§ 39-40. The emergence and deployment of the Cold War (textbook)

Internationalrelations

§39-40. The emergence and deployment of the Cold War

 

1. Causes and the beginning of the Cold War

            In 1945-1948 he was leavingof the principles of cooperation that emerged during the Second World War, formedareas of international relations period of the Cold War. There haveprocess of the bipolar system of the world (USA-USSR).

            United States - the only country whichDuring the war strengthened. By the end of the war were under U.S.80% gold reserve of the capitalist world. Their share was about 60%world industrial production. Increased national income. Most countriesthe world was in financial dependence on the United States. There was a high and moralauthority of the United States - State making a significant contribution to the defeat of fascism andwas initiated by the UN. The U.S. had a large military advantage over othercountries and the monopoly possessed nuclear weapons. U.S. became a superpower.

            In the USSR the war led to a reduction30% of national wealth was destroyed in 1710 cities and towns,90 thousand villages, 32 thousand industrial enterprises. Needed upgrades andmodernization of basic production assets. At the same time the USSR had the largest landforces occupied large areas in Europe and Asia. In the Soviet army wasreputation defender and liberator of the world from fascism. Nearby Soviet Unionnot left the States that could threaten the security of the USSR. In the Westdominant positive attitude to the USSR.

            While the UK finished the warwinner, but her situation was not the best. For the first time its territory has undergonedestructive bombings and attacks. Was lost much of the tradefleet. Britain maintained its empire, but its dominions and colonies in the yearsWar strengthened their ties with the mother country weakened. It remained among the largeStates, but could not approach the strength of the U.S. and the USSR. After six yearsexhausting war Englishmen least cared about world domination.

            France after the war almostlost influence in world politics. The loss of France during the SecondWorld War II were smaller than in previous years, and the scale of devastationespecially in the bombing, much larger. Loss of influence on the worldpolicy was explained by the fact that its independence and integrity is not restoredtheir own, but with allies. Its economy was in decline anddependent on U.S. financial assistance. French Indochina runawaycontrol, Syria and Lebanon achieved independence. Only with a large contribution toFrance defeat fascism retained great power status.

            Differences between the USSR and the Westtrends even in the final period of World War II. The first significantcollision occurred during the London session of the Council of Foreign Ministers(September 11 - October 2, 1945), which ended without result.The conference revealed contradictions parties. Western diplomats stronglyrefused to negotiate peace treaties with countries where, in terms ofWestern governments were in power that did not reflect the entire spectrum of existingand political forces were created under the dictatorship of Moscow.

            The position of Western countries wasMoscow interpreted as a desire to restore in Eastern Europe regimes hostile toUSSR. Indeed, the West has sought to provide free and guaranteed access to marketsEastern European countries.

 

Foreign PolicyPrinciples of the USSR

1. Changes socio-economic formations  historically determined. Thus, of the "decaying" and doomed to  death of capitalism certainly must come as a communist formation  total human development.

2. The only proper methodology is that  class-based approach to all social phenomena of international life,  Marxist-Leninist interpretation of classes and class struggle. With this approach  associated guidance for the victory of world revolution and its support for the USSR.

3. The task of the communist regime is  introduction into public consciousness the idea of a special revolutionary vanguard  Russia's role in world history and its special messianic purpose,  is because the revolutionaries of all winners of the best in the world know how  arrange human happiness on earth and achieve common prosperity.

4. While there is imperialism as the ultimate and final  stage of capitalism, wars in the world are inevitable. To prevent new wars  necessary to abolish imperialism. Accordingly, the need to fight for peace and  expansion and strengthening of the socialist camp.

 

The main directions of Soviet foreign policy in the postwar years

1. Creating a strategically  critical zones and safety belt.

2. Signature  bilateral agreements on mutual aid from allies, especially in the  Eastern, South Eastern and Central Europe.

3. Restriction  foreign policy independence of the countries that entered the zone of influence of the USSR.

4. Military and political  rivalry with the West.

 

            The result of externalpolicy on such utopian demagogically-based disparity was constantthe main principles of Soviet foreign policy was officially proclaimedprinciples of proletarian unity and peaceful coexistence of states with differentpublic audio system.

            The conflict that arose in London, wassettled at a meeting in Moscow. Governments of Bulgaria and Romania includedthe opposition. However, clashes in London had a profound effect.The Soviet leadership decided that the West does not respect the security interests of the USSR andthe best way to solve problems - power pressure: not the same Westfight through the "little things". In turn, Western countries have realized thatUSSR considers all countries that find themselves in the zone of influence, and its aims toextending the zone. The U.S. government and other Western countries tended to believe that goingconcessions to the Soviet Union means to facilitate its expansion. Gradually formed in the Westconcept of "containment of communism" and "liberation of peoples,which appeared in the zone of penetration. Important role in shaping the conceptplayed an American diplomat, a specialist on Russia, George Kennedy.

            U.S. interests, believed Kennedy,require rapid stabilization of the situation in war-devastated country, based onfollowing the principles of political and economic organization, subject to whichAmerican capital investments will be safe from nationalizationdeposited can export earnings and external trade willmost liberalized. The coming to power in a country of communists shouldregarded as undesirable because it leads to the formation of a closed economicSoviet-style system. Accordingly, any success leftists shouldconsider the product "export revolution" to the USSR.

