§ 42. 1. End of the Cold War (textbook)

§42.1. End of the Cold War

 

1. Background and reasons for the end of the ColdWar

            The new look at Europe's problemsworld of politics and the East and West came in different ways. Research Scientistsefforts of journalists, writers, people of art formed in the mindworld public opinion sharply negative attitude to the idea of forcedsolve international problems.

            Despite the aggravationconfrontation between two military-political bloc in the early 80'scontinued pan-European process started in Helsinki. In Belgrade(1977-1978 biennium), Madrid (1980-1983 biennium), Stockholm(1984-1987 biennium), Vienna (1986-1989 biennium) held meetings and consultationsrepresentatives of the member European meeting. In StockholmConference on Confidence and Security in Europe, the Soviet Union made a number ofinitiatives to limit naval activity in Northern Europe andMediterranean. The Soviet government offered to withdraw from the Mediterranean asSoviet and American ships-carriers of nuclear weapons, then -military fleets of U.S. and USSR. This time it was pure propagandamaneuver. In the Soviet Union began to understand that a major foreign policy is impossible withoutmutual concessions. Readiness for such concessions became evident after the adventto power Gorbachev. He declared the policy of perestroika andthe necessity of establishing a new thinking in international relations.

 

Scheme: Background and reasons for the end of the ColdWar

 

Background and reasons for the end of the Cold War

Awareness  zhubnosti continued nuclear missile confrontation. Increase of similar  speeches and sentiments in the world

Insolvency  Soviet economy to continue rivalry in the arms race. System  crisis of the Soviet model of development

Insolvency  Soviet Union continue to support the pro-Soviet regimes in all corners  world. Impossibility of solving a number of regional conflicts without  stopping confrontation between the USSR and the U.S.

The coming to power  new Soviet leadership that genuinely sought termination of the Cold War

 

Chronicle of the "new political thinking" (1985-1991 biennium)

Date

Event

1985

In Stockholm  Conference on Confidence and Security in Europe, the Soviet Union made  number of initiatives to limit naval activity in the North of Europe  and the Mediterranean. The Soviet government offered to withdraw from the Mediterranean  both Soviet and American ships-carriers of nuclear weapons, then -  military fleets of U.S. and USSR. It was agreed a wide range of political and  military-technical measures to reduce the risk of war in Europe.

April 7  1985

USSR ceased  deployment of intermediate-range SS-20 in Eastern Europe.

 

August 6  1985

Unilateral  Soviet moratorium on nuclear testing, which operated a half years.

November 21  1985

Gorbachev meeting in Geneva  (USSR) and Reagan (USA) signed an interim agreement on missiles average  range, agreed to reduce offensive weapons.  The parties stated that "nuclear war is unacceptable" and that "the parties will not  seek the benefits of one over another "

January  1986

Gorbachev  put forward a program to eliminate the late twentieth century weapons of mass destruction.

1986

Meeting in  Rake `yaviku leaders of the USSR and U.S. agreement to 5% reduction of strategic offensive  arms for 5 years. Agreement was not signed because of a dispute concerning  deployment of SDI program.

May  1987

Political Consultative Committee accepted the basic ATS  provision of a new military doctrine defense. Deklaruvalos that  ATS members under any circumstances will not start military action against any  State or union of states, unless they themselves become the object of military aggression that  never apply the first nuclear weapons, that the USSR and its allies have  territorial claims to any of the states and not apply to any  country as their enemy.

December 8  1987

Soviet-American  agreement on the elimination of intermediate and shorter-range missiles in Europe. Besides  The Soviet Union took over the obligation to destroy similar missiles in Siberia  and the Far East. Treaty entered into force in June 1988 Contract  involved the reduction of nuclear arsenals by 4% (1752 of Soviet missiles and 859  American).

1987

Home National Policy  reconciliation in the world hot spots: Angola, Ethiopia, Nicaragua, Afghanistan,  Cambodia. Begin the withdrawal of Soviet and Cuban troops from these countries (in  Africa - 9 of Soviet thousand, 54 thousand - Cuban).

