§ 41. Course on easing of international tension and his stall (textbook)

§41. Course on easing of international tension and his stall

 

1. Easing of international tension 70 years, its achievements.The Helsinki process.

            Relaxation - Period in international relations (70 years of the twentieth century.) For whichcharacterized by weakening of confrontation between the superpowers and the normalization of relations betweenthem, mutual concessions and compromises. During this period, measures taken to limitarms race and developing cooperation in various fields.

            Key preconditions for dischargewere: first, between the U.S. and USSR in the late 70's was setmilitary-strategic parity, and secondly, as a result of acute crisis anddangerous regional conflicts leadership in both superpowers sure thezhubnosti "balancing" on the brink of war.

            Detente 70 years laidfoundation for further movement to limit stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction. Itshowed the possibility of reaching agreement on all matters of international security.A new type of relationship formed during the 1963-1973 biennium A characteristic feature ofmethods were peaceful settlement of conflicts. In July 1968 openedto sign the Non Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons, which entered into force in1970 At the moment it is signed by more than 160 countries. In 1995,it continued indefinitely. However, there are states (India, Pakistan, Israel, etc..)that due to various circumstances, refused to sign this agreement.

            Under the agreement states thatnuclear-weapon States undertake not to transfer anyone to nuclearexplosive devices or control over them, and to assist and promotenon-nuclear states in the production and acquisition of weapons of mass destruction. Non-nuclearState pledge not to receive, not control (directly orindirectly), produce, and strive not to accept helpproduction of nuclear devices. Countries that signed the treaty, can developthe scope of peaceful atom, but under IAEA (International AgencyAtomic Energy, founded in 1955).

            Detente has brought tangible improvementsin Europe. Getting them to put the coming to power in Germany in 1969 coalitiongovernment of Social Democrats and Free Democrats, led by Willy Brandt.Previous governments of Germany in foreign policy came from the fact that Europeanborders are inconclusive and refused to recognize the GDR as a sovereign state. Thisconfrontational policy consistent pattern of the Cold War. Asstrengthening the economic position of Germany is braked the spread of politicalinfluence of Germany and depriving it of maneuver in the East. Brandt suggested that a "newEastern policy, part of which was recognition of realities that have developedin Europe, and on this basis, normalization of relations with the Soviet Union and EasternEurope.

            In August 1970 between Germany andUSSR was reached, which was based on denial West German partyof claims to review the European borders.

            September 3, 1971 between the USSRU.S., Britain and France have reached agreement regarding the West Berlinaccording to which the city received special status and should never belong to Germany.

            Agreements were also signed between the GDR andGermany, the PRP and Germany, Czechoslovakia and Germany. All parties refused to mutualterritorial claims.

 

Milestones discharge

Year

The foreign share

1968

Opened for signature  agreement on nuclear nonproliferation. Entry into force in 1970

1970

Treaties between the USSR and Germany,  East Germany and West Germany, Poland and Germany, Czechoslovakia and Germany for a waiver to  Image borders in Europe.

1971

Four-way chop  between U.S., USSR, Britain and France on the West Berlin.

1972

- Message (February 1972  City) U.S. President R. Nixon, Congress, which stated that the USSR has reached  military-strategic parity with the U.S..

- R. Nixon's visit to  Soviet Union and the signing of the ABM Treaty (limits on missile defense systems) and  START-1 (on limiting strategic offensive weapons for 5 years).

1973

- Visit by Brezhnev to  United States, signing an agreement on prevention of nuclear war.

- Meeting by Brezhnev in  Vladivostok with U.S. President George Ford. Conclusion of the agreement on  cooperation in arms control.

1974

Treaty between the USSR and the USA  limitations on underground nuclear testing.

1975

Joint flight  Soviet and American spacecraft "Soyuz" and "Apollo."

August 1975

Conference on Security and Cooperation  in Europe in Helsinki. The signing of the Helsinki Final Act.

1977

The dissolution of SEATO and St.

1979

Treaty between the USSR and the USA  START-2 (not ratified by the U.S. Senate).

 

2. Helsinkiprocess

            One milestone of d

            In the first stage 3-7 July1973 Meeting of Foreign Ministers made the agenda and identifiedMain areas of work.

The second (18September 1973 - July 21, 1975) experts have prepared a basicMeeting documents on security, economic and humanitarian problems.

August 11975 leaders of 33 European countries, USA and CanadaFinal Act of the meeting. Its core is a declaration of principles whichStates Parties shall be guided by the mutual relations.