            At the Potsdam Conference, Stalinto exhibit territorial claims to Turkey, introduced a proposal on jointdefense of the Black Sea Straits and placing them in the zone of Soviet troops and aboutmode custody holdings of Italy in Africa.

 

From a conversation with StalinU.S. Ambassador (March 1946)

            "Turkey is weak and the Soviet Unionvery concerned about the threat of foreign control over the straits, which protectTurkey does not have enough forces. The Turkish government hostile to us. ThereforeSoviet government  requires facilities toDardanelles - the question of our own security. "

 

            In August 1946 Government of the USSRstated that "further delay the installation of the international status of the BlackSea and the Straits can not be justified. "

            In Greece, the Communists refused to takeparticipation in elections and disarm his troops and revolted. Bulgaria andYugoslavia supported the rebels. British troops have begun with the approval of the U.S.battles against guerrillas.

            At the beginning of 1946 thereconflict situation around Iran. In 1941, Iranian territory weretroops entered the Soviet Union and Britain to prevent the use of itsterritory of Nazi Germany. After the war British troops werewithdrawn. Withdrawal of Soviet troops were detained in connection with the planUSSR leadership to launch the offensive toward the Persian Gulf. To ensureSoviet presence in the region, in Iranian Azerbaijan government is formed,which proclaimed the autonomy of the land and began to implement agrarian reform. Related Eventstook place in Kurdistan.

            These events have caused concern toWest. Britain regarded as an encroachment on their sphere of influence and an attemptdismember Iran and create a Kurdish state that would lead to turmoil inTurkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria, where Kurds live. Questions about Irandiscussed at the Moscow Foreign Ministers meeting (December1945) and the UN. First time the U.S. threatened to use nuclear weapons againstUSSR. At the same time sounded Fultonska speech, Winston Churchill (March 1946).

            In his speech inFulton, USA, ex-premier claimed that existing in the USSR and in several othercountries is a police regime (totalitarian), which contradicts all the principlesdemocracy. Soviet Union charged that Europe perehorodyv Iron Curtain,created a sphere of influence and increasingly subordinating the people who were in it.Churchill argued that the USSR and the communist world organization ("Fivecolumn "of Moscow) aspire to infinite expansion, which is a threat"Christian civilization". After the speech he called forunification of all English-speaking countries in the fight against communism.

            Stalin praised this speech as a callbefore the war, and in the Soviet press launched an advocacy campaign against"Incendiary new war."

 

From Winston Churchill speech in Fulton (1946)

            "Thepicture of the world, recently winning illumined allies dropped shadow. Nobody knowsthat Soviet Russia and its Communist international organization intends todo in the near future and beyond that, if any, theirexpansionist tendencies and vironakydalnyh. I deeply admire and respectvaliant Russian people and for my wartime comrade Marshal Stalin. InEngland - I have no doubt that here too - feel deep sympathy and goodfreedom to all peoples of Russia and determination to overcome many disputes in the nameestablishment of a lasting friendship. We understand that Russia must ensuresecurity of its western borders against the possible renewal of German aggression. Weglad to see it to its rightful place among the leading world powers? But Iconsider it my obligation to present you some facts so that they meuyavlyayutsya - about the present situation in Europe.

            OfSchchetsina in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, the Iron Curtain descended oncontinent. Beyond the veil all the capital of the ancient states of Central and EasternEurope - Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia.All these famous cities and populations in their districts were within what Icall the Soviet sphere, all of them in one form or another subject not onlySoviet influence, and significant and increasing control from Moscow. OnlyAthens with their immortal fame can freely determine their future in the electionsunder the supervision of the British, Americans and Frenchmen. The Polish government, whichunder the supremacy of the Russians, driven to a huge and unfairattacks on Germany, leading to mass expulsion of millions of Germans in the sad andunprecedented scale.

            Communistparties that were too small in all these Eastern European countries,achieved exceptional power that far exceeds their numbers, and seekestablish totalitarian control over. Almost all these countries are managedpolice and governments to the present day? they do not have true democracy.Turkey and Iran are deeply concerned and disappointed about the claims that theyresent are and what pressures they face from the government of Moscow. In BerlinRussians are trying to create a quasi-Communist party in their zone of occupationGermany by granting special privileges to groups of German leftist leaders?

            Inmany countries around the world far from the borders of Russia, acommunist five memory columns, which act in complete unity and absolutesubordination of the guidelines of the Communist center. ExceptBritish Commonwealth and the United States, where communism is oninfant stage, the communist party, or a `memory columns, there is an increasing challengeand danger to Christian civilization?

            II believe that Russia wants war. What she wants to do is the fruit of war and infiniteexpand their power and doctrines? Russians? nothing is revered as the powerand then to have less respect than military weakness. Therefore, our olddoctrine of the balance of forces is incapacitated. We can not afford, to the extentin our power to act from a position of small benefits, which takes into temptation to dobreakdown strength.

 

In an interview JV Stalin correspondent of "Pravda" on speechW. Churchill in Fulton

            "Question:Can you believe that the speech of W. Churchill detrimental to peace and security?

            A: Undoubtedly,Yes. In fact Churchill is now in position incendiary war. AndChurchill is not alone - he has friends not only in England but also in the UnitedStates?

