previously belonged to the people where movedone person - a monarch.
Between the second anniversary of city-states waged a struggle forfertile land. To protect their lands several cities united in the military alliances. Subsequently, these unions have becomethe persistent and became the basis of the formation of powerful states. In the first bienniumface state Akkad, Schumer, ElamOne of the attractions of the kings Akkad was Sargon (2316 – 2261 BC) whose name translated means"True king". According to one version, he had no highbornlong served as a gardener and chashonostsem in Lugal city of Kish. In another version he was kingMinister. When the king of Kish was removed from power, Sargontook over management of the city, and later became king of Akkad.
Having taken the throne, he decided to expand their knowledge andbegan to prepare for war with Schumer. According to legend, was driven to thisSumer King refusal to give his daughter married Sargon.To win over the enemy akkadskomu king had to createarmy of 5 400 people.Cities Schumer joined together to confront the army Sargon.But in the final battle of the military was on the side of happiness Akkad.Almost all Lugal Sumerian cities captured and broughtin the gods. After defeating Schumer Sargonconquered Syria, Elam: Created a great state.
Peak is built Sarhozomstate reached by Naramy-Suena (бл. 2236-2200 BC). The ruler called himself the grandgod king of the four winds and ordered to represent themselves in hats,decorated with horns, which were considered a symbol of authority of the gods. After death Naramy-Suena lack of strong state governor Sargon gradual downfall. Separated from it onceconquered the city and state, particularly Elam.
Later came the tribes of the earth Dvorichchia Highlanders Kut. In the legends they are reported as severeconquerors that the terror of the local population. However, most of the landsecond anniversary in the south was not conquered cornerAndSumerian cities began to quickly recover and develop. Largely thisfacilitate trade between different nations, which was conducted through the Gulfcoasts located south Sumerian city.
One of the greatest city was Ур.Ur kings managed to extend its authority to other southern cities Dvorichchia. theirdomination continued until such time as the more powerful tribes Amoritesnot captured the city in the middle flow of the Euphrates and then some cities in the south.
Conqueror founded his dynasty, the most powerfulwere in the cities Lars andIsin.At that time, increased power Dvorichchia another city - Babylon.
1. Tell us about the natural environment and inhabitants of the SouthSecond anniversary.
2. Describe how the struggle of people with adverse naturalconditions in Egypt and South biennium. What was common, but other than thateconomy in both countries?
3. Compare the writing of the inhabitants of the South second anniversaryWriting Egyptians. What they shared and what is different?
4. Why spills in Egypt Nile River was considered goodgod, and the second anniversary of the two rivers (especially Tiger) were considered evil gods?
5. Why Myth of Noah's Flood was born inBiennium?
6. What part of the second anniversary called Schumer and which - Akkad?
7. What other names has the second anniversary?
15. Ancient Babylon
1. The rise of Babylon
City Babylonappeared in Article XXIII. BC Founders - Sumerians - called him Kadinhirr, Which translated means "gate of God" in akkadskomu – Bab-Ili. Afterconquest of the city Amorites for it is entrenched akkadska name - Babel. Amorites,who founded the first dynasty of Babylon, built walls around thensmall town and proclaimed it the capital of his state. Thus beganhistory The ancient kingdom.
At the beginning of the XVIII century. BC, after almost two centuriesbloody wars between city-state second anniversary, three of them - Marie Lars and Babylon - united under his power much ofterritory of Mesopotamia. After a long enmity among them won the championshipBabylon.
Babylon is located in a very convenient location - in theDvorichchia center, where the rivers Tigris and Euphrates rivers converge near. Hereconcentrated as water and caravan paths Front Asia. WorldwideBabylon was famous as a big rich city. He became a significant trade centerand the capital of an independent kingdom. The greatest power in II thousand BCreached by Babylon Hammurabi, whichreigned from 1792 to 1750 BC
For nearly 30 years he constantly fought. Hammurabi conquered the city-state Uruk, Lars, Assyrian and other and became the owner of a huge territory.His kingdom united territory of city states as Sumer and Akkad. Hammurabi became king inyouth, but he ruled wisely and judiciously. He made important changes in the country.Initially canceled debts of poor men, to subdue the temples, the country divided intoarea, managed by royal officials. Caring about the welfare of the country,ordered taxes and banning the sale of land for the debts and established control overtrade.
But the most famous king of compiling a collection of laws(Code), which had 282 paragraphs.
Terms and Notions
Law - A written document which set out the rules definedstate. The role of law is to regulate relations in society.
