Entry (textbook)

Entry                                                                                                                                                           

 

1. Studying the history of the ancient world?

History of science society from past to modern times. У Grade 5 You already acquainted with the history of Ukraine, now starting to get acquainted with history of other countries and nations with a history of all humanity. History- One of the oldest science in history. Word "History" of ancient Greek origin, which translates as "research", "Narrative of events".

The history of mankind ancient times to the present time is called total or global, history. History of the Ancient World - a world first period history. Exactly it we shall learn in Grade 6.

It begins with the emergence of humanity about four million years ago and ending fall Western Roman Empire in the V century.

The first stage in the development of human society, historians have called originality (Some historians have divided it into two periods savagery and barbarism) next level civilization.

The main features civility is considered a City life, literature and the state.

Ancient History world studying primitive societies life and the first civilizations. The original society people are not transformed the environment, and adapted to it. It was the time collectors and hunters. Then Change assigningManagement collectors and hunters came to reproducing farm grain and livestock. Since beginning the development of civilizations.

The first civilization emerged in the valleys of major rivers - the Nile, Euphrates and Tigris, Indus, where people first mastered agriculture.

 

2. Historical sources

From the history of fifth grade you already know how scientists are exploring the history. This helps them to historical source.

Historical sources This artefacts, written monuments, customs, language ancient times, all that gives an idea about the past.

Documents, paintings, buildings, belongings, transfers, customs, etc. help historians to establish the facts and write history.

 

Historical sources

Material (Real)

Written

Oral

 

First they learn written sources. Man learned to write more than five thousand years ago, and since accumulated a lot of written monuments. This clay tablets, Egyptian Papyrus, Berestiany letters, handwritten records, books, business documents and so on.

But most of the history was bezpysemnoyu. How did scientists discover that the distant past? In this case to the aid of science: Archaeology, ethnography, anthropology and other auxiliary historical sciences.

 

3. Archaeology and anthropology

The largest share of the sources are different things. Archeology science that studies the material (Real) historical sources and play them back human society.

Material Resources - Tools of human remains of ancient settlements, dwellings, buildings, cemeteries, decorations, tableware and other remains of material culture - traces of life and human activities on Earth. Ashes from the hearth of ancient man, the cave, a stone ax, earthen vessels, pyramid, channel, dam, road - all material sources.

Some source material remained on the surface, others were under Multiple layers of soil, sand or silt. Archaeologists are hard work to unravel the mysteries of history contained in the ground, excavating and examining them.

 

I wonder

Archaeological excavations - Too time consuming. All work is carried out manually. The top layer of earth Deputy charged, then the work done by knives and schitochok, not to damage the items found, archaeologists have to paddle thousands of tons of earth to find the necessary material source. Some excavations conducted hundreds of years. Thus, the excavation of the ancient city of Pompeii, which died as a result of the eruption has continued from 1748. The city was covered with ash during the eruption of Vesuvius in 1979. It has not suffered either fire, nor robbers, so archaeologists could play as external and internal appearance of buildings.

 

To determine the time of archaeological discoveries, archaeologists have established systems "Three Ages" stone, bronze, iron. Such a division is called the history of mankind is called archeological periods, , Which is based on the changes of major materials from which produced tools, household items, weapons etc.. For million years man manufactured stone tools, this period was the name of the stone age. But over the last several thousand years the most important rights was the opening production of implements of bronze and later - with metal. These periods archaeologists called respectively the bronze and iron ages.

Of utmost importance in the interpretation of archaeologists has found also anthropology science which studies bone remains of prehistoric people. However, in Western Europe and the U.S. This term understand the science of primitive people in general. Modern science gives enough to accurately reproduce the image of man. Scientists have created a method Play face by structure skull bones. Behind it can be played and portrait modern and ancient man.

 

4. Ethnography

In addition to these sources, historians studying the primitive society ethnographic data. Ethnography science which explores the life and customs of peoples, their material and spiritual culture.

Scientists and explorers have found tribes of hunters and gatherers who live today different parts of the earth: in South and North America - Indian tribes in Australia - Aborigines in Africa - Bushmen in South East Asia - toala, andamantsi, semanhy et al.

These tribes do not know anything about agriculture, they do not have pets. Our tools are made of stone, bone and wood. Drive nomadic life. Engaged in hunting and gathering. Do not wear clothes and shoes. For housing they use predatory - huts that make up the branches, stones, earth and poles.

Although these nations live at great distances from one another, they have much in common. This helps scientists to reproduce the life of the past, draw conclusions about the primitive people.