December 7  1988

Statement by Mikhail Gorbachev  43 th Session of the UN: the stated willingness of the Soviet Union unilaterally by  two years to reduce its troop strength by 500 thousand people. much  cut in the USSR and the countries of its conventional weapons ATS

January 15  1989

In the final document  adopted by the European meeting in Vienna, among the various aspects  international security in particular stand out the problem of human rights. All States  recommended "to improve its laws, administrative regulations  and policies of civil, political, economic, social,  cultural and other human rights and fundamental freedoms and put them into  practice.

March 15, 1989  was

Completion of withdrawal  Soviet troops from Afghanistan.

November  1989

Meeting at  Fr. Malta Gorbachev and Bush. Joint statement on the end of the Cold  War.

June 3  1990

USSR and the U.S. signed  Treaty on the Elimination of Chemical Weapons

November 19  1990

Signing of the 34 countries  As far as the new Europe. Agreement between ATS and NATO (22 countries) to reduce  conventional weapons in Europe. Proclaiming that the parties "are not more  opponents "and undertake" to build and strengthen democracy as the only  form of government in our krayinah2.

1990

Home output  Soviet troops from Eastern Europe.

October 3  1990

At call Germany.

1991

The liquidation of ATS (1  April) and CEA (June 28).

July 31  1991

Soviet-American  Agreement on the Reduction of Strategic Offensive Arms (START-1) - 30% of nuclear  potentials.

 

Implications

·         The defeat of the Soviet Union in the Cold War, the collapse  USSR and the socialist system

·         Termination of global nuclear missile deal  between a super-complete brinkmanship. The reduction of nuclear  potentials

·         The formation of the unity of the world. Acceleration  processes of globalization, regional integration processes (Brown,  South East Asia, North and Latin America).

·         Formation of a single world market,  based on a functioning market economy, private property and  competition

·         At call Germany. Withdrawal of Soviet  (Russian) troops from Eastern Europe. The acceleration of European integration, enlargement  NATO and the EU to the East

·         The emergence of new states in Eastern Europe after  collapse of the USSR, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Restoration of historical conflicts  between the emergence of newly independent state (in the former Yugoslavia and  USSR)

·         Taming of the conflicts generated by "cold  war (Nicaragua, Cambodia, Angola, Afghanistan, etc.)

·         Worsening problems that previously hindered  global superpower confrontation, the emergence of new and worsening of old  regional conflicts, increasing instability and various regions of the world

·         Changing the system of international relations. Change  role of international organizations, including the UN. Formation of new centers of world  policy. Priority U.S., their dominance in international relations

·         Initiating the process of liquidation of the totalitarian  and authoritarian, the establishment of liberal democratic regimes

·         The emergence of the problem of weapons proliferation  Mass Destruction

·         The emergence of the problem of international terrorism

 

            The new Soviet leader opened a wideforeign policy. At the Stockholm conference was agreedwide range of political and military-technical measures to reduce riskWar in Europe. April 7, 1985 Soviet deployment of intermediate stop-range SS-20 in Eastern Europe, and from August 6, 1985 introduced one-waymoratorium on nuclear testing, which operated a half years. In January 1986Gorbachev put forward a program to eliminate weapons of mass end of the centurydestruction.

            In May 1987 PoliticalATS advisory committee adopted the basic provisions of the new military doctrinedefense.

            Deklaruvalos that ATS members under noIn no circumstances will military action against any country or union of states,if you do not themselves become the object of military aggression that never fails to takefirst nuclear weapons, that the USSR and its allies have no territorial claimsany of the states and not apply to any country as their enemy.

            Soviet-American talks onSummit in Geneva (1985), Reykjavik (1986), Washington(1987) and Moscow (1988) led to positive changes inreal reductions in nuclear weapons. In December 1987 was signed, andin June 1988 Agreement came into force and the USSR on the Elimination of U.S. missilesmedium and shorter-range missiles. He foresaw the destruction of about 4% of arsenalnuclear weapons.

            In the final document adoptedJanuary 15, 1989 at the European meeting in Vienna, among the variousaspects of international security in particular stand out the problem of human rights.

