Topic 1. People's lives byprimitive times
§ 1.The emergence of man. The development of ancient manPlanet Earth
1. Maintheory of human origins
One of the most difficult problems and unexplained mysteries of thewhich is used by scientists for many decades, how did our planet, inhow and why it emerged life. Can be argued convincinglyonly that life on Earth appeared later than the planet itself emerged. OnToday most scientists assume that the age of the Earth is about6 billion years. But life on it there were 3.6 billion years agoand for millions of years evolved from the simplest living organisms,that originated in the water to the complex. It was only later appeared on the planet man.
The origin of man is as secret as oflife on Earth. Among the scientists on this issue constantly debate over,a lot of different assumptions, guesswork and theories.
The oldest of these theories is religious. It draws on the sacred books of many statementsreligions that claim that man is a creature of supernatural beings – gods.
There is also the suggestion that life recorded on our planet from space – highly developed intelligent beings, or a fall of somecosmic bodies which contained living organisms. Because they appeared on Earthman. Perhaps it was an experiment and its results newcomersobserve today.
But the part of scientists has always insisted on the earthly andnatural origin of mankind. The idea that man comes from monkeysEnglish is the nineteenth century naturalist. Charles Darwin. Hedeveloped doctrine of evolution – development of wildlife underinfluence of environment and natural selection. Natural selectionis that the fittest organisms survive. Their qualitytransmitted through seed genes, resulting in increased fitness of speciesorganisms.
Charles Darwin argued that living organisms are constantlyaffected by the environment and among them only survivestrongest and nayprystosovanishi. That is why the scientist believed that the ancestors of manis a primitive humanoid monkeys. Proponents of this theory by comparing the structure of the bodyapes and primitive man, emphasizing their similarities. But noneof these theories is perceived today as definitively proven, and the originHuman remains subject to debate scholars.
2. Human ancestors
Most scholars hold the viewthat man comes from monkeys wood - driopiteka. Driopitek isabout 18 million years ago in Africa and gradually settled on othercontinents. He was moving on four legs. His actions as the actions of manyanimals were conditioned to adapt to the needs of nature, which constantlychanged. But unlike, say, termites, termite mounds which builds onlyand under no circumstances will build a bird nest, driopiteka work was creative.To achieve the desired, he could use different methods and subjects, eachreaching a different result.
In driopiteka among human ancestorsScientists call the southern monkey - Australopithecus, which appeared over4 million years ago. Unlike driopiteka, he sometimes peresuvavsya ontwo extremities, ie walked vyprostavshys. Boundless expanses of Africa, whichconsidered the cradle of humanity, Australopithecus moved in small groups,collecting plants and meat eating predators Legally Harvested animals. SometimesAustralopithecus tried to hunt. They were neither stronger nor swifterfor their victims or enemies, and while hunting or for protection appliedstones, sticks and more. This contributed to the development of the hands that were it easier andas brain and thinking.
In 1974 U.S.Archaeologists found in East Africa Australopithecus skeleton, who was named Lucy.Height - 1-1,3 m and weight - 30 kg Age - 3 million years.It is the oldest find of Australopithecus. It has probably produced crudetools of wood and stone. It was later found Australopithecus skeleton thathad a height 1,5-1,7 m and 2,5-1,5 million lived years ago.
3. Factors andconditions of human
Transformation of human-monkeymodern type man called anthropo. This process of studying scienceanthropology. Unfortunately, detailed figure out how to convert washuman-ape to modern human type, not for archaeologicalfinds a few and do not give the whole picture of primitive man.
But it can be argued that anthropocontributed to certain conditions and factors. First of all - the influence of nature. About 3,5 millionyears ago in the northern hemisphere cooling was a significant part of its territory andcovered glaciers. Nip accompanied by reduced rainfall andarea of oceans and seas. Forests in Africa gave way to the steppes. Human-monkey, adjusting to life in an open area, hadstraighten up. Having risen above the grass, it is better seen as enemies, andprey.
But pryamohodinnya was only one ofterms of survival. The second condition was similar to merge with itself tohunt the beast. Production of implements of primitive man contributed to the developmenthands and brain. Gradually it acquired the ability to learn, and accumulatetransfer experience.