Study life more developed nations also help historians. Various ceremonies (wedding, holiday, funeral), clothing, jewelry, home of considerable interest to study history.

 

5. The countdown to history

Study  history is impossible without determining the time when a certain event occurred. But you see not possible. In that way people discovered the existence of time and started his measure? Supposedly, this was the result of their observation outside world. There is a change of day and night, seasons, etc.. This is allowed humanity to create calendar.

Calendar a way of counting days in a year, number system time, based on periodic phenomena: changing seasons, phases of the Moon, Sun.

 

I wonder

Long time humanity did not have a single calendar. The first calendar was based on traffic Moon and called a period. It was about seven thousand years ago Ancient Near East.

Accuracy calendar first created in ancient Egypt, he called solar and was based on the movement of Earth around its axis and around the sun. Egyptian calendar consisted of 365 days, 12 months in it day and night were divided into 12 parts. Duration of some parts did not meet our time, because length of day and night in different seasons was unequal.

Sunny Egyptian calendar and refined by the Romans introduced it in times of Julius Caesar 46 BC. is. because he called Julian.

В XVI Art. Roman Pope Gregory XIII adopted a revised calendar, which got the name Gregorian. This solar calendar we use today and. Time for that Earth rotates on its axis, is day. The time for which the Land makes one revolution around the sun, is the year that consists of 365 nights, 5 hours, 48 and 46 minutes seconds.

Gregorian calendar called new style and Julian - old style. The difference between one and the same date for the new and old style at present is 14 days.

 

Calendars allow you to organize separate facts, to establish which event took place earlier and which later. Historian determining when certain events or give them to help science chronology. Organise events and display them in sequence help line time. This straight line is divided into segments that indicate the years decade, century and millennium. Historians measure the time centuriesWhich indicated reduced Art. and written in Roman numerals. Ten Centuries of Millennium which affects and also written thousands of Roman numerals.

 

How to count the years within the century and millennium?

 

                        Pre                       

Second millennium

Third thousand

V cent.

X century.

XI.

Twentieth century.

XXI century.

401-500 years

901-1000 years

He 10001-1100

1901-2000 biennium

He 20001-2100

 

But for a starting point in need of some event.

 

I wonder

The count of years in the history of every ancient people held in their own way. So scientists are very difficult to determine if there was one or another event. There are over 200 litochyslen different, ie numbering years. In ancient Egypt began to count the years of the reign of Pharaoh's new in Japan - from the moment accession to the throne of the emperor. In Ancient Greece took place in the countdown years Olympics, in Ancient Rome - from the inception of Rome.

It was very difficult to correlate events in different landtries that require special calculations, some comparison with other dates.

 

The modern calendar began almost two thousand years ago. It is concerned with the emergence of the Christian religion. Among Christians was made to do countdown to Christmas - the time when according to legend was born Jesus Christ. This calendar spread in many European countries, started Christian era which became known as new or our era. accepted it, even in countries where Christianity is not received distribution. All events that occurred after Christmas, called the events of our era. Everything that happened before the the birth of Jesus Christ, considered events to BC recorded and reduced - BC

In Arab nations created the Muslim era, its countdown begins with 622 the year the Julian calendar. In the Moslems there monthly calendar, which at 10-11 days shorter than ours. So we will expire 32 years and them for the same time, 33 month. Some Muslim nations have use than a month, solar calendar.

As history shows, most calendars and er associated with the cult of the gods and Kings. France had created the first calendar year which begins not with Board of gods or kings, but from the autumnal equinox. This day coincided with the day French Republic.

It took more than 1000 years before the Christian faith was adopted by all European countries. It was estimated that Jesus was born the year of 753 founding of Rome. Year of birth of Christ was the starting point BC (BC). Everything that happened before his birth, considered events BC (BC) Years BC, as a rule. Also the no added "Our era " (BC).

Word of the era in Latin means the original number.

The earlier BC incident, the greater the number of BC The later incident, the smaller the number of BC First, is nine thousand years before ADthen eight thousand years BC, then seven thousand years BC and so on. When event took place BC and should determine how long it exist, the number of years of our era is added the number of years BC.

 

Questions and Tasks

1. That examines the history of the ancient world?

2. As Ethnography helps in studying history?

3. Why archeology sometimes called "the history which armed with spade?

4. Which century you can include modern days whereas the periodization, set archaeologists?

5. Write the following dates: the first period of world history pochynayetsya__ and ending __