            It should be noted that Churchill and hisFriends striking in this respect resemble Hitler and his friends? Germanracial theory brought Hitler and his friends to the conclusion that the Germans asthe only full-fledged nations should rule over other nations. English racetheory leads Churchill and his friends to the conclusion that nations speakingEnglish as the only complete, should rule over other nationsworld.

            EssentiallyMinister Churchill and his friends in England and the U.S. impose nations that do not speakEnglish, something like an ultimatum: Accept our domination voluntarilyand then everything is in order. - Otherwise inevitable war?

            Question:How do you assess the part of Churchill's speeches where he attacks the democraticstructure of neighboring states with us, and where he criticizes neighborly relations,that developed between these countries and the Soviet Union?

            Answer:This part of Churchill's speech is a mixture of elements of defamation and rudenessbeztaktnosti?

            Germanscarried out an incursion  in the USSR throughFinland, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria. Hungary. The Germans could makeinvasion by these countries that existed in these countries governments hostileSoviet Union. As a result, the German invasion of Soviet Unionirrevocably lost in battles with the Germans but also due to German occupation andRemoval of the Soviet people to the German penal servitude - twenty million people?Asked what could be a surprise. that the Soviet Union, wishing to providea security for the future, seeks to ensure that existed in those countriesgovernments loyal attitude to the Soviet Union??

            GrowthCommunist influence can not be considered accidental. It is a natural phenomenon. ImpactCommunists grew so that in difficult years of domination of fascism in Europe Communistswere reliable, courageous, selfless fighter against the Naziregime for freedom of nations? "

 

            Tightening measures have led to changesSoviet tactics. Spring 1946 Soviet troops were withdrawn from Iran. InApril 1946 between the USSR and Iran, the agreement on the establishmentjoint Soviet-Iranian companies on joint exploitation of oil fieldsNorthern Iran in a period of 50 years. In June this year, IranAzerbaijan received autonomy. However, this maneuver does not Soviet leadershipremoved the tension in the region. The threat to U.S. interests and the UK by the USSRpreserved. United States provided military and economic assistance to the Iranian government, andBritain sent troops to Iraq to prevent furtherpenetration of the Soviet Union in the region. At the end of 1946 governmentIranian troops entered in Iranian Azerbaijan. Autonomy of the land waseliminated. In 1947 agreement was broken with the USSR.

            In February, 1947 Englishbrought to the attention of the U.S. government that they are unable to continue to provide economic andmilitary support to Greece and Turkey. Termination and withdrawal of aidBritish army threatened the spread of Soviet influence in these countriesfundamentally changed the situation in the Mediterranean. Created the conditions for joiningCommunists to power in Italy. This scenario forced Trumanmake a final choice.

            In his message to Congress fromMarch 12, 1947 He estimated such a situation as threatening to U.S. securityand requested $ 400 million to support the governments of Greece and Turkey, includingsending military personnel. It was recognized that U.S. security interestsrequiring "containment" of the USSR and its allies. Such a policy directiontitled the "Truman Doctrine". In this letter, interothers, Truman described the content of rivalry between the U.S. and the USSR as a conflictbetween democracy and totalitarianism.

 

From the speech of U.S. President Truman G. (12 March 1947)"Truman Doctrine"

            "Iconvinced that U.S. policy should be to be toassist free peoples to resist the subordination of the armed majorityor external pressure, is designed to subjugate them.

            Ibelieve we must help free peoples to determine their fate asthey want? "

 

            In a similar scenario unfoldedevents in China. However, their effects were opposite to the West.

            China was split between twopolitical parties: Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and Homindanom. Afterdefeat of the Kwantung Army of the Soviet troops were inManchuria and North Korea. Spring 1946 Soviet troops were withdrawnfrom China, and the territory controlled by them, placed under control of PLA(National Liberation Army of China) and PDAs. Summer 1946 troops Homindanutried to establish control over areas tribes who served PDA, which was the startinglong civil war, which were involved U.S. and USSR. The war endedHomindanu defeat and the emergence of two Chinese states: China and Taiwan.

            No less intense in the late 40'syears has been the situation in Europe. The Communists, who enjoyed popularity inEuropean countries due to active fighting in the war against fascism, included infirst post-war governments of most European countries. Decided to use thisStalinist leadership. To coordinate Communist Europe in 1947established Communist Informbureau. This caused concern America and England.After trying "Truman Doctrine" in Iran, Turkey, Greece, theyused it in other countries. In 1947, with the French government withdrewCommunists, and in 1948 in Italy in advance of the election, were blasted U.S.forces that blocked the Communists coming to power.

            Implementation of this doctrinetragically affected the fate of Germany: it was split into twostates - Germany and East Germany.

            In turn, the Soviet Union tookrevenge in Eastern Europe, China, North Korea, which were establishedpro-Soviet regimes.

            However, the postwar fate of Eastern andCentral Europe is very worried the United States. Roosevelt during the war, expressed theirdisinterest in the region.

            Churchill tried to counteract thisbut to no avail. October 10, 1944 between Churchill and Stalinconcluded "percentage agreement" about the division of spheres of influence in EasternEurope. At this time the focus of English government was focused on the issuespreservation of the British Empire, which began to collapse.

