§ 38. Latin American Countries (textbook)

§ 38. Latin American Countries

 

1. Key trendsDevelopment of Latin America after World War II

            In Latin America after the SecondWorld War, there were significant changes. This is because the countryLatin America gained independence much earlier. They are on the waymodernization of civilization not had experience of shock, as inAfrica and Asia, they were part of western Europe byorigin of civilization.

            Latin Rootsbackwardness concealed the existence of large land holdings - latyfundiy.This led to bezzemellya peasants, low living standards, agriculturaloverpopulation and unemployment, low productivity, primitivetechnologies and thus to social tension. Such a society could not bedemocratic, it stuck to the violence.

            Before the Second World Warlatyfundiy decline began. After the war intensified this process.The long struggle of peasants forced governments to carry out agrarian reform. All of themRegardless of the extent undermined the position latyfundystiv. The largest impactcaused latyfundiyam industry growth, the formation of national capitaland, accordingly, the new economic elite, to which were the embodiment latyfundiyiold order. Population explosion and urbanization has caused mass transfercenter of political life from rural areas in the city.

 

FeaturesDevelopment of Latin America after World War II

·         Latin American States before other  won national independence. They are on the path of modernization had not  experience the shock of civilization, as in Africa and Asia, they  were part of western European descent, civilization.

·         For the regional economy was characterized by  development of agro-commodity export sector, its subordination  foreign market.

·         In agriculture, the dominant role belongs  latyfundiyam that during the second half of the twentieth century. gradually lose their  position.

·         The rapid growth of cities and urban population.  However, Latin American urbanization  was connected with the development of industry at the expense  increasing marginal segments of society.

·         Low living standards of most of  population.

·         Latin America - all kinds of concentration  contradictions in all areas of society.

·         90% of Catholics. This half  Catholics around the world.

·         Political life in the region  characterized by instability. A significant influence of the military. Predominance  violence in political life. The existence of partisan, extremist  groups. The influence of the drug.

·         Uneven development in the region. Most  developing countries in the region, the most advanced on the path of modernization:  Argentina, Uruguay, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia - their  population is 75%, their share accounted for 80-85% of GDP.

 

            After World War IIeconomic situation in Latin American countries was conducive toreforms: they had a solid currency savings, increased their share in worldtrade. These factors were used by the governments of Latin America forimportozaminnoyi of industrialization. Reforms carried out undermoderately nationalist slogans that used some supportpopulation. This contributed to the formation popular in these countries, but the authoritarianregimes. Example - the presidency of Juan Domingo Peron in Argentina (1946-1955 biennium and1973-1974 biennium, in 1949-1955 he was - de facto dictator).

            Perron had partialnationalization, paid the debt, Argentina has achieved self-sufficiencybasic manufactured goods. During his rule in Argentina wasthe first in Latin America jet, but under U.S. pressure itproduction was stopped.

            У Brazil in 1950 returned to power Zhetulio Vargas, whorevived its policy 30 years, but already without trying to copy a fascistStates. Changing it in 1956, Jean continued Kubichek importozaminnuindustrialization. Top 60's Brazil provided a halfmanufactured goods.

            У Mexico line initiated Lazarte President Cardenas in1934-1940 biennium, and continued after the Second World War.Industrialization came at the expense of the public sector, continuedagrarian reform.

            U.S. during the 40-60's wereonly one concern: to prevent penetration of the Soviet Union in Latin America. Forimplementation of the United States, focuses on strengthening the military potential andmilitary-political cooperation with Latin America. At this timeagreement on collective security (1948) created by organizationsAmerican States (1948). Americans army and local pereozbroyilycreated a new military elite, which was trained in the U.S.. Thus the U.S. haddisturbed the internal life of these countries, if there was noimmediate threat to the Communists came to power. U.S. arranged in thesecountry profiles, which are completely dependent on them, like Batista in Cuba, orSomoza in Nicaragua.

            In 50-60 years a new phasesocio-economic development of Latin America. Resourcesimportozaminnoyi of industrialization have been exhausted, the state budget withgreat difficulties to cope with the need to support public sectoreconomy. Large government budget deficits were caused by the implementation tooambitious projects. For example, in 1957 Construction began in Brazilnew capital away from the overcrowded Rio de Janeiro. It was ultra-city, designed by world famous architect Oscar Niemeyer andcalled Brasilia. The new capital was to symbolize the country's future. Mexicogained the right to host in its capital Mexico City Olympic Games 1968what made fully reconstruct the vast city. Ambitious projectsalso led to inflation, growing social tensions. National currencyCruzeiro unit from 1961 to 1964 "Thin" 5 times.

