Topic 2. Ancient Egypt
StudyAncient Egypt opens a page of history ancient civilizationsworld. History of Ancient Egypt began long before the valley of the River Nileabout thousand V BC came the tribes of farmers and herdsmen. Hugenumber of animals and birds and lots of water, which does not disappear when the heatamplified, contributed to dwell on these tribal lands. Gradually, people learnednot only to cultivate the land, but also to irrigate their fields with water from the Nile and shuntexcess water during floods. The population of the river valley prospered, the numberpopulation grew. Surplus food has provided the opportunity to developcraft. Some of the people already could not engage in agriculture, andproduce tools, household items, clothing, buildbuildings for different purposes. Development of craft was an impetus for developmenttrade. She urged the Egyptians to raise the sails and set off in search ofunknown lands for marketing their products.
Periodwhen there was no history of Egypt or the majestic state or powerful rulersthat would transfer authority over these lands in heritage to their descendants, iecreated a dynasty historians call Dodynastychnym.
Subsequentlyhere there were two kingdoms: one in Upper Egypt, the second – in the bottom. Laterthey joined forces and formed a single state. Nearly 3000 yearsState Rule 30 dynasties of kings, pharaohs. This period is calledDynastic. Dynastic period is conventionally divided into periods Tinisa,Ancient, Middle and New Kingdom. There were still Sayiskyy,Persian periods, period Ptolemaic and severalTransition when the country suffered from internecine wars and ruled itdynasty invaders.
Fromof states began raising the Egyptian culture. The Egyptians wereone of the first people who invented writing. Ancient artists have created manyartistic masterpieces, but builders have built amazing temples and pyramids, whichstill amaze mankind. In fact, the flourishing state reached during the period of the Newkingdom during the rule of kings ThutmoseIII,Amenhotep IV, RamsesII. Ancient HistoryEgyptian dynasty ended Ptolemaic andQueen Cleopatra VII. During her reign Egypt fell under the rule of the powerfulRome. It happened in 1930 BC
Egypt and Southwest Asia inold days (before the end second millennium BC)
§ 7-8. FormationAncient Egyptian state
1. Nature and the population of Egypt
Egyptlocated in the northeast part of the African continent. Its territorywashed by the Mediterranean and Red Sea. Hot climate of Egypt. During the day there wasincredible heat. The temperature seldom falls below 25 ° C. Nights of the sameConversely, were cold and sometimes frosty. Much of theAncient Egypt occupied the desert: Libyan, Nubian and Sahara. The latter is nowis the largest on the planet. Ancient Egyptians called the red deserts of theseearth "De Sheret"-" Red earth ". Amongheated sand island flowering occurred - oasis – place in the desert, where vegetation andwater.
Here,near water sources, the traveler can rest from the heat and add to reserveswater.
Fromsouth to north through the desert in Egypt is the longest river of its waterWorld – Nil. It originates in the mountains among the majestic lakes and snowand flowing into the Mediterranean Sea. The mouth of the Nile branches out to manysmall river-sleeves, which form delta(triangular area of marshy land where the river before falling into the seadivided into many branches).
Traditionallyland in the Pearl River called Lower Egypt. Upstream reachesUpper Egypt. All life in ancient Egypt depended on the Nile. It looks like a man, Neilrhythmic "breathing", rozlyvayuchys floods every year. In June, when the horizonrising star Sirius, the water in the river gradually started arriving. Neil went out ofcoast, zatoplyuyuchy flat land. Zmyvav rains come their way.Changing color of the water. First it was green from algae, and then becamebright red from the soil that are washed river on their way. At this timeriver came to life. Midst of the waters appeared goals cane forests – papyrus, flew a large numberbirds.
Onearly September, water gradually began to subside. By November, Neil wentto their shores. In the valley of the river remained fertile silt, which gave life andthe name of the prosperous valley of the Nile. Not without reason this part of the country on both banks of the river ancientEgyptians called "Ta-Kemet» – "Black earth". Amongancient Egyptian gods and a god (Hapi), Which,their view, led the Nile spills. Over the next three to four monthsafter flooding the weather was stable and favorable for the plants. The entire river valleyvkryvalasya greens and bloomed. It SciruskiThis ancient Greek historian Herodotus Egypt named Gift of the Nile. But withouthard work of people unlikely that gift was used.
Ancestors of modern Egyptians, who came into the valley of the Nileduring the Neolithic – more than 6500 years ago (in thousands to VBC) brought with them domesticated sheep and goats. Unlike the ancientValley residents who gathered wild barley, they began to grow wheat.Old farmers cultivated and date-palms, grapes, and flax. Over time, domesticatedducks, geese, cattle.