The Declaration includes the following principles:

 

1. Respect for sovereignty.

2. Non-application of force or threat of force.

3. Inviolability of borders.

4. Territorial integrity of States.

5. Peaceful settlement of disputes.

6. Non-interference in internal affairs.

7. Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

8. Equality and the right of peoples to dispose  own destiny.

9. Cooperation between States.

10. Fidelity to commitments  international law.

 

            In the Declaration adopted by the followingdocuments as "Co-operation in economics, engineering, environmentalenvironment, cooperation in humanitarian and other fields,"The question of security cooperation in the Mediterranean, on measuresstrengthening confidence and some aspects of security and disarmament ".

            Helsinki meeting was a turningevents of the period of d

 

3. Resultsdetente in Soviet-American Relations

            Along with the deepening of d

            In May 1972 visitU.S. President R. Nixon to the Soviet Union, during which were adopted "Principlesrelations between the USSR and the United States and the Treaty on the Limitation of systemsAnti-Ballistic Missile (ABM). First two superpowers signed an agreement on measures toindustry and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (START-1). During the visitLeonid Brezhnev to the U.S. in June 1973 leaders of the two countries signed an agreementprevention of nuclear war.

            Under such arrangements wererestrictive set of tests of nuclear weapons. Ratification of the contract andagreements was disrupted due to the new international situation worseninglate 70's.

            The process of discharge spread to otherregions. In 1971 in East Bengal belonging to Pakistanpopulation with the support of India after a long struggle gained independence. OnPolitical Map of Asia A new state - the People's RepublicBangladesh, India and become a regional superpower.

            In 1972, withdrawal from SAINTPakistan announced. In 1977, SAINT bloc ceased to exist. Throughsome time ceased to exist and SEATO bloc.

            In 1973 was concludedThe Paris Agreement on Vietnam, which stopped direct U.S. interventionagainst that country.

 

4. Detente and regional conflicts

            Against the backdrop of continued dischargeregional conflicts occur. The gap between China and the USSR in the late60 years resulted in 70 years to normalize relations with China the United States. In1971 held a secret visit to Beijing by U.S. President Assistant for NationalSafety Henry Kissinger, who negotiated a visit to China by U.S. President. InThat same year the U.S. lifted its veto in the Security Council, which enabled China to takeChina's UN seat, which by that time occupied by government officials Homindanu thatwas defeated in the civil war and found shelter on the island. Taiwan underprotection of the United States. Visit R. Nixon became a sensation in world politics. In1979 were restored diplomatic relations at ambassadorial level.

            Normalization of relations with China USAallowed China to continue the confrontation with the USSR. Arena was the oppositionSouth-East Asia. Vietnam after reunification in 1975 took a clearpro-Soviet stance. In neighboring Cambodia in this period came to powerprokytayski forces - the Khmer Rouge. This resulted in the aggravationRelations between Vietnam and Cambodia, which resulted in armed conflict. In January1979 v'yetnamski troops overthrew the power of the Khmer Rouge.China in return attacked the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, butdefeated (Soviets at that time were concentrated in Mongoliathrown in Vietnam).

            In 1973 was"October", or "seven", the Arab-Israeli war,was initiated by Arab countries. The main fighting in the area openedSuez Canal. The Egyptian army, successfully crossing through the canal, has struckdefeat the Israeli army, but most ended up in the environment. In turn,Israeli army forsuvavshy feed actively promoted in Cairo. At this pointbetween Egypt and Israel, signed the armistice and the parties return to prewarsituation. This war has convinced the Egyptian leadership in the inability to resolveMiddle East problem through war. After the failure of an internationalConference on Middle East settlement under the auspices of the United States and the Soviet Union itmatter to conclude in 1979 separate peace with Israel at Camp David(USA). This was a serious blow to the positions of the Soviet Union in the MiddleEast.

            The economic crisis of 70 years andcompletion of the decolonization affected international relations. Occident,focusing on internal problems weakened the control of its areainfluence. This immediately took advantage of the Soviet Union for penetration into new regions.So you can appreciate the government coming to power of S. Allende in Chile (1971)revolution in Ethiopia (1974), coming to power of pro-Soviet forces in Angolaand Mozambique after the revolution of carnations in Portugal(1975-1976 biennium), unification of Vietnam in one state (1975)installing pro-Soviet regimes in Laos and Cambodia, in the April coupAfghanistan (1978), strengthening the regime D. Ortega in Nicaragua (1979).Changing the balance of power in the international arena could not cause the relevantAction from the U.S., which again led to the exacerbation of the cold war.USA organized a military coup in Chile (1973), went to joinChina, forcing the USSR to keep substantial forces in the Far East. In Africa, USA andits allies have made a bid for South Africa, the regime SiadaBarr virus in Somalia, separatist movements in Ethiopia. Thus, they vysnazhuvalyUSSR, which had to support the pro-Soviet forces.