            In Latin America, development of walkingtwo ways. Where the wave of mass discontent came to power leftforces took the path of building socialism.

            Thus, in 1959 guerillawar on Cuba ended with the disappearancepro-American regime. Rebel leader Fidel Castro led a new government.His problem he saw in the independence of Cuba and the implementation of social reforms. Inimplementation of their ideas he encountered resistance from the U.S. who were in Cuba significantproperty. Castro nationalized the property and established closerelations with the USSR. This caused the resistance movement, which relied on the support of U.S. governmentand the Cuban community in the U.S.. U.S. military intervention groups organizedhusanos to Cuba (1961), but it failed. This has accelerated the reform ofCuba and cooperation with the USSR.

CD_11_II_5

Government delegationSSR meets Cuban leader Castro F.

 

            NS Khrushchev was captured by the ideagain an ally in the 90 miles from the U.S. and never hesitate to go to preserveCastro regime at risk of nuclear war (Cuban Missile Crisis 1962). Approximationwith the Soviet Union gave a perfect example of Castro, in his view, the state. Rebelswere communists in Cuba began building socialism. In 60 years inthe country was virtually abolished money and put direct produktoobmin. Castrobelieved that Latin America is ripe for socialist revolution, andtried, though unsuccessfully, rekindle revolutionary fires on the continent. UnderAt one of those attempts was killed in Bolivia associate of Castro - Ernesto CheGuevara.

CD_11_II_2

Che Guevara

 

            In 70 years of communistexperiments had to be abandoned. Cuba became a regular totalitariansocialist country. Maintained traditional dependence Cuban economyof sugar exports, but not in the U.S. and the USSR and Eastern Europe. USSRCuba became the main creditor. In the late 80's, when the Soviet Union facedwith economic difficulties and reduced aid the Cuban economy, Cubafell into a state of permanent crisis. The collapse of the Soviet Union deprived Cuba of foreignsupport. Guide Cuba is trying to save the situation: the economy is inemergency mode, shrinking social programs, the conditions fordevelopment of tourism, made the first steps in modernizing the economy. In the 90 yearsCuba carried out mass illegal immigration in the U.S.. United Stateswere unable to make the great mass of refugees and was part of theirsent back to Cuba.

            У Chile attempt to build socialism in the 1970-1973 biennium Government madePresident Salvador Allende, which consisted of communists and left socialists.Building socialism took place within the constitutional legality. Radicaltransformation, which included nationalization of copper and industry leadingeconomy, caused mayhem in the country and mass discontent thatintense provocation from the CIA. Following this, General AugustoPinochet, with the consent of the United States, made a coup and installed in the countrydictatorial regime. President Allende died during the storming of the presidentialPalace.

CD_11_II_3

Salvador Allende

 

            У Nicaragua as a result of a long guerrilla war in 1979 toThen came the National Liberation Front named. Sandino. Sandinistydropped the most odious regime in Latin America - the Somoza regime, whichruled the country for over 30 years. Events unfolding in Nicaragua byCuban model and with the same results. Opposition socialistsandynistiv experiments in the country emerged rebel movement that united asformer somosovtsiv, and representatives of democratic movements. It tookas part of self-defense detachments Indian tribes from remote areas of the country.This guerrilla movement was largely organized and armed the U.S.. U.S.concentrated on the borders with Nicaragua and the military threat of intervention, anddomestic legal opposition actively formed. Appearing beforechoice: to go through in building socialism and to victory in the Civilwar, or go to civil peace, sandynisty chose the latter. On the freeElection 1990 they, as expected, suffered defeat, but remainedinfluential political force. Nicaragua President Violeta Chamorro was elected.Minister of Defence was sandynistiv leader Daniel Ortega.

            For some countries in Latin AmericaA new strategy began with the findings of fact and can not even zhubnosticomplete independence and was to accelerate the integration of LatinAmerica in the global economy. To implement this strategy was supposedeliminate all barriers to trade and open access to foreigncapital. In fact it was a 180-degree turnaround from the policy of 30-50's andoutside looked like a return to the old order, when LatinAmerican household to foreign companies. This development did not usesupport and held dictatorial regimes (military junta). Suchregimes were established in Argentina - 1962, Guatemala, Honduras,Ecuador - 1963, Bolivia, Brazil - 1964Chile - 1973 The military junta relentlessly waged against leftistsforces restrict political freedoms. As a result, are often killed innocentpeople. Reached in this way the relative internal stability and the creationpreferential conditions for foreign capital inflows led to foreign investmentand accelerate the development of these countries. Intensified and the national capital. Brazilearly 80 years ahead in terms of gross national productItaly and has moved to England. It took 7 th place in the world for the productionSteel, 8 th - the production of TV sets, 10-something - for the productioncars. Counterproductive this growth rate wasforeign debt and inflation. It gradually formed socio-politicalcrisis of military regimes.

