§ 11. The heyday of ancient EgyptianState
1.The conquest of Egypt Hyksos
PharaohsAncient kingdom generously handed out land temples, nomoviynobility. Over time nomarchThat do not yield to richesbefore Pharaoh turned into independent rulers, and power wasgrieved. Once powerful, the lords of Egypt died of conspiracy, and in the stateconfusion reigned. Thus, 2173for 70 days in Egypt has changed 70 Pharaohs.
Passedalmost 200 years beforeEgyptians managed to reunite the country and restore power was strong.On board Mentuhotepa II day began Midkingdom (2040-1786BC). However, the state was unable toresist the penetration into the territory of nomadic tribes of Asia. In the secondhalf XVIII century. BCtribes Hyksos captured the eastern part of the delta, wherefounded their own capital – Avaris. Inmiddle XVII. BCthey managed to extend the power of almost the entire country (except Thebes)and establish their own dynasty rulers of Egypt. Hyksosruled the country over 100 years.
EgyptianPharaohs, who maintained their power in Fivane ofcountry led withHyksos long struggle thatvictory over the Egyptians. Came to the throne YahmosI (1552-1527 BC). Since his reign beganperiod New Kingdom (1552-1069 bienniumBC).
2. Convert the mighty EgyptState
PharaohYahmosAnd ruled over 25 years. During this time he succeededunite under his authority exempt from Hyksoscountry. His successful military campaigns began to transform Egyptmighty world power.
PeriodNew Kingdom was marked by the rule of Pharaoh, which left its mark on thehistory. On accomplishment of these kings showed great monuments in their honor,built around Egypt. Along with the men in the Egyptian throne, and descendingwomen. Mighty ruler was the "first among the most beautiful" – tsarinaHatshepsut (1490-1468 BC). Becomingregent (temporary ruler) of the minor son – ThutmoseIII,she reigned 21 year. Hatshepsut became famous war termination, constructionchurches and organization of the expedition by sea scent deep into the Africancontinent.
ThutmoseIII (1490-1436 BC), who took power intheir hands after the death of his mother, by contrast, was a great warrior. His successfulmilitary campaigns have turned Egypt into one of the most powerful statesancient world. ThutmoseAnd later his descendantsconquered neighboring countries: Palestine, Syria, Phoenicia, Nubia.
Pharaohdecorated the stately buildings of the country.
3. Reform Akhenaten
Byreign of King Amenhotep IV (1353-1336 BC) a significantchanges in Egyptian society. He became pharaoh when he was17. His parents were king and queen of Amenhotep III Tiya. Wife of Amenhotep IV Nefertiti("Beautiful Alive – the translation of its name) was considered onethe most beautiful women of Egypt.
Amenhotep IVdecided to change the religious practices of the society. Egyptians was orderedworship one God in the image of the solar disk – Aton. Thisreform sought to elevate and strengthen his power and simultaneously reduce the impacton society of priests and officials. Pharaoh changed his name to Akhenaten and shifted the capital fromThebesto Ahetatona.
Proclamationone God, particularly priests met with hostility temples of god Amon,Worshipped by the Egyptians. Reforms Akhenaten notonly deprived of their impact on society and the Pharaoh, but also profits fromTemple farms.
SingleAten cult lasted until the death of Pharaoh, and in the future although some Egyptiankings who professed a religion founded by him, called themselves "Bech-en-Athens"- Sun mapping.
Afterdeath of Amenhotep IV priests moved the capital back to Thebes,his name erased from all inscriptions, and this was the worst punishment for the Egyptian. Reform,not supported by the country's population, weakened the power of Pharaoh. This advantageEgypt conquered peoples who attempted to escape, and the HittiteState that claimed the land of the valley Nile. Eventually this led to prolongedwar between the two countries.
4. War RamsesIIGreat with hetamy
HistoricalResources saved messages bloody battle between the Egyptians and by hetamyduring the reign of Pharaoh RamsesII(1304-1236 or 1289-1224 biennium to BC). The first clash with a powerful enemy was held during the campaignRamsesII in Palestine.
Ramses II calledEgyptian giant stature as king was 2 m 10 cmHe lived 90 years, 65 of which was the king of Egypt.
