§ 6. Initialculture and beliefs of people
1. Practical knowledge of primitive man
The first knowledge that their nahromadzhuvalypeople in times of the Stone Age, had knowledge about the world. Theygive a person to survive. Cultivating various species of stone, manlearned about their properties. Therefore, in Eneolithic original craftsmen knewmethods of treatment of most minerals, ores and meteoric iron. The averagePaleolithic people learned to make from natural materials paint.
Nahromadzhuvaly medical knowledge. BurialNeanderthals in La Ferrasi in France and in Iran Shanidari give reasonsargued that people already treated fractures, wounds, usedhealing herbs. In primitive times Mesolithic doctors whose rolecarried shamans and sorcerers, able to do amputation.
Prehistoric man knew perfectlybehavior of wild animals and birds. Over time, expanding knowledge about the anatomyanimals. These are the rock paintings in caves, which showsanimals in the so-called X-ray style. Initial artists painted bodyAnimals with internal organs and skeleton. Knowledge of flora andworld contributed to the emergence and development of agriculture and animal husbandry.
Mathematical knowledge appeared inPaleolithic. Then primitive lichyla, causing the corresponding mark (notch,dots, crosses) for special bone. Evidence of possible arithmeticPaleolithic settlements are, for example, a spear with 20 notches, groupedto 5 notches found in Dolny Vestonitse (Czech Republic). Counting used indistribution of prey. Obviously, in connection with this primitive people learnedperform simple arithmetic - Adding and subtracting. On the wallspaleolithic caves they painted geometric shapes, decorated them differentproducts. Later, in the Neolithic and Eneolithic, primitive housing built rightgeometry.
Amazing knowledge Astronomy hadprimitive man since Paleolithic times. Watching the movement of the Sun, Moon androzdyvlyayuchys starry sky, people could make first simple calendar.That is the calendar scientists believe bracelet with geometric motiffound in Mizyn (Ukraine). And on the plate from Malta (Russia) deposited in holes 244center and 122 on the sides. If you include the central and the left or right,get the 366 - number of days in a leap year. Calendars determineddate of the rituals associated with primitive farming peoplereligious holidays.
In the Paleolithic period, a "dopysemnist -pictography. It figures-signsused to transmit certain information and communication.Perhaps the characters on the pottery, the walls of caves, stone and bone objects areAncient records of transfers, which we will never be read. It isicons and later developed hieroglyphic writing.
In Eneolithic impressive size acquiredconstruction of tombs, temples and astronomical observatories. In III BC built in EuropeReligious - kromlehy(Circle of stones dug vertically) and menhirs(Long vertical rows of stones).
The most amazing ancientattraction is Stonehenge in the UK. It combines three buildings of differenttime. The oldest of them - formed by the shaft and ditch neardiameter 115 meters. In the middle range -ring from 56 pits. Later in the middlerings were built two circles of stones set vertically (38 pairs). The third building was erected in the Bronze Age, about 3,5 thousandyears ago. It is buried in the ground hewn stone height about 8,5 m and weighing about 26 tons They are also underlying rock. FacilitiesStonehenge served as longtime residents of these places to determine the time of the equinox,change of seasons, years, predictions of solar eclipses. Ancient Observatory alsoGreat Britain, found in many parts of the world.
2. Initialforms of religion
Accumulation of practical knowledge aboutworld and the inability to explain many phenomena led to the emergence of religiousrepresentations. Religion – human faith in supernatural forces andthe existence of gods. With their man tried to explain that mysterious andstrange and perhaps frightening that existed in nature. The first religiousbeliefs appeared in the Middle Paleolithic (150-35 thousand years ago) inNeanderthals. In primitive forms of religion are: totemizm, fetishism, magic,animism.
Totemizm (From Indiana. ototem – his family) - faith in family of origin from a common ancestor - animals, plantsor the birds. Ancestor felt kind defender, asked his help inhunting. Animals-totemyou could not kill. she adored, portrayed on the walls of caves, vyrizblyuvalystone and bone.