However, there are two views of the placeAustralopithecus in anthropogenesis. Some scientists believe that man comes fromAustralopithecus. Others deny this, since found several species Australopithecus,and their direct ancestors are not known.
At the same time remains controversialissues being considered by man.
There are two opinions on this: 1. Man can believe that being thatalready manufactured and used tools, as people begin toof work. 2.Man canbeing considered, which already has all the biological characteristics of modern man.
4. Mainperiods in the history pervisnosti
The oldest and longest period ofhistory is a stone age. It lasted from the rise of humans - about3 million years ago - to the thousands of V BC, when it beganusing first metal. In different parts of our planet Stone Agestarted at different times. The earliest it has happened in Africa, where for the first time,as scientists say, there was a man.
Stone Age named by the mainmaterial from which man manufactured tools. It is conventionally divided intothree periods. The oldest and longest of them - the Palaeolithic. Its name comes fromGreek words palaios - Ancient and lithos - stone.The next period was the Mesolithic - middle stone age (mesos - Average, lithos - stone). ByMesolithic Neolithic began (neos - new and lithos - Stone).
Stone Age - one of the most importantepochs in human history. Over the millennia, man, learning the world has madeimportant for the discovery of its existence. She had taken fire, first builthousing, first sewed clothes invented bows and arrows. Recognizing the properties of woodstone, bone, she facilitated their lives and turned the surroundingenvironment.
Variety first zshyvnoho clothes.
Casual fur coat of the late Paleolithic
Over time, people learned to usemetals, and already had the names of the following periods: eneolith (copper-Stone Age), Bronze Age,Iron Age. Sometimes the Bronze Age and the Bronze Age scholars together in one period andcall it the era of copper andbronze.
The life of primitive man directlydepended on the environment: climate, flora and fauna.Our planet throughout history has repeatedly changed its face. Appeared anddisappeared mountains, seas and oceans, changing their river. Extremely variablewas Earth's climate. Passed thousands of years, rises periods alternated with times,when the climate became cold.
When temperature falls, which scientistscalled glacial periods, much of the planet's surface vkryvalasyalayer of ice and snow. Sea froze and remained for centuries under the powerful ice.During the Ice Age the water level in the World Ocean was lower thanModern almost 100 м.
With decreasing temperatureglacier gradually moved from north to south. Land was becoming agreat snow desert. In some places the thickness of the glacier reached 2 km. But land is not near a glacierwere desolate. Adapted to cold climates, mammoth, reindeer,woolly rhinoceros, vivtsebyk, cave bear. They lived next to the originalperson for which were sometimes prey, and sometimes - a ruthless enemy.
In periods of warming, glaciers meltingand retreated to the north. The water level in rivers, seas and oceans hasrose. Again, varied animal and flora. With the end oflast glacial period crymophylactic extinct large animals that are notable to adapt to new conditions. Nature was close to the planetmodern.
6. Primitive peoples
Changed environmentchanged, and the same person. On its appearance, and life lessons wefind by archaeologists. Interesting discoveries scientists have made in Europe -Of Denmark and Ireland. Found dead in a swamp, which kept the hair andeven facial expressions. In the Altai Pazyrykskyh barrows (Russia)archaeologists unearthed tombs of ancient leaders. Ice filled the graveretained on the skin as a tattoo dead horses and fantastic animals.
The oldest man opened Englisharchaeologist and anthropologist Louis Leakey (1903-1972 years). He in 1960 inOlduvayskiy Gorge in Africa found the bones and jaw fragments with teeth, whichbelonged to the then unknown humanoid creature. Because next to herwere primitive tools, the man was able to call her (Homo habilis). Thisand other findings have enabled scientists to reproduce the appearance of a manskilful. It had the old forehead, chin canted, massive jaws, elongatedarms and short legs. Height skillful person does not exceed 1.5 m, weight - 50 kg.
Homo habilis produced primitiverubyla stone for grinding food, crushing bones and comb forobbiluvannya ink. In addition, he used stick-kopalku - one of exacerbationsend of the stick that was used in the collection, as well as heavy dryuk- Stick with thickening at one end. The main occupation was collecting,subsidiary - hunting. Like Australopithecus, man was able to largelyused a vegetable diet, and sometimes meat slaughtered animals. Scientists suggest thatAustralopithecus and the man knew how long coexisted and were competingforms of human life.