Battle under Kadesh. Decisive Battlebetween the two forces occurred near the castle Kadesh,which possessed hety. This event dates from the fifth year the Board of Pharaoh. In ScientistsNo consensus on when it happened: 1300 p., 1286 p. or1275 p. to. BC
RamsesII, gathered troops, went to hike. He dividedhis army into four groups, each of which gave the name of Egyptian gods: Amon, Ра, Suhet,Bird. The first troops were led by RamsesII – «Ра"And"Amon. Theyadvanced "Bird" and "Suhet, Who during the campaignslightly behind the other. Near the fortress troops "Amon"and "Ра"Set up camp and decided to wait approachall departments.
Bycommand of the king was conducted intelligence, which reported that no enemy around. RamsesII decided not to wait for groups "Bird" and "Suhet"And immediately start storming the castle. But troops Hittites,who outwitted exploration of Egypt, the river suddenly forsuvaly Orontand rapid attack squad defeated "Ра"And burstto the host of Pharaoh. Hittite chariot mercilessly destroyed Egyptian army.Egyptians brave fight, but without groups "Bird" and "Suhet"they could not win. The young Pharaoh, surrounded by personal bodyguards, stood indesperation on the battlefield and only prayed to god for salvation.
In thishety began to rob a train Pharaoh, for they saw that all Egyptian troopsalready won. RamsesII jumped into the chariot andattacked by enemies.
Egyptiansboldly captured their king, gathered in groups and given repulse the enemy. Hetydid not expect such actions and began to retreat. their king – Muvatallis (Muvatalla) Thrown into the battle last reserve – one thousandchariots.
With the agreement of the Egyptian Pharaoh RamsesIIking of the Hittites in 1278 BC
Let there be peace and brotherhood fine between childrenchildren Hittites and the great kingRamses, Mighty king of Egypt. Egypt andCountry Hittites let live, as we are, in peaceand brotherhood of all times ... If you go any enemy possessions against Ramses,let Ramses tell a grand King Hittites: go with me against him with allthy forces ... If Ramses angry at theirservants when they raise a rebellion, and will tame it, togethermust go with him and the king of Hittites ... Allwritten on the silver board one thousand gods and goddesses country Hittitesundertake to abide by onto bearone thousand gods and goddesses of Egypt. They are witness my words
Inquiries to document
What commitments have RamsesIIHittites and the king in terms of peace?
AndEgyptians again found themselves in a quandary. But perhaps the gods were on the side RamsesII, because the troops approached the battlefield "Bird" and "SuhetAnd hit on hetah. Close was a victory of Pharaohbut completely prevented the Hittites to break overnight and strong fortress, where the hidden infantry Hittites,which Muvatallis never dared to throw into battle. Forcesto storm the fortress Ramses already had. To savearmy, Pharaoh retreated. After the Battle KadeshWar between Egypt and hetamy lasted another 18 years. RamsesIImanaged to make peace in which the monarchs of both countries not only stop the war, but alsoobligated to help one another. Soon Hittites conquered "peoples of the sea".
Sea Peoples - Yes Egyptians called the peoples who lived northeast of Egypt (onwest and south of Asia Minor). In the XIII century. BC These nations have formedpowerful military alliance. Twice they attacked Egypt and both times camefrom the sea, and therefore got the name "sea peoples". But their attacks werefailure. Subsequently, these people settled in the islands and the MediterraneanSea.
5. Decline of State
About1069 BC State again split into two parts – Topand Lower Egypt. Between their rulers waged a fierce struggle for supremacyover the whole territory of Egypt. This was the beginning of the decline of the state. Weakenedcountry was first captured by Assyrians, and later - the Persians.
In 332, theBC Egypt got the power AlexandraMacedonian, one of the most powerful rulers of the ancient world.Governors in conquered country was appointed Ptolemy,general Alexandra Macedonian. He foundedthe last dynasty of kings of Egypt.
In51-30 years BC rule the country best known representative of this dynasty – Cleopatra VII.Queen dreamed about the revival power of the state. But her dreams were not fatedhappen because the Romans conquered Egypt - new masters Mediterranean.
To395 was BC country remained Roman province. In the VII century. BC itsconquered the Arabs, who finally changed the customs, traditions, culture and religionEgypt.
Questions and Tasks
1. What was the religious reformAkhenaten?
2. Name the Egyptian Pharaonic era of prosperity and yearstheir rule.
3. How many troops have divided theirArmy Ramses II and how it affectedthe outcome of the battle of Kadesh?
4. Why decline Ancient Egyptian state? Consider whyReligious reform Akhenaten provoked resistance and notfailed.