            All States recommended"Improve its laws, administrative regulations and policiescivil, political, economic, social, cultural and other rightsrights and fundamental freedoms and put them into practice. "

            It is believed that after the destructionBerlin Wall in November 1989 and the December meeting with GorbachevGeorge W. Bush on the island. Malta has to stop "cold war" betweenUSSR and the USA. These states have ceased to regard each other as adversaries.

            New thinking on the spread andregional conflicts. In a number of hotspots (Afghanistan, Nicaragua,Cambodia, Angola) has taken a course for national reconciliation, the search forresolving problems through negotiations. Much of politicsNational reconciliation was caused by the failure of the Soviet Union continue to supportbankrupt pro-Soviet regimes. In 1988 Vietnam withdrew its troops fromCambodia and Cuba - from Angola. After the Geneva agreements between the USSR and the USAAfghanistan on March 15, 1989 The Soviet Union completed the withdrawal of itstroops from the country. Another important result of new thinking and conclusions"Cold War" was the unification of Germany and the withdrawal of Soviettroops from Eastern European countries.

 

2. Questionreunification of Germany in international relations

            The question of German reunification wasclosely connected with the problem of European security since the appearance in the centerEurope's new powerful state could disrupt the balance of power on the continent. In additionWell, Germany's recent past has caused fears of neighboring countries.

            During the postwar years, Germanyremained split into two parts. On its territory there were two Germanstates - West Germany and East Germany. 1945 German issue entailed tensions. Incenter of Europe kept a dangerous confrontation zone, where twomilitary-political alliances directly confronting each other.

            All these years in the minds of Germans liveddesire to resolve this abnormal situation and achieve unification underunified Germany. Changes in the USSR and East Germany created favorable conditions for this.

            In February, 1990 among the winnersin World War II - Soviet, American, British and French - andtwo German states was agreed on the establishmentnegotiation mechanism "2 4. As a result of difficult negotiations, whichwere carried out for seven months, they produced a document that contained a solutionentire range of external aspects of German unity. September 12, 1990in Moscow the foreign ministers of six states signed the Treatyfinal settlement of Germany.

            Established a contract that externalborders are the borders of German East Germany and West Germany, and confirmed the finalnature of these borders as a significant part of world order in Europe.The parties recognized that the united Germany has no territorial claimsto other states and would not make such claims in the future. The Constitutionunited Germany should not have any provisions that contradicted thisprinciples.

Governments of East Germany and West Germanyreaffirmed their statement that the German state, coming from only peace andhis refusal of the production, possession and disposal of nuclear, biological andchemical weapons.

            The armed forces of Germany were subject toreduction over 3-4 years to 370 thousand people. Soviet troops were to bewithdrawn from Germany to August 31, 1994 During this period, informer GDR and Berlin had to stay only German territorial formationDefense, not included in the structure of NATO. Contract law prohibitsplace in East Germany, foreign troops and nuclear weapons or their carriersafter the withdrawal of Soviet troops from there. Also August 31, 1994 inBerlin had to keep U.S. forces, Britain and France. USSRagreed to join a united Germany in NATO.

            Since the reunification of Germany wereexhausted rights and responsibilities of the four states of Berlin and Germanygeneral. Governments of the USSR, the USA, Britain and France declared the termination ofQuadripartite Agreement and the decisions of war and of post-war Germany anddissolving the appropriate authorities. Germany won the entire United Statesovereignty in their internal and external affairs.

            Agreement brought an end to the finalthe Second World War and 45 years of post-war period. October 3, 1990, the GDR joined the FRG. On the political map of Europe a costpowerful state with a population of 87 million people. that because of its potentialincluded in the category of the largest countries in the world, and now wants to becomepermanent member of UN Security Council.