            In relation to Stalin's plans for Eastern Europegradually varied depending on the situation on the fronts. First, itplans for expansion were only Poland and Bulgaria; autumn of 1943 he tookdecision concerning Romania, spring and autumn 1944 - a relativelyHungary.

            In foreign policyStalin relied on the thesis that expressed in September 1944: "This wardiffers from previous ones: the one who captures the area can makepassionate about his country to accept the social order. "

            All these conflicts have not resulted intermination of the dialogue between the U.S. and the USSR. Despite the tensions, the chancemaintain normal relations remains, but it was lost, createdenemy, changed the attitude of public opinion of the USSR, andSoviet people to the former allies. In 1947, two-thirds ofU.S. thought the USSR enemy number 1. Late 40's leaders of great powersskeptical about the possibility of peaceful dialogue, all forces were hurled atconsolidate its zone of influence and creating military-bloc system,capacity of modern weapons. In a world unfolding Cold War. "An important indicator of the beginning of the Cold War was the treatment planMarshall, who clearly distinction between the supporters and allies of the USSR and the USA in Europe.

            The term "cold war"first coined in the early fourteenth century. Prince of Castile JuanManuel - military leader and writer. Reflecting on the long strugglebetween Christians and Muslims on the Iberian (Iberian) PeninsulaManuel noted in particular that "hot" and "cold" wardiffer in how they finish. "Hot" War endsor death, or peace, and the Cold War did not bring neither peace norhonor those who started them.

            The term "Cold War"includes the propaganda war, active participation in regionalconflicts, the struggle for influence in the Third World, economic war,technical blockade race for nuclear-missile and conventional weapons, fightingintelligence, ideological diversions, global military confrontation,mutual nuclear deterrence strategy, competition in the defense of science,escalating confrontation between the military and political blocs on space raceweapons research and more.

 

2. Creationmilitary-bloc system

            An important consequence of the coldWar was a military bloc system.

            During the 1943-1948 biennium countriesEastern Europe took place the process of formation of new political regimes undertight control of the USSR. On the nations of the Soviet sphere of influence has concludedfriendship, cooperation of mutual assistance. In 1947-1948 he These agreements wereclear anti-Western orientation. Such bilateral agreements were concluded in 1935. Theyformed interconnected system. In 1948 in all countries of EasternEuropean communist regimes were established.

            In Western Europe the process ofmilitary bloc system began in March 1948, when EnglandFrance, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg formed a Western Union. Its memberswere to provide military assistance to each other in case of threats to theirinterests. Britain tried to establish in his newly Unionleadership. Allied military command headed by British Field MarshalMontgomery.

            The impetus for the further deploymentmilitary bloc system was the Berlin crisis in summer 1948 It wasclosely related to solving the German question.

            In the occupied nations of 4Germany were the processes that made it impossible to join. In the Soviet zoneformed the occupation authorities, who controlled pro-Soviet leadersSocial Democratic Party of Germany and the Communists. In April 1946SPD and PC together in a Socialist Unity Party (SED).

            Representatives of the United States and Great Britain 2December 1946 Washington signed an agreement on economic andadministrative union of English and American occupation zonescreation of so-called "Bizoniyi. Soon Bizoniya was combined withFrench zone of occupation.

            At the Moscow conference ofForeign Ministers in March-April 1947 USSR offeredestablish control over Rurom four states. Western powers have offeredsee the Weimar constitution and extend the rights of German states.France demanded the right to economic anshlyus Saarskoyi region.

            Unsuccessful ends in LondonCouncil session in November-December 1947, which remained unresolved issuezonal boundaries of the union, free movement of people, ideas andproducts throughout Germany.

            In 1948 suspended its workFederal Control Council in Germany, which was established in accordance with decisionsPotsdam Conference. At the London meeting of representatives from the U.S., England andFrance Benelux countries without the Soviet Union was decided on the convening inWest German constituent assembly to prepare the constitution ofmonetary reform and the inclusion of West Germany in the American plan coverageEconomic aid - the Marshall Plan. The armed forces of the alliesremain in German territory to achieve unity of Germany. CreatedJoint military council consisting of the three chief U.S.England and France.

            Meanwhile in Warsaw, was called the SovietMeeting of the Eastern European Union, which condemned the decision of the Londonconference and fully supported the course of the USSR.

            The Soviet military administrationEast Germany and East Berlin, given the danger of destabilizationcurrency and economy in their zone of occupation, as a result of the reforms inWest Germany, has introduced travel restrictions on movement in Berlin and theWest and East Germany. Thus, the population of West Berlin wasput in difficult conditions: lack of food and toiletriesnecessities. Commanding American troops in Germany L. Clayinsisted on conducting military operations deblokadi Berlin. In England it wasdirected group B-29 bombers (carrier of nuclear weapons)American troops in Europe and the Far East were put on combatreadiness.

            Armed conflict couldavoided. United States organized an airlift to West Berlin. It did not violatethe occupation of Germany allies, so the population was providedall necessary. After some time the crisis was resolved at the negotiating tableprice division of Germany. In May, 1949 was declared aFederal Republic of Germany, and in October 1949 - GermanDemocratic Republic.

 

Molotov on the Berlin crisis of 1948-1949, the

            Allthe point is that if it was not in Berlin, would be another knot. BecauseWe have different goals and attitudes, a node must be, and he `head in yazavsyaBerlin.