Diodorus Sicilian nature of Egypt
"... Egypt extends to the south ... Westhe protected Libyan desert, whereusual huge number of wild animals, which stretches for long distances, lack of water and any food makes the journey through not only difficult but alsoreally dangerous. In the south the same protection it gives Nile rapidsand the surrounding mountains. Therefore, no river to swim or travel by land almostimpossible without king or similarto their reserves. In parts of the country that toward the east, some protected by the river, others - surrounded by desert and swampy places, which are called "gap" ... The fourth side of the country is between ... Egyptian sea ... "
Inquiries to document
1. What geographicobjects, according Diodorus Sicily and protectEgypt?
2. What was neededtravelers to make a trip to Egypt?
2. Union of Upper andLower Egypt
Hardwork in hot climates and the annual Nile spills needed largeefforts of thousands of Egyptians. Gradually, tribal leaders have joined agricultural communitiesunder its authority to the individual parts of Egypt. This resulted in ain the Nile valley in V thousand BC The initial small states - nomiv.
They are indifferent times were 26 to 42. The boundaries of these small states were determinedirrigation canals. They settled along the Nile, one by one.
Nomy Upper Egypt stretching from the first Nilethreshold to the delta, andnomy Lower Egyptlocated in the delta. At the head of each state was нomarh. He led the militia was the supreme priest, supervised the construction of dams and canals.
Strongestnomy turned into the kingdom, fighting among themselveswith fertile soils of the valley. By the end of thousands of IV BC Egypt remained onlytwo great kingdoms that united the Lower and Upper Egypt. EachThey had known for the holy cities Buto and En-frogs (Nehen). They had their owngods – Falcon and viper, and were considered symbols of the kingdoms under flowerlotus and papyrus. Ancient Egyptian state long enmity among themselves and foughtfor power over the valley of the Nile.
The firstzahalnoyehypetskym ruler, according to legend,Scorpio is considered. He was king of Upper Egypt and about 3200 RUB BC united underby the authority of the entire population of Egypt. But this state lasted long.
About3000 r. BC kingUpper Egypt Menes (Narmer)again united under his authority both states і founded the ancient Egyptian state, which became knowncalled The old kingdom (2686-2173 bienniumBC). Some scientists believe that Menes and Narmer – ita person. For others, first united Egypt Narmer,then assigned alone power andcreated a unified state Menes.
Pharaoh Narmer, Joined Egypt
Hiscapital was in the north Maine nephro-(Ancient Greeks called it Memphis.) Residents of the valley Nile thought Menes incarnation of God and called Per-Aa,which means "big house". From this word came the name of Egyptian kings - "Pharaoh". Nomythe Old Kingdom had no autonomy, but were parts of the state(In modern language - administrative units).
BasistionStill constituted agricultural community.
Terms and Notions
Priest - The intermediary betweenhumans and gods, which carried out the prayers, religious rituals, sacrifice.
3. Power and cult Pharaoh
KingsEgypt have been Memphis or lords, or lords Thebes – citywhich was located in the south. Pharaoh had unlimited power. Only heappointed commanders of the army, some military units nomarch,chief priests of temples, and could condemn anyone to death.
InHe had hundreds of servants. The king was considered a god. In a sign of his greatness Pharaohgirded lion's skin, put on long dresses, decorated with handbracelets, head covers are white and red crown – pshent.It consisted of two parts, which symbolized power over the top (whitecolor) and lower (red) Egypt. In moments nayurochystishi Pharaohsworn striped crown – nemes.
SymbolPharaoh's power was also an artificial beard, which was fastened to the chin. Sometimesgods and the ancient Egyptians depicted with beards.
EachPharaoh had five names. They were recorded in the cartouches. King called the vote, the sun,mighty golden eagle. It depicted much larger than the others. Simpledeath not only worshiped their king, but were down and kissedland on which the legs had gone Pharaoh. Only the most close to the kingpersons allowed to kiss his feet. Another symbol of power of the king was urey (Translated from Egypt. – "Cobrawas in a stable). He fixed the headdress of Pharaoh. Cobrasymbolized the goddess UTOThat the Egyptians believedchampion of the kings of Egypt.
Terms and Notions
Dynasty - Rulers whocome from one clan and transmit power in the inheritance.
Cartouche - Decoration in the formshield with rounded corners, which recorded the names of Pharaoh.