The next step in human developmentwas pryamohodyacha man (homo erectus). Scientists call it as Pithecanthropus.Compared with its predecessors, this man had less sloping forehead, and smallersharper teeth, which were more suited for eating meat. Muchvolume was greater than its brain.
Chin Pithecanthropus clearlyforward acted. Hands were shorter and longer legs. Also increasedaverage height and weight. Changes in the structure of the skeleton have been associated withPithecanthropus was able to produce rubyla, hostrokonechnyky, comb. Pithecanthropuslived in groups of 25-40 persons:custom 3.6 Adultmen, 6-10 womenand 15-20 children.Joint life and collective hunting demanded coordination, and thereforecommunication only through sign language, but also by sound.Gradually, the sounds consist in words, words - in sentence. It eventually took it.
Pithecanthropus descendant of some scientistsbelieve Neanderthals. Looks like they were already more similar tomodern man. There was a stocky body structure, curved spine and strong buttocks, is greater thantheir predecessors, the volume of the brain (1350-1450 cm3). Height reached their1,6 m, weight - 70 kg.
Pithecanthropus (In Greek - mavpolyudyna) Opened at archaeologist E. Duboiso.Yava in 1890 Pithecanthropus bones also found in China (cave Chzhoukoudyan).The remains of Neanderthal man (from the name of Neandertal valley, near Dusseldorf inGermany) first found during construction work in the fortress of Gibraltar1848 Later, the remains of Neanderthal man were found in other regionsEurope.
Parking Palaeolithicfound in Dolny Vestonitse (Czech Republic), Gibraltar, Krapina (Serbia) Teshyk-Tash(Uzbekistan), Shanidar (Iraq) and elsewhere. Accommodation Cave Grotto du Nazareth11h3 small size, 5 pm It was divided into "porch" and "Bedroom".In the middle of a small fire was located. Firm the vertical stoneRods, which put a roof. Part of the floor vymoschuvaly stones, which protected frommoisture.
Neanderthals, who lived incold climate, have learned to use fire, which occurred during a thunderstormwhen lightning to reach into a tree. The cave Zhou Koudyan inChina fires found with ash depth 6 m. Thousands of years people here supportedfire, day after day vartuyuchy near him. They fear losing what, whytheir existence depended. Fire helped increase life expectancy. It not onlygive warmth, but also protection from predators and the ability to use baked foods.
The use of fire was crucial infurther development of mankind. Our tools Neanderthals were sophisticatedthan those they used Pithecanthropus. And then they startedmake stone knives, serrated blades and more. Depending on your area of residenceNeanderthals hunted in different animals: reindeer, mammoth, bison,horse, woolly rhinoceros, and others. According to findings of animal bones at the premisesNeanderthals can make assumptions about the composition of their diet.
7. Homeprimitive people
Primitive people were very agilelifestyle. They had to travel in search of food because in one placewere not. Settled mostly near rivers. This is due to the fact that herecame the animals that they hunted. Places stayed primitive people,Scientists call parking. The first such park found in Africa, OlduvayskiyGorge. There is open and the first known in the history of human habitation of the original.It's said that it had the appearance roof made of poles and grass.
Neanderthal man, unlikePithecanthropus and Homo habilis, made her home with mammoth bones and other animals,deer antlers, as in Europe in the ice age was almost no trees.Skulls Mammoth, dug into the ground, served as a solid base housing. Theytusks and inserted above cast antlers, animal bones and sticks. Then housingcovered with skins of animals. Near accommodation archaeologists found pits Businessstorage of meat and animal bones. The bones were used not only asbuilding material, but also as fuel. Accommodation reliably protect people from the originalpredators and bad weather.
Accommodation with mammoth bones. Mezhyrich
1. What theory of human origins youknow? What are they?
2. What period is dividedStone Age? What is the basis of periodization?
3. What were the major classes of primitivepeople?
4. Name the first toolsprimitive man.
5. What are the main differences between humanskillful and human pryamohodyachoyi?
6. What is parking?
7. What most influencedformation and human development?
8. Why Australopithecus group wereagile way of life?
9. Describe the dwelling Neanderthals.
10. How has the life of primitive peopleonset of glacier?
11. What impact on human lifemastery of fire?
12. What underlies the creation ofperiods of ancient history?