 

            In West Germany in 1952Allies abolished the Occupation Statute and declared povnopravnist Germany. It wasallowed the formation of the armed forces of Germany - Bundeswehr - of 12divisions. Anglo-American occupation and no longer haveallies.

            Marshall Plan, which was carried out during1948-1951 biennium, contributed new structural changes in Western Europeaneconomy and the strengthening of integration processes between the parties.

            In January 1949 Moscow wasconvened a meeting of representatives of the Soviet bloc countries (Bulgaria, Hungary,Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and USSR), in which the decision was made, the CouncilMutual Economic Assistance (CMEA). Later in the CMEA adopted Albania, East Germany,Mongolia and other countries. Thus, the confrontation in the economic spheredeepened. Economic, trade and cultural ties between the two groupszhortalys quickly.

            The blockade of Berlin and close CohesionEastern Europe and the USSR led to the need for understanding the Weststrengthening their power. A break in the confidence of Americans. Theyfirmly established the idea that the U.S. line of defense is in Europe and Asia and gavepreferred course of confrontation with Soviet power.

            April 4, 1949 MinistersForeign Affairs of Belgium, Iceland, of Denmark, Luxembourg, Netherlands,Norway, Portugal, Italy, Britain, France and the United States concluded inWashington North Atlantic Pact (NATO). The purpose of NATO wasdeclared a Western-style democracy, protection that eliminates the power of one partyin the political sphere, provides the openness and integrity of the global market. LaterNATO membership has been increased. In 1952, Greece joined NATO andTurkey, in 1955 - Germany.

            In 40 or 50 years of military blockedthinking has become dominant. The victory of Revolution in China and signingof Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the USSR and China (1950)led to changes in the geopolitical situation in Asia and the clash between the USSR and the U.S.Asian region (the Korean War and Vietnam).

            In 1950, U.S. firstused its armed forces in vtrutyvshys conflict on the Korean peninsula.After World War II, Korea was occupied north of the Soviet Union andfrom the south - the United States. Were created, as in Germany, the two governments. Rivalryposylyuvalos between them as far as increased tensions in Soviet-Americanrelations. Before 1949 forces of both countries withdrew from Korea, in both itsparts held elections. In one of his speeches, U.S. Secretary of State DeanAcheson, outlining the perimeter of the Defense of the Soviet-Chineseexpansionism, not named South Korea among the countries whose security Americaguarantees. For North Korea leadership headed by Kim Il Sung wasevidence in favor of what the U.S. does not intervene in the case of a conflictbetween the two Koreas.

            June 25, 1950 troopsNorth Korea moved demarcate parallel to 38 and were stronglymove to the south. USSR at this time in protest against the reluctanceWestern China to place China in the UN demonstratively boycotted workSecurity Council. Just because the United States have achieved the recognition of North Korea's actions asaggressive and the decision to assist South Korea. UnderUN flag on the Korean peninsula troops landed several states,most of whom were Americans. BillPanel Korean war, waged withvarying success to 1953 In this war were involved USSR and China. WarKorea was the most dangerous conflict period of the Cold War.

            As a result of the war took placeupgrading the U.S. Army and armies of Western countries. There wasdemilitarization of Germany and Japan. In Europe, developed plans for a yevroarmiyi.Korea is split to this day.

            Faced with the prospectexpanding the number of allies of the USSR, the U.S. began to form a global system of blocksto prevent the Soviet Union.

            In 1951 San Francisco wasconcluded ANZUS (ANZYUS) with the United States, Australia, NewZealand. In Manila in 1954 Treaty Organization was createdSoutheast Asia (SEATO), which included the U.S., Britain, France,Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Philippines and Pakistan. Another blockformed in 1955 with Britain, Turkey, Iraq, Pakistanand Iran. This was the so-called Baghdad Pact, which in 1959 after exitIraq it was renamed in SEATO.

            On the other hand, the USSR and its alliescreated in May 1955 Warsaw Pact (Albania,Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and USSR). Members of thisorganizations committed themselves to refrain in international relationsfrom the threat of force or threat of force, participate in all internationalactions aimed at strengthening peace and security of nations. When makingEuropean agreement on collective security Warsaw Pact hadcease to exist.

            Thus, by mid-50's"Cold War" has become global. World divided into two hostilecamps, none of which had a decisive advantage.

            After a successful nuclear testweapons in the U.S. and its use against Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the USSRwas accelerated development of nuclear weapons. September 5, 1949 TASSreported the successful testing of nuclear devices in the USSR.

            In 1953 in the USSR and the U.S. almostsimultaneously created thermonuclear bomb.

            In the 50 years went fast creation andaccumulation in both countries for new nuclear weapons carrier. Based on the achievementsGerman rocket war were powerful intercontinentalballistic missiles. Were built the first atomic submarines -raketonostsi. Rivalry of the USSR and the U.S. came in the form of nuclear missile raceweapons and military-block opposition was nuclear.

            Thus, the "coldwar "crossed the system of collective security, which was established bydecisions of Yalta and the Potsdam conference.

 

3. Formationregional conflicts

            The first round of the ColdWar led to the emergence of regional conflicts through which ranline of confrontation between the super. One of the most dangerous conflict wasin Korea.