2. Legislation Hammurabi
At the beginning of XX century. Archaeologists have found a pillar of solidblack stone above the height of a man. Almost all of it covered with cuneiformsigns. At the top was a picture: seated on the throne bearded god of the sunShaman, before him, lower in height, in respectful posture is king. GodSun's hands Hammurabi rod - a sign of power over people.Everything that happens in heaven and on earth sees the sun Shamash- Heavenly ruler and judge, but Hammurabi - Earth.Next comes the inscription, where King talks about his glorious acts.
But the main thing that was carved on that black stone -legislation Hammurabi, One for Babylonkingdom. Judged by these laws those who violate established in the stateorders and rules. Residents of the Babylonian kingdom knew that for anysevere penalty infringement intended.
In his introduction to the laws of the king Hammurabiproclaims the goal: "give justice to shine in the country, to destroy wickedness andevil so strong not weaker oppressed.
During the reign Hammurabipunishment was too harsh, often the culprit condemned to death orskalichennya. Lighter penalty considered applying lashes orexpulsion from their homes. Criminals usually forced to experience the same thingthey caused their victims. Hammurabi seenjustice is to render, as they say, "eye for eye, tooth for tooth." Not prychynyayanother such injury or damage that he did not want to experience or feel.
Condemned to death for theft of property bydisobedience to the king, for killing, even when it was done accidentally. Aif someone broke another man's bone, a tooth knocked out or ushkodyv eye, then winealso knocked out an eye or a tooth or broken bone.
In each city the king had asked officials - judges.Accusations without proof, the court did not accept. To accept his decision, the courtlistened to witnesses. If not managed to find witnesses to a crime, indictedled to a river. There he was forced to plunge into the water. If he tonuv, means -God took him to the river itself as the culprit. If he managed vyplyvty thenit was considered pure and innocent before the gods. In this case, his accusers were subjected to death penalty asvicious detractor.
The law was standing guard over private property: for theftproperty, a servant or slave punished by death. Severe punishment awaited those who carelesslytreated their professional duties: to strengthen the levees, canalsetc.. If a builder build a house badly, it collapse and kill someone,son such owner, is this a need to kill the son of the builder. If the newleaking ship, the ship's master had funds to build itsanother. Farmers, from whose fault proryvalasya dam and zalyvalys while foreign fields, was to compensateloss to neighbors. And if the losses are so big that wine did not havefunds, it sold all its property and even he himself, and the money distributed to victims.
Legislation Hammurabi mentionedand slaves ("vardumy"). Servants have bought andsold as well as livestock and any other property. By killing servantpunished the same way as for the murder of an ox. Yet the servant could complain about hismaster in court (denying his servile position). In this case the hosthad to prove in court their right to the slave. Office could use the propertyeven have his servant or slave, married with a free.
Terms and Notions
Rent - A temporary useanything for a fee.
Of the laws we learn that sometimes a person has in rentland, gardens and livestock. This man called tenant. ByUse a subordinate field rent - One third the harvest at school - two thirds. The field canwas to rent and under polovynschyny (half the crop). In this case, the landowner hadhelp tenants working cattle and sowing material.
Sometimes farmers need land, seeds and livestock,artisans - raw materials and small retailers - goods. Then they took grain or money borrowed underinterest. And if the farmer was in debt five sacks of grain, then a yearhad to return for six sacks. In the off year of collecting a debttransferred to the times were better. Some people give money or property of interestwhile nazhyvalys. called usurers.
If one could not turn to borrow, oftenvidroblyaty it had in the farm lender. Borg vidroblyav not alonedebtor and his wife or children, and only for three years. Itcalled bondage. People who fall into bondage, unlike slavesprotected by law. If the debtor gave the uncle of her son, selling hishost could not. Where a debtor's son died from beatings or ill-treatment, in this case a sign of punishment killed the son of uncle. So the king Hammurabi protecting their subjects from mass turnover inslavery.
Legislation Hammurabi establish severe penalties for libelchildren for insulting his father or guardian of perjury. If you hit your sonfather chopped his wrist.
Disputes about debtsoften considered in court. Interestingly, the loan agreements were recorded on grainclay boards. Box cover new layer of clay and repeat it. If a dispute arose, thethe top layer removed and zviryaly text of the treaty with the words of those who argued.Trade agreements and debt skriplyalysya own seal, which each hadBabylon.
From the laws of the king Hammurabi
At the end of the text of its laws the king Hammurabi urged his people: "Let him force himselfI read a memo written by and let him hear my precious words, but mymonument let him show his work. Let him see your mind, letcalms my heart and I shall say: "Hammurabi,ruler for the people as their parents, rightly ruled the country! "
Inquiries to document
Why Hammurabi called himself the "family father" for the people andbelieves he manages the country fair?