 
3. Beginningnuclear missile disarmament. NATO Transformation

            A milestone in Soviet-American relations becamevisit of Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev in the U.S. in May - June 1990and his talks with U.S. President George Bush. The result of these negotiationsa package of agreements, protocols and joint statements. It was agreed the basic provisionsAgreement on Strategic Arms Reduction (START), signed an agreement80% on the Elimination of Chemical Weapons and on refusal of its production reachedarrangements to improve local capacity test explosions.This way, we remove the obstacles that hampered the ratification of two importantSoviet-American agreements signed in 1974 and 1976 -limitations on underground nuclear testing and the underground nuclear explosionsfor peaceful purposes. It signed an important agreement that complemented and expanded agreement1973 on scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful usenuclear energy.

            After the collapse of the USSR participants START-1 treaty were Russia,Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus, signed May 23, 1992 Lisbonagreement that in the last three of these states should notgenerally exist no nuclear weapons. Based on these understandings presidentRussia's Boris Yeltsin and U.S. President George W. Bush in Washington in June, 1992signed a draft treaty START-1, in which the U.S. and the former USSRreduce strategic offensive arms by 50% (5-6 thousand of charges)for 7 years. In 1994, START-1 treaty was ratified by allparties.

            January 3, 1993 in Moscow, Boris Yeltsin and Bush signedSTART-2 treaty on reducing strategic offensive arms twice thatremain after the contract START-1. Participants in this agreement were onlyRussia and USA, as expected, that after START-1 agreementUkraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus will become non-nuclear countries.

 

Strategic offensive arms in Russia and the U.S.

 

1992

According to the agreement

 CHO-1

According to START-2 treaty

 

Russia

U.S.

Russia

U.S.

Russia

U.S.

Intercontinental  ballistic missiles

6000

2500

3100

1500

1000

500

Ballistic  missile submarine

3300

5200

1800

3600

1750

1750

Strategic  Bombers

700

4300

700

4000

700

1250

 

Also in 1993 concluded an important Convention on the Prohibitionand Elimination of Chemical Weapons (in U.S. stockpiles were 30 thousand tons, inRussia - 40 thousand etc.).

End of the Cold Warinternal changes in the Soviet Union led to revolutions in EasternEurope and the termination of ATS from July 1, 1991

Given the new realities of political life, Meeting of HeadsNATO 06/05 July 1990 adopted the London Declaration, whichintroduced radical changes in military doctrine of the NATO alliance.

Participants committed themselves to non-aggressionother States and nuclear weapons have been declared a "weapon of extremesituation.

Changed and the role of NATO. With the military unit he morebecomes political. Some former allies of the USSR on ATS and thensome countries that emerged from the dissolution of the USSR, expressed theirdesire to join NATO. Such their actions largely dictated by the desiresecure the stability and security in the new conditions. Introduction EasternEurope in NATO was one of the major problems between Russia and the United States andNATO.

At a meeting of NATO in Brussels in January1994 adopted a program of Partnership for Peace. Itsgoal is to provide stability in Europe and development cooperationEastern European countries. The program wanted to take part in almost allEastern European countries. Actively takes part in the Ukraine.

 

4. Crisis inGulf. Middle East peace process

A serious test of changes in international relationsbecome a crisis in the Persian Gulf in the early 90's, caused by Iraq's aggressionagainst Kuwait.

An eight-year Iran-Iraq War led to growthIraq's foreign debt (80 billion). The war stimulatedmilitarization of the country and strengthened the political ambitions of Iraqi President SaddamHussein, his claim to leadership in the Arab world.

August 2, 1990 vderlasya Iraqi army in Kuwait,uchynyvshy unprovoked aggression. Emir of Kuwait and the government moved toSaudi Arabia. A few Army could do only a weak resistance. Kuwaitwas occupied and declared a nineteenth province of Iraq.

Iraq's actions were strongly condemned by the UN Security Council, whichdemanded the immediate withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait and introduced extensiveeconomic sanctions on Iraq. All assets of Iraq and Kuwait with foreign bankswas frozen, blocked the export of Iraqi oil.

Many countries sent military in Saudi Arabiatroops and weapons to defend the country against possible Iraqi aggression(Operation Desert Shield). The basis of a powerful military grouping,Focused on the territory of Saudi Arabia amounted to U.S. military thatreached 500 thousand people. Warships United States and other countries in patrolledwaters of the Gulf, the Red and Mediterranean Seas.