Fetishism (From portuh. feitigo -mascot) - Adopting inanimate objects supernatural properties. Peoplebelieved that the fetish could protect from evil, give good luck. Could fetishbe any-that thing. itscarried with him, kept in a flat, put in graves. Adoration of the subjectssurvived and today.In the temple you can see the images and sculptures of gods, which gives the modern mansupernatural properties.
Magic (From the Greek. mageia – witchcraft)- Faith in the possibility to influence the surrounding world through fortune telling,spells, charms. According to primitive man, magic actions might causerain, to help in the hunt or harm enemies.
Occurrence animism (From Lat.anima - soul) was associated with an attempt to understand why a person who recentlymoving, talking, suddenly became motionless and cold. Primitiveexplained by the fact that the body went soul. It was thought that by losing body, soulsought new shelter. Not finding him, she was forced to wander forever,scaring relatives or doing them wrong. Beliefs associated with this practicebury the dead. And since primitive man believed that in the hereafterspirit world lives as well as on earth, provided the deceased with food,instruments of labor and more. If the deceased was a leader for life after death, hehad a special honor. Thus animism - Is the empowerment of living things andinanimate objects creature that lives alone.
Not everyone knew how to talk tospirits, appease or expel them. Over time there Shamans, sorcerers, priests,who knew the incantation, spell. they cried when ill or dying personcattle. On behalf of the family, tribe, they communicated with spirits and soulsancestors. All these forms of religion are closely intertwined with each other, which eventually ledto the emergence of the cult of the gods. Cult - A way to worship the gods.
Surrounding world andspiritual heritage reflected in the unique, sometimes incomprehensiblethe art of primitive man.
Paleolithic art consists oftwo major groups of works: small forts - Small sculpture, carvings,painting on household objects, on the bone, horn, stoneplates, etc.; monumental art - Rock, oftencave, paintings, drawings, relief.
Neolithic agricultural populationleft behind a large number of stone and clay sculptures that adorned thehousing and places of worship of gods. Last certifies that the statuettes were also magicdestination. Found many female images, adorned variousornaments and paintings. Later, in Eneolithic more figures revealedmen. Often there are sculptures of bulls, leopards, goats.
In the Middle Paleolithic manlearned how to make paint from natural materials: red, yellow, brown -with ocher, dark brown - with manganese oxide, black - with charcoal.Bred paint with water or animal fat in sea shells and boneboxes. Often painted one color. But pictures of caves LаCRS and background where WAN (France)done in two colors, in Altamira - three.
Photo from the Lascaux caves
Drawing from the cave Altamira
Discoveredcave Murals Altamira (Spain) where MarselinoSautuola in 1875 In 1880 He made a statement that it is -Paleolithic image. Sautuola accused of forgery, the scientists did not anticipatePaleolithic people were so talented. But following the opening confirmedold frescoes.
Prehistoric man, unlikecontemporary artists are not always paid attention to the size and appearance of similarityrepresented objects or animals. So for us these images are not always clear.
A well-known is the image of buffalo, killedRights and birds, which were found in Lascaux cave. This almost childpicture is full of tragedy. Perhaps it shows the failed huntRights, in which die and a hunter and his prey. Interestingly, inPaleolithic art is almost no fixed figures. Movement portrayed provisionsfeet, bend the body or head. The initial masters were able to transfer fast motionanimals.
Accumulated in the Stone Age andday of copper and bronze knowledge and experience and to achieve the original artists werebasis for further movement of humanity to civilization.
4. Religious ideas and developmentArt in a long day out in Ukraine
The evidence of the spread of religiousrepresentations on the territory of Ukraine became the findings of human burials found in the cave Kyyik-Koba,and other places in the Crimea. The dead were buried in special pits, in shortform on the side. This suggests the emergence of Neanderthals simplestideas about human existence in the soul and life in hereafter inherentalmost all ancient humans. Burial was arranged within the housing thattestified to the lack of contemporary human horror of the dead (according to ancientrepresentations considered that they fell asleep) and belief in preserving blood tieslast of the living.