 

5. Failured

            Detente 70 years was notlong term policy. Was not overcome the logic of the Cold War andsuspicion between the great powers. To set off the discharge affectedeconomic gap between the USSR and conservative trends in domestic and foreignpolicy. Considerable role played by economic crisis and 70 years classifiedSoviet leadership as a crisis of capitalism in general, you want to usefor the establishment of socialism throughout the world. The confrontation between the West andSoviet Union entered a decisive phase.

            By the end of 70 years there has been a sharpescalated the situation. It became clear that in vain to imposeserious hope of the Helsinki agreement. USSR was in no hurry to fulfill theircommitments in the humanitarian area, the West had not yet tried to refusemilitary confrontation communist bloc.

            In response to the placement of Sovietmedium-range missiles in Eastern Europe, the NATO Council session in WashingtonMay 1978 approved the long-term program to increase militarycosts by 3% per year for 20 years. December 12, 1979 in Brussels wasdecision on placement in the UK, Belgium, Germany, Italy 574cruise missiles and missile Pershing-2.

            In December 1979 USSR entered itstroops in Afghanistan. Soviet support unpopular regime in the countrycaused the rise of patriotic feelings and the massive resistance of the population. Iran andPakistan opened its territory for bases to the insurgents. U.S., Arabcountries, China provided considerable military assistance to insurgents. Soviet Union got itsVietnam with the same chance of success. USSR condemned the world community, not U.S.ratified the START-2 and imposed an embargo on grain sales to the USSR. Evensome former socialist countries did not support the actions of the Soviet leadershipmany countries boycotted the Olympics in 1980 in Moscow. Relaxation waspermanently buried.

            At the end of 1970 accounted forsharp aggravation of relations between the U.S. and Iran. In February 1979 Iranrevolution took place, which resulted in the monarchy was overthrown and the government movedthe hands of fundamentalist clergy led by Ayatollah Khomeini. Revolution inIran opened a new page in international relations. It was the indexfurther erosion of the bipolar world system. The revolution gave risespreading the ideas of fundamentalism in the Islamic world, deepened the confrontation betweenChristian and Islamic civilizations. International CasesTerrorism has become a common disaster for many countries.

            Events in Iran have caused seriousblow to the prestige of the United States. This led to the fall of President Carter's administration.Developments finally persuaded Americans to the need for moretough foreign policy. On the presidential elections in 1980 victoryreceived the R. Reagan Republican, who offered to give up and dischargeto refit the U.S. Army.

New AmericanAdministration approved the strategy of "rivalry", according to whichplanned to develop advanced weaponry, to the maximumscientific and technological achievements in which the U.S. has priority. This strategy shouldwas not only ensure military superiority, but also the economic exhaustion of the USSR. InUnder this strategy was developed policy of "directconfrontation, which included the use of military power decisivelyto achieve political goals. An important feature is its provisionU.S. preparing to resolve wars of different scales and intensity.

            March 23, 1983 U.S. PresidentR. Reagan made a statement on development programs in the U.S. SDI (Strategic DefenseInitiative). The program included the creation of global missile defenseelements of space weapons. This meant that the arms race and moved onspace, and all agreements on limiting strategic armsactually lose power. To participate in this program and invited the Soviet Union.

            The reaction of the Soviet Unionprogram has been sharply negative. Development of anti-SDI needed large resourcesmaterial costs, which the Soviet economy would not stand. ActuallySDI program was bluff and provocation while the United States to destroy the economyUSSR, because SDI does not give absolute guarantees of protection of the U.S. and theirallies.

            In the 80 years the main arenaconfrontation between two military-political blocs again become Europe. ATS and NATOactively placed here first strike nuclear weapons, increase stockpilesnon-nuclear weapons. While maintaining relative parity of the USSR and its allieshad an advantage in armored technique 3 times, artillery 6 times the massAir 5 times. Block NATO held a lead in anti-tank vehicles, combathelicopter fleet. Soviet superiority in offensive weapons NATO decidesoppose a new defense strategy. In November 1984 The Planning CommitteeNATO endorsed the plan NATO Chief Rogers. The basis of the plan wasis an idea of a deep blow to the enemy second echelon ofusing high-precision non-nuclear weapons systems.

            Along with the deteriorating situation inEurope continued conflict in third world countries.Line of confrontation between the Soviet Union the United States passed through Afghanistan, Central Americaand South Africa.

            The coming to power in 1979 inSandinistiv Nicaragua, which received substantial assistance of Cuba and the USSR, successesguerrilla struggle in El Salvador and Guatemala, worried the United States. Theyorganized and ozbroyily antysandinistskyy movement in Nicaragua, pereozbroyuvalyArmy of El Salvador and Guatemala. In 1983 U.S. committed aggression againstGrenada on the pretext of preventing the construction of strategic island baseSoviet bombers.