4. Babel society under the laws Hammurabi
Laws king Hammurabi give usidea of The ancient society. Ledstate was king. He wassupreme ruler, judge, priest, was considered God's vicar on earth. Kinghad unlimited power and ruled the country with a large number officials. These "servants" of the state gatheredtaxes were accounting harvest, to determine which work and for how long havedo farmers in favor of the king and the temples.
Privileged stratum in the ancientsociety were warriors. their property could not be away for a debt for servicethey got the land which could inherit the son or wife warrior. But the soldier,which did not come to the venue for the military campaign could execute.
Farmers in The ancientkingdom living communities, whose members built along canals and dams. Theyaccounted for most of the population of the state, but the privileged stratapopulation did not belong. Farmers have small land holdings, they tilled the onefamily. All members of the community worked together on construction and repair of canals anddams. The farmers could save or convert the land for some time on slavesif they were not able to repay in time for planting corn or otherdebt. Since it acquired the threatening dimensions, Hammurabicanceled the debts of poor and also restricted the term debt slavery.
Society consisted of several segments of the population: AviLoum("Sons of man") - Full free citizens, owners of communal lands; mushkenum (Deflected) - free, butnepovnopravni citizens, usually the poorest landless peasants; vardum (Slaves). Recently had to wearspecial plate on the chest, often they shaved and painted pivholovycustom tattoos, kept them in chains. Servants have been possible to sellpresent. Overall Babylon society was similar to mostancient oriental societies.
Died Hammurabi in 1750BC During the reign of his successors were the years of gradual relaxationand fall of the Babylonian kingdom. Weakened by internal strife Babylonia disintegrates into small states. Around 1600BC under the blows of invaders being retired potentate Hammurabi.
5. The economic life of Babylon
Agriculture. The main branch of economy The ancientempire was irrigational agriculture.Just as in Egypt, the people diligently and persistently worked hard toconvert the land into a blooming land. They built canals, dams and removeexcess water or irrigation. Channels were convenient way for boats.Babylonians cultivated barley, millet, wheat, flax, peas, onion, garlic,cucumbers. "Tree of Life for People and the Euphrates Valley Tiger was a date palm.ate its fruit, leaves and stems are used as buildingmaterial, stone - as fuel.
Craft. У The ancient kingdom were widespreadpottery, teslyarstvo, weaving, blacksmithing. Served as raw material for craftsmenclay, cane, wool, leather, linen and imported metals. Local craftsmen producefabrics, carpets, weapons, utensils. Respect to the Babylonians crafts showsthat God Еа - Patron of all craftsmen - was consideredalso the god of wisdom.
An important sector was construction. Forconstruction and poor houses, and temples and palaces made use ofand burnt clay bricks in the oven. High skill attained in Babylonbuildings decorated tiles that and has kept the brightness of colors.
Trade. Growth and contributed to its enrichment Babylon geographicallocation at the crossroads of trade routes. Neighboring peoples were brought from everywheretheir products here: stone, metal and wood suitable for building, cattle,fur, skin and hair. And even from India brought ivory, spicesetc.. Instead, residents Dvorichchia sold grain, dates, oil, pottery,fabrics, carpets, refined metal products.
As a measure of value of goods used silver. Butpoor generally do not have this metal, so had to exchange goodsthe grain; If necessary, they borrowed grain from churches or wealthy neighbors.Instead, the owners of grain demanded not only the return of borrowed, but also fees forUse borrowed, that is of interest that were very large. Gradually, inBabylon society appeared userers- People who were only giving loans at high interest rates. If the debtordid not return borrowed time, they could take away housing, land and personalproperty and even turn them into slaves.
Questions and Tasks
1. Oryou agree with the statement that the most constructivevishoyu basis state is written in presence laws? His responsejustification.
2. Why,you believe in the laws Hammurabi neredbachalys severe punishment?
3. BasedAnalysis of the Law concludes attitude of the king Hammurabito his subjects.
4. Aboutwho cared Hammurabi in their laws? Whatsituation differed a person who vidroblyala debt situation of slaves?
5. Explainwords: rent, rents, disastersVar,bondage.
6. Whatscientific knowledge developed in the second anniversary? As they helped in the life of its inhabitants?
7. Hammurabi and successfully fought a lot, but preface to hishe boasted no laws victories, and his righteousness. As you think he will pretendor said that thinking?
8. WhatLegislation Hammurabi seems spraand privileges and that unfair?