            Not wanting to lose its zoneinfluence, the U.S. interfered in the conflict. September 15, 1950multinational force, which constituted the basis of U.S. troops under UN flaglanded in Inchon. In late October 1950 They went ondemarcate separating the two Koreas, and thus liberatedSouth Korea. Multinational force commander, U.S. GeneralMcArthur, persuaded U.S. President Truman of the need to destroy the regime KimIl Sung in North Korea and unification.

CD_III_29

AmericanSoldiers preparing for landing at Inchon. 1950

 

            In October, 1950 multinationalforces launched an offensive on the north and in November reached the Chinese border. In thistime the conflict broke in China. November 26, 1950 300 000 Chinese"Volunteers" attacked and forced to retreat multinational forcesouth of the demarcation line. General MacArthur proposed to extendconflicts: apply bombing Northeast Chinaestablish blockade of its coastline. U.S. President Truman rejected the proposal,very general and dismissed from office. Truman understood that the Soviet Union, which sponsorsonly its pilots in Korea, will be forced to intervene in the conflict, andmajor war is inevitable. In January 1951 Front finally stabilizedin the demarcation line. In June 1951, USSR offered to beginnegotiate a truce, which ended after the change the AmericanPresident (who in 1953 became D. Eisenhower) and Stalin's death. Bothparties agreed to restore the prewar situation.

CD_III_9

Demarcationline between South and North Korea

along 38 thparallels

 

            After World War IIfinally ripe conflict in the Middle East.

            End War moreexacerbated the confrontation between Arabs and Jews in Palestine. Trying to resolvethis conflict, the British, who ruled these territories, developed a plandivision of Palestine. The Arabs rejected the idea. After the Second WorldWar became apparent independence of Palestine. It becomes a placeconstant violence. Finally England handed solving the Palestinian questionUN has developed and reaffirmed in 1947 plan dividing Palestine intoJewish and Arab states. After the proclamation of May 14, 1948 StateIsrael seven Arab states went to war (the First Arab-Israeli war1948-1949 biennium). At the end of 1949 was mediated by the UNconcluded a truce and set demarcate. Israel defended itsright to exist, though his Arab states did not recognize. ArabicPalestinian state was created. Part of its territory conquered IsraelWest Bank went to the Jordan, the Gaza Strip wascaptured by Egypt.

            Later, Arabs and Jews foughtfour times in 1956, 1967, 1973 and 1982

            In 40 years of conflict inHindustan peninsula. In 1947, British Parliament has developed a planIndia's transition to independence. Planned to divide the colony in Indiathe basis of religion into two states: India and Pakistan. Territorial divisionaccompanied mizhobschynnymy conflicts, killing about 1million. and refugees to 8 million people. During these collisions haveterritorial disputes between India and Pakistan over Kashmir principality. Soformed the Indo-Pakistani conflict that is evident today. Thesethe two countries fought in 1965 and 1971

            In 40 years of Britain, France,Holland began the colonial wars intermittently and there were varying degrees of successto early 60's, while great colonial powers finally accepted theloss of colonial possessions. The most bloody and prolonged war in 40 or 50 yearsled France in Indochina and Algeria, Holland, Indonesia, England in Malaysia.

 
4. Weakeninginternational tension

            In the early 50's heldchanges in the leadership of USA and the USSR, which affected the foreign policythese countries.

            In 1953 USSR refusedrequirements to Turkey on the Black Sea straits. Were normalized relationswith Greece and Yugoslavia, severed in 1948 after the conflict between Tito andStalin had reached agreement on ending the war in Korea. In 1954 inGeneva agreement was signed ending the war in Indochina, theFrance put an end to intrigue for the restoration of colonial possessions inSouth-East Asia.

            Significant changes took place inrelations between the USSR and the West. In 1955 representatives of the USSR, USA, England andFrance signed the State Treaty with Austria. It was declaredindependent and neutral, withdrawn from its territory of the occupying troops. In1959 the first visit of the Soviet government in the U.S..

            During these years the processrethinking of the Soviet leadership problems of interaction withnational-liberation movements in colonial and dependent countries.

            During Stalin's rulepreference for the Chinese version of the national liberation, when itwas headed by the Communists. But elsewhere, apart from China, North Koreaand North Vietnam to implement this option failed. In most countries,that delivered the communists did not come to power. New leaders have not called trustStalin.

            Nikita Khrushchev offered to considernational liberation movement as an ally of socialism in its struggle againstimperialism. Thus was resolved the ideological obstacles to developmentmilitary-political and economic cooperation with countriesdelivered. Thus, in 1956 USSR supported Egypt in nationalist GamalAbdel Nasser in the struggle against Israeli aggression, France and England.

            There were changes in the relationship betweensocialist countries. USSR recognized the neutrality of Yugoslavia, China has becomenearly equal partner of the USSR. Relations with Eastern European countries wasgiven equal appearance.

 
5. MovementAligned

            29 countries of Asia and Africa,delivered in April 1955 in Bandung (Indonesia) convened a conferencewhich endorsed the principles of peaceful coexistence and cooperation of states with differentpublic audio system. The Conference expressed its determination to the peoples of Asia and Africacompletely and forever put an end to colonialism, condemn aggressive blocksput demands to ban nuclear weapons.