            In Africa, South Africa, which secretlysupported the U.S. and other Western countries, carried out regular militaryintervention against pryfrontovyh "states - Angola, Mozambique,supporting anti-government groups in these countries.

            In the early 80's againsharpened the Arab-Israeli conflict. This time the arena of confrontation wasLebanon, which was a civil war between Christians and Muslims.The Israeli leadership sought by short-term military operations inassistance to the Lebanese Christians to destroy Palestinian bases in southern Lebanon, from whichthey were carrying out attacks on Israel. But fast operation failed. Israelitroops stuck in battle with Syrian in Bekaa, in street battles in Beirut andbattles with guerrillas in the south. Even the withdrawal of Palestinian groupsfrom Lebanon has not brought peace of Israel: their place to have troops proiranskoyiHizbullah and Lebanese guerrillas. Intervention USA, England,France also failed to bring peace on Lebanese land, and even more difficultsituation in the country. United States were engaged in battles with Syrian and Lebanese. AttemptLebanon impose separate peace like Camp David, too, failed.Had significant losses, Israeli troops withdrew from the country, except20-km zone in southern Lebanon. American, French, Englishtroops also were forced to leave the country. Events in Lebanon once again convinced thatMiddle East conflict can be resolved only by peaceful means.

            In 1980, the war betweenIran and Iraq. Despite the reasons that caused her to become apart of the global conflict between the USSR and the USA.

            With fears of Islamicrevolution and trying to solve internal problems due to neighboringStates that Iraqi President Saddam Hussein September 22, 1980 started the aggressionagainst Iran. First, military success helped the aggressor. Summer 1982 inresult of Iran's military counteroffensive back all the lost territory. Warhas slow positional character. In 1983 USSR decided to re-armedIraq. Not slow and the U.S., which indirectly supplied the arms of Iran. U.S.even on that score political scandal broke - so-calledIranheyt. Belligerent, since 1985, tried to put asingle largest economic losses. Bombing of Iraq begins oilterminals and cities of Iran, Iran systematically bombard border towns, mineGulf waters. Such actions have led to increasing military presencelarge states in the region and to an unprecedented strain. Yes, American militaryship shot down an Iranian passenger plane, the aircraft struck an Iraqi missile attackthe American frigate, there were clashes between American and Iranianfleet of tankers pidryvalys mines, which threatened an environmental disasteretc.. Only in summer 1988 UN-brokered agreement was signedstop the war.

            Escalated the situation infirst half of 80 years was not lower than the 50's and 60's. As beforeresistance was accompanied by propaganda rhetoric. Soviet Unioncalled for peace and at the same time, repaired its troops in Afghanistan. PresidentU.S. declared the USSR an evil empire "and called for" cross-campaign "against communism. It significantly increased nuclear capacitycountries. In the world there were 50 thousand nukes total capacity of 16thousand megatons. All this managed automated system. In such conditionsbecome extremely dangerous even minor technical errors. Mostnumber of nuclear weapons was concentrated in Europe: 20 thousand units of nuclearweapons and 25 thousand sorties, 120 thousand tanks, 11 million soldiers. Iflarge-scale conflict, even without nuclear weapons from Europeits 200 nuclear power reactors, developed chemical and oil industryturned to the ruins.

            A striking example of this nonsenseit means destruction by Soviet air defense (PVO) on 1 September1983 South Korean aircraft over Fr. Sakhalin, resulting inkilled 296 passengers.

 

Results

            Cuban Missile Crisis protrezvlyayucheleaders acted on the superpowers. Began movement toward the implementation of agreed measuresto reduce the risk of early nuclear war. The key in this way wereagreement between the U.S. and the USSR to limit nuclear arms (START 1, START-2),defense system and more.

            Due to discharge wassettlement of borders in Europe, mutual diplomatic recognition of Germany and East Germany,taking them to a UN compromise to West Berlin. Culminationd

            Detente has not stopped the rivalrySoviet and U.S. influence on other continents. Done at 70 years of Soviet attemptstrengthen its influence in Africa and Asia, the U.S. was classified as havingcontrary to the spirit of d

 

Tasks for fixing

1.    Was the period of d

2.    Identify keyachievements of d

3.    What is Helsinkiprocess?

4.    Why not become a relaxationlong-term policy?

5.    Draw the structurallogic circuits on the theme: "easing of international tension and its breakdown (70 -Top 80's of XX century.) ".

6.    Make a chronologicaltable regional conflicts discharge period.

7.    What are the conflicts betweenGreat Powers led to the breakdown of detente?

8.    Identify featureslatest wave of the Cold War.

9.    What strategyU.S. implemented the final stage of the Cold War?