Aboutpower of the pharaohs and worship them presents magnificent burial ritual. Egyptiansbelieved that after the death of Pharaoh join the gods. Yet for the life of Pharaoh, theybuilt last resting place of the ruler as large pyramids.The tradition of pyramid building lasted about 1000 years. Later, the pharaohs were buried in a tomb, whichcut down in the rocky soil. They were more secured from robberies andfall. The first pyramid built by King Djoseralmost 5 thousand years ago. It was speed, resembling a ladder. Them afterdeath of the king had to climb into the sky, to the gods.
And today really knew how to build pyramids. But scientistssuggest that before construction priests chose a place where they hadarranged structure, defined its basis. Further developing the construction planpyramid. Priests with extreme precision oriented facility for partiesworld and performed a ritual marking the construction site. Then Pharaohheld a special ceremony and gave permission to build. Thereaftercould start building the pyramid.
Across the country gathered strong and young men. They worked inquarry, where stone blocks were prepared, and on construction sites, where blocksaccording to the plan amounted to a pyramid construction. For his work workersreceived salaries from the royal treasury and the food. How old was ableEgyptians lift stone blocks that weighed 30 tons to a height of 140 m, remainsmystery. Scientists assume that the system used platforms setslope.
In the early 90's XX century. at Giza, near modern Cairo,near the Great Pyramids archaeologists first found the city where they livedbuilders. It was investigated over a hundred large clay vessels in whichbaked bread for the workers, thousands of bones of cattle and fish. ByScientists estimate, the city lived about 25 thousand people. The main partseasonal workers lived in houses, dormitories in stone quarries, ordirectly on the building - near the pyramid. The guards, craftsmen and artisans whobuilding served, lived in some small houses.
Total known in Egypt some 80 pyramids. The largest pyramid waserected at Giza, at aroundmodern Cairo. The best known and highest manschoyu among them is the Pyramid Cheops (Cheops), which is located on the west bank of the Nile.its construction lasted almost 20 years, and Pharaoh himself directly observedhim. The height of the pyramid Cheops reached 147 m. It waslined with white, smooth stone that gleamed in the sun.
To date the pyramids remain one of the greatest mysteries of history. If heightpyramids Cheops multiplied by a billion, itequal distance from Earth to the Sun. If the stones of the six largest pyramidslay out a road width of 6 m,it would have reached 12 thousand km. Not accidentally the ancient Greeks calledPyramid first wonder of the world.
Herodotus on the construction of pyramids
... Itself is a pyramid made by ledgeswhat some call their teeth, andother oltarchykamy. When it first did so,stones that remained were raisemachines made of short pieces of wood, stone raised from land in the first row of ledges, and if the stone getting into his place, hisput on The second machine, which was the firstseveral ledges, hence the second series of stone raised by the second car, for how many series of ledgesso many and machines ... First, were treatedthe upper parts of the pyramid, and after - bearing their part, were the latesttreated surface and the lowest, lying on the ground.
1. Do you agree with that built pyramidsjust as Herodotus describes? Give their opinion.
2. Some scientists believe that the FAAraonam notneeded most pyramids, andneeded a building process, which for years united society defendedof his contention, revolts and internecinewars.
5. Internal structure of the pyramid Cheops
Pyramidsvary the structure. They have different location moves, galleries and burialcameras. Thus, in a pyramid Cheops There are three cameras. Home – carvedin the rock at a depth of 30 m.It lies just below the base and middle of the pyramid. Second – onheight of 20 mover the base. Its area is nearly 30 m2. This camera is called"Hall queen, the queen never though there was not buried. The third cameralocated at a height of 42.3 m. She is the only one of three that was completed, served astomb of the king. Its ceiling form the nine granite monolithstotal weight 400 tons Above it are five handlingCamera cavities that end span roof and intended for distributionincredible weight pyramid.
Allthree tubes connected by corridors, shafts. In "King Hall" is a great gallery. Ofit away in the northern and southern areas of the mysterious narrow shaftslength of 65 m.This "road" used by the Egyptians idea, moving heaven to the soul of the king. Mineoverlain by thin "door". They symbolized the line between real and otherworldlyworlds.
Pyramids – uniqueworks of human hands – became a symbol of Egypt. The Greeks said thatAll fear time and time fears the pyramids.
Questions and Tasks
1. Thatprompted the ancient Egyptians incredible efforts to build largePyramids?
2. Compare the power of Pharaoh and captaintribe.
3. As the Egyptians called their country?
4. Why ancient Greeks calledPyramid wonder of the world?
5. Describe the internal structure of the pyramidCheops.