 

Participating countriesConference made the following basic principles of its policy:

1. Independent of superpower politics.

2. Support for national liberation movements.

3. Non-aligned status.

4. Prohibition of use of its territory forforeign military bases.

            Later, support for these principlesclaimed by other countries that delivered.

            On the initiative of Prime MinisterIndia Dzh.Neru, Yugoslav President Josef Broz Tito, Egyptian President Nasser, GAand others in September 1961 conference held in Belgrade in 1925 HeadsGovernment to launch Non-Aligned Movement. Members of the Movement, most of whichbelieved that the U.S. and USSR have equal responsibility for internationaltension and arms race, announced joining the military and politicalblocks supported struggle of peoples against colonialism and for independence, forelimination of economic inequality in the world for peaceful coexistence.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


NAMwas an important independent factor of world politics. Since 1973Non-Aligned Movement conference held regularly every three years.

 

6. Instabilityrelaxation of international tension in 50 years

            In Western Europe in 50 years isestablishing of European unity. It creates the European EconomicCommunity (EEC).

            Thaw helped unlockUN activities - its membership was made 16 new countries.

            These changes have led to someweakening of bipolarity in the world. However, they did not break the logic of"Cold War military bloc thinking. Despite the flexibilitySoviet diplomacy, the Soviet Union could not reach agreements withWest on some important issues. So, arrangements were disrupted Germanyand Japan, despite the fact that in 1955 Soviet Union announced the suspensionstate of war with Germany, and in 1956 with Japan, and have installednormal diplomatic relations and economic ties, but a peace treatyhave not been concluded.

            U.S. and its allies used tohard style of Soviet diplomacy, and therefore not taken seriously newproposals of the USSR. The event continued the policy of "rejecting communism. In1953 CIA and Intelledzhens service (English survey) carried out a coupin Iran, and in 1954 in Guatemala. The reason for coups was that governmentsthese countries have restricted the rights of American and British monopolies. In 1955Germany was included in NATO.

            This provoked a reactionUSSR. May 14, 1955 The Soviet Union and its allies signedWarsaw Pact and thus created a military-political organization in the eastEurope.

            XX Congress of the Communist Party opened a new pagein the history of the USSR. The country began "thaw", including inforeign policy. During the 1955-1960 biennium Soviet Union put forward a series of peaceinitiatives to curb the arms race and reduce the military potential ofworld. Unilaterally reduced the Soviet Union forces in 3980ths. and the military budget. Were eliminated military base in Port Arthur andPorkkala-Udd.

            The results of these actions were limited.Signing the agreements in question vpyralos control. The arms race is not stopped, andconversely, increased. Soon there were intercontinental ballistic missiles andbombers, nuclear submarines. Short warming has grown insevere international crises: 1956 - Middle East and Canada,1957 - Syria, 1958 - Lebanon, Taiwan, 1961 - The Berlin crisis1962 - Cuban Missile Crisis, etc.

 

7. Restorationconfrontation

            The first reason for recoveryconfrontation associated with subjective factor - the personal traits of a leaderKhrushchev's Soviet Union as a political figure. Khrushchev was a man too emotional and painfulreact when his efforts to improve the international position ismet with understanding and support of the opposite side. Hkruschevian styleDiplomacy irritated the West when the Soviet Union put forward proposals suddenlychanged by others. Such actions of the USSR was regarded as no more than Westpropaganda. Negative role in relations with the West played a declaration of Khrushchevthat he bury capitalism.

The second reasonwas the advent of missile weapons in the Soviet Union, which threatened U.S. security, becauseSoviet leaders have an opportunity to put pressure on the U.S..

            The third reason recoveryconfrontation was quite successful economic development of the USSR in the 50'syears, which led to thoughts about what level of industrial productionin the USSR will exceed the level of production in the U.S. and capitalism will disappear soonas such.

            The fourth reason: in 1960 onmeeting of the Communist Communist Party was declared the vanguard of the communist worldmovement. Thus, it secures the right to determine"Rightness" or "irregularity" of course communistGovernments that once led to a confrontation with Yugoslavia and China.

            The fifth reason was the active decay50 and 60 years of the colonial system under the blows of the national liberation movementsthat supported the Soviet Union. Him signed 20 agreements with the youngStates on cooperation and loans. This led to opposition fromwestern countries. Soviet support of national liberation movementswas classified in the West as an attempt to extend the Soviet system of alliances for the entireworld and thereby to separate the West from raw sources. NATO unit in these conditionsbegan to intensify pressure on the USSR. In 1956, accepted "doctrineinterdependence, and in December 1957 - decision on the deployment inEurope of nuclear weapons. United States and its allies began to force of arms to resist changesin countries that have not been in the zone of Soviet influence and attempted to overthrow governments,who conducted a line of cooperation with the USSR. Thus, in the early 60'swas the scene of anti-Republic of Congo.