The situation was complicated by unresolved Palestinianissues and lack of unity in the Arab world for the actions of Iraq. Referringfor punitive actions against the Israeli authorities in Jerusalem Arabs convictedUN Security Council, Saddam Hussein claimed the role of defender of Arabpeoples of Israel and linking Kuwait to resolve the Palestinian questionproblem.

Assessing Iraq's actions as a challenge to the world community,UN Security Council passed several resolutions demanding unconditional ceaseannexation of Kuwait. But Baghdad ignored these calls. Then the Security Councilset the end date the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait - January 151991 In the case of Iraq's failure to fulfill this requirement was authorizeduse of military force.

Measures taken by the Soviet Union, France and othercountries to the peaceful settlement of the crisis, unfortunately, proved unsuccessful. 17January 1991 multinational anti-Iraq coalition led by U.S.launched a massive air and missile strikes on military and other sitesIraq and Kuwait. In late February, resulting in a 100-hour operationArmy anti-Iraq coalition Iraqi forces were defeated. Kuwaitwas released. Operation of the multinational forces, "Desert Storm"successfully finished (by U.S. forces commander N. Schwarzkopf).

As a result, Iraq lost the war for various estimates12 to 70 thousand people., destroyed much of its economy. Butregime of Saddam Hussein in power. Significant losses suffered and Kuwait, which becamearena of combat.

Effectively restrain the aggressor was possible onlythe cessation of confrontation between the U.S. and USSR. After the battle of Iraq wasis obliged within 90 days to destroy the offensive weapons and weapons of massdestruction. In the north and the south created the security zone, whereforbidden Iraqi aircraft to fly and put the army combat units in Iraq.Guarantee the enforcement of the agreement were U.S. troops and England. Also against Iraq wereimposed sanctions that have caused difficulties in the country's food shortage andmost essential. In 1996-1999, the UN in Iraq carried out the oil inexchange for food.

Crisis in the Gulf War gave impetus to the Middle Eastpeace process. In Madrid (1991) was the start of negotiationsprocess between Arabs and Israel under the auspices of the USSR and the USA. The consequence of this processwas the signing of bilateral agreements. September 13, 1993 in Washingtonsigned Palestinian-Israeli declaration of putting the Palestinian Authorityin the Gaza Strip and near the town of Jericho on the West Bank. A 4May 1994 Chairman Board AFP Arafat and Israeli Prime MinisterI. Rabin signed the Cairo agreement on the principles of practical implementation of the agreement"Gaza-Jericho - at first. In 1994, signed a peaceagreement between Israel and Jordan. However, the discussions have intensifiedbetween Syria and Israel on the transfer of Syria's Golan Heights, captured by Israelin 1967, in exchange for peace with Israel. However, the parties continueuse force to resolve conflict. The Israeli army inApril-June, 1996 conducted another operation to destroy the structures ofHezbollah, which fights for the liberation of southern Lebanon and carriesattacks on Israel. Extremist Palestinian organizations opposednegotiations with Israel. The use of force by Israel which came to power in elections1996 I. Rabin after the assassination, took a tough stand on negotiations withArabs. This has hindered the peace process in the Middle East, but not stoppedit. But so far the situation in the region remains uncertain.

 

Results

            The last decade of the twentieth century.period was the end of the Cold War and the formation of a new systeminternational relations. This was the expectation that war will end and finally inworld peace prevail. But for the last years of the twentieth century. and early XXI century.showed that the world is far from perfect. He faced a new threat- International terrorism.

 

Questions and tasks:

1.    What are the reasons of the end of the ColdWar?

2.    What is "new thinking"? What is its novelty?

3.    Describe the process end of the ColdWar.

4.    Who is the winner in the Cold War?

5.    As has been settled in international relationsissue of unification of Germany?

6.    How to change the alignment of forces in internationalrelations after the Cold War?

7.    Why NATO ceased to exist onend of the Cold War?

8.    Identify the consequences of the Cold War?

9.    What is special about the crisis in the GulfIn 1990-1991?

10. How affectedend of the Cold War to regional conflicts that raged in the years"War"?