In the Middle Paleolithic, the firstsamples of primitive art in our land. The oldest works of artman is the image on the bones of animals. On the Dniester in the parking lotwith. Molodova found mammoth shoulder with composition in the center of whichstylized figure of a deer surrounded by wavy lines, triangles and tracesmany attacks. Some scientists believe that this finding is related to ancienthunting magic rituals.
High level of spiritual developmentreached during the late Paleolithic (35-11 thousand years ago) kromanyonets.The original art was then closely associated with magical rites, whichcarried out in special places. The remains of such buildings open to the parking lotMizyn. It was found figurines and "noisy" bracelet with mammoth bones thatdressed during magical ceremonies. Among the findings also have a set of paintedmammoths bones and hammer of reindeer horn, used aspercussion instruments. Modern scientists have attempted to recreate the magictime these primitive musical instruments and recorded them on the jacket.Painted skull and percussion hammers also found in parking lotin Mesopotamia.
One of the most famous sanctuaries inthe Ukraine, where a long time (from the late Paleolithic era to thebronze) held magical rites are tips Stone Tombs near Melitopol.
Belief in the existence of the human soul and itslife in the hereafter developed, and in the Mesolithic. Among the graves of the peopledays found littered with stones on top. Probably it was donetribesman to prevent the return of dead souls. In found onDnipropetrovsk burial skeletons sprinkled with ocher - natural redpaint. This ordinance, to scientists, personified the belief of man in cleaning power fire.In the grottoes Stone Tombs found stone pebble tiles and covered with geometricpatterned with traces of painted ocher solid. These were the so-called churynhy,which had an important appointment and were considered mystical repository of the human soul.
Reflected in the spiritual worldhuman changes that have occurred in the Neolithic. Among the agricultural-pastoral tribes ofdistribution acquired cult mother earth, as evidenced by numerous finds thingsnecessary in life after it now instead of weapons taught pottery andtools. In religious representations hunters main place, still heldcult animals were objects of hunting. While burials were carried outgrief, accompanied by beating clay vessels filled with sacrificialdish. About complications religious ideas of people show Prydnipovyafinds of burials, where one hole was located about 40 skulls of the dead, andall other bones were prykopani in the second hole nearby. In many burialskeletons found, showing that the deceased before burial was firmlylinked. You may feel so alive to the dead and thustried to defuse them.
Manifestations of aesthetic preference of humanNeolithic finds have different decorations. Clothing, belts and hatsdecorated plates sewed, cut out from Boar's canines and covered withornament. Highlight of women were from the polished bone beads, shells andsemiprecious stones. Widespread Neolithic acquired by custom decoratingthings ornament. Him not only covered stone ware and ceramics, butprobably things with wood and leather, are not preserved to our times.
1. What helpedaccumulation of practical knowledge pervisNoah man?
2. Why Initialman endowed inanimate objects overnatural properties?
3. What are the causes of religion?
4. Describe the first formreligious beliefs. What beliefs of primitive peoplecame to our time?
5. As depictedprimitive people in their pictures?
6. Asdeveloping spiritual and religious life of primitive people in the territory of Ukraine?
The initial call wea time when humanity overcame way from the appearance of the first people to formcivilization.
Initial human historydivided into periods: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, eneolith, copper and ageBronze, early Iron Age.
Primitive peoplesdiffer from other animals pryamohodinnyam, complex movements of hands, developedbrain.
By "NeolithicRevolution was the shift from human hunting and gathering toAgriculture and animal husbandry.
In primitive times there werefirst association of people - family, kin, community, tribe.
In the days of copper and bronzehaving the first state in the world.
The most significant discoveriesprimitive man was master of fire, domestication of wild animals and theiruse in agriculture, the invention of the bow and arrow, pottery wheel,weaving, wheel.
In primitive times there wasexchange, which became the basis for the emergence of trade.
In pervisnosti bornscientific knowledge and religious beliefs.