 
8. Berlin andCuban Missile Crisis

            Relations between the USSR and the U.S. hasexacerbated due to the problem of West Berlin. West Berlin wasopen capitalist enclave in the middle of the socialist GDR. This causedirritation governments GDR and the USSR. Since 1958 Khrushchev began to seek changesstatus of the city by threatening unilateral action. In May, 1960 Parisconference was convened by representatives of U.S., USSR, Britain and France on toplevel. In anticipation of this event means the Soviet air defense shot downUrals over the American spy plane U-2. At the conference, KhrushchevUltimate demanded to stop such flights over Soviet territory. U.S. PresidentEisenhower declined the request. The conference was disrupted. Do not visitEisenhower to the USSR. In a meeting with new U.S. president JohnF. Kennedy in April 1961 in Vienna, Khrushchev demanded an ultimatumchange the status of Berlin. Again there was a threat blockade of Berlin. Americans on thiscase even prepared a plan for a limited nuclear strike on SovietTroops in East Germany.

            August 19, 1961 along theWest Berlin border fence was built, then the wall, which becamesymbol of the Cold War. Since the embargo was not, you just United Statesminor show of force. The Soviet leaders saw this as aa success and easily took the next step, which caused seriousthreat of nuclear war (Cuban Missile Crisis).

CD_II_22

BuildingBerlin Wall. 1961

 

            In 1959 Soviet government recognized theFidel Castro, who came to power in the revolution in Cuba, povalyvshydictatorship of General Batista. In 1960-1961 he actively develop,Trade and economic relations between the USSR and Cuba. Penetration of the USSRAmerican continent and pro-Soviet orientation of the Castro regime causedconcern the U.S. government, which organized the military intervention in Cuba. Butinterventionist were broken in the Bay of Playa Giron. Soviet Union provided Cuba with arms.Avoiding direct aggression by the United States to "Island of Freedom, and USSRCuba agreed to place on the island of ballistic missiles with nuclearwarheads, which had become a guarantor of peace in the region. Placement of missiles ledthe crisis of Soviet-American relations. U.S. set naval blockade of Cubato prevent further supply of the island of Soviet weapons. October 231962 Soviet government described the U.S. actions as aggressive and said thatcause a corresponding impact in the event of war. The application was designedthat the U.S. fail. Americans were not interested in war with the USSR.The conflict has gone too far and his decision to D. Kennedy and Khrushchevneeded to show political wisdom and foresight.

            26-28 October 1962 betweenU.S. and Soviet leaders were reached under which the Soviet Unionbrought from the territory of Cuba, our missiles and bombers, Il-28 and U.S. shouldwere lift the blockade and give guarantees of non-interference in internal affairs of Cuba.

            The U.S. had to withdraw nuclear missiles fromTurkey. Later, in case the need for contact between the Kremlin and the Whitehouse was installed direct telephone line, the so-called "hotline.

            Cuban Missile Crisis showedhopelessness of power politics and that the growth of nuclear dangerWar could lead to disaster. USSR was to pursue a more moderatepolicy to support revolutionary movements in the Third Worldand never threatened to use nuclear weapons in crisis moments.

            Caribbean crisis forced the superpowerstake measures to make the race for nuclear-missile arms moremanageable, and thus more secure. In 1963, between the United States, Britain, USSRwas a treaty banning nuclear testing in the atmosphere,space and under water. During the negotiations was a missed opportunity to negotiatebanning of nuclear testing underground. The parties disagree oncontrol issues. Control of the USSR regarded as a form of espionage.

CD_II_14

Nikita Khrushchev andJohn F. Kennedy after the missile crisis. 1962

 

            In 1967, agreement was entered intobanning the deployment of nuclear weapons in outer space.

            This agreement was brought to an endinternational relations, which dominated the military and political solution to theconflict between great powers. However, the rivalry between them and stoppedprogress in relations has occurred. Rivalry just moved to the peripheryand came in the form of regional conflicts that long blocked peace process.

 

Results

            The hope that after the bloodyWorld War II world peace comes not met. On the surface againout the contradictions between Western countries and the USSR that led to the ColdWar, which became a defining event in the world over  next 40 years. This war, although itcalled "cold" has pidihravala international situation to thatdegrees, which put the world to the brink of destruction.

Working with documents

 

Questions and tasks:

1.    Who is to blame for the beginning of the Cold War? What are the causes? Is it just ideologicaldifferences have caused the confrontation between the USSR and the USA? What rating submittedyou the most accurate: in solving the cold war the West is to blame;responsibility for the conflict rests on the USSR; causes of the Cold Wardetermined by the contradictions between national interests of the USSR and the West?

2.    Molotov called the Berlin crisis of the first "hub" of the Cold War. Where else"Head` yazalysya "similar" nodes "?

3.    What are the accusations against the Soviet Union put forward a Churchill in his speech? Whatsense it used the term "Iron Curtain"? To what Churchill calledleaders of the event?

4.    Identify reasonsmajor events, results and impact of the Berlin Crisis 1948-1949 biennium. Replyissue as a structural and logical scheme.

5.    What followed the policy of the USSR to its zone of influence?

6.    Give the definition ofThe Cold War. Define its chronological framework.

7.    Identify the substance "doctrineTruman.

8.    Select the main directionsSoviet foreign policy in the postwar period.

9.    Emergence of NAM? Why Yugoslavia, India, Egyptare promoting the creation of NAM?

10. What impact did the emergence of Non-Aligned Movement on the course of the Cold War?

11. What was due to deteriorating relations between the USSR and the U.S. in the early 60'syears?

12. Why Berlin and Cuba was a place of confrontation during the acuteThe Cold War?