            An important factor for the developmentLatin American countries was and remains a mass guerrilla movement. He haddifferent nature: anti-American, against military dictatorships, for the socialreforms procommunistic, anti-Communist national liberation,extremist, etc. In the history of this process after the Second World Warcan distinguish several stages.

 

Insurgency and guerrilla movement in theLatin America

The first stage, associated with the Cuban  revolution of 1959 was un-American, of general  character.

Second stage (60-s - early 70's  years) took place under the direct influence of the Cuban revolution. Between  1960-1967 biennium in Latin America there were 12 homes  guerrilla warfare. Despite the fact that they were suppressed, they  contributed to the democratization process in these countries.

The third stage (late 70's - 80's  years) is associated mainly with the struggle in Central America, primarily  sandynistiv in Nicaragua. Their victory has inspired guerrilla movement in  El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras left-wing, caused  antysandynistskyy movement Contra in Nicaragua.

Fourth stage (80 - 90  years) - revitalization of the military-political organizations in Peru and  Columbia, closely related to the drug. In the 90 years erupted  guerrilla movement in southern Mexico. Local Indians revolted  against intolerable living conditions.

 

            Armed anti-government speeches inLatin America, mainly driven by domesticsocio-economic and political problems of the region.

            Social stress 50-60's,F. Castro's victory in Cuba was forced to change U.S. policy in the region. In1961 U.S. President Kennedy announced a new course in relations withLatin America - Union for Progress. " ThatCuban escape option, the U.S. offered assistance in overcomingretardation, focusing on social reform. At the same time the U.S. startedthe organization in Latin America antypovstanskyh special forces.Seeking to provide its relations with Latin American partnernature, they often zryvalys the traditional interventionist policy.Thus, in 1961 they helped Cuban insurgents husanos board theCuba and for a long time CIA sought to remove Castro from power. In1965 U.S. troops landed in the Dominican Republic and in1973 produced in Chile, Salvador Allende overthrow the president. ThisU.S. policy bore the broad anti-American sentiment in Latin America whoin 70 years reached its peak.

            Radical change in the situation occurred,when U.S. President Jimmy Carter was that the basis for foreign policyput the idea of the inviolability of human rights. Carter, particularly afterlengthy and complicated negotiations with Panama signed an agreement to transfer herchannel, which was owned by the United States. It was a move that eliminated one of the mainsources of Latin American discontent American policies. With this policyU.S. support for dictatorial regimes have lost their fall and became a matter of time.The first fell dictatorial Somoza regime in Nicaragua.

            In the 80 years in LatinAmerica utverdzhuyutsya democratic regimes. 1980 - Peru1982 - Bolivia 1983 - Argentina, 1985 -Brazil, Guatemala, Honduras, Uruguay, 1989 - El Salvador andParaguay, 1990 - Chile, and until 1992 in all others, except Cuba.In 1994, U.S. troops on the bayonets were brought to westerndemocracy in Haiti. At the last session of the OAS General Assembly was approvedprovisions for sanctions in case of recurrence of authoritarian restorationrule.

            The coming to power of democratically electedgovernment deepened the course of active participation in international division of labor onintegration into the global economy. Bid was made on the development of marketeconomic structure, the problem of public finances byprivatization of the public sector. Latin American countries are trying to dosocially oriented economy and to eliminate external debt.

            Latin American countries couldfind their own place in world trade. They export their products with a highdegree of processing and technological components. Brazil, Argentina, Mexico hasgrown beyond traditional notions of developing countries, and closelyapproached the group of industrialized countries.

            This change in LatinAmerica contribute to radical structural changes in the economy based onneoliberal model of development with emphasis on improvement of market mechanismsprivatization of public sector, creating an adequate legal frameworktax system, etc.

 

2. Integration Processesin the region

            Shared histories, the similarityeconomic processes, linguistic and cultural proximity have become the foundation onwhich after the Second World War actively deployed in the integration processLatin America.

The first stepthis path was the political cooperation of the Western Hemisphere. In September1947 20 countries of America signed at Rio de Janeiro Inter-AmericanTreaty of Reciprocal Assistance. In 1948 at the IX Inter-American Conference inBogota was founded Organization of American States (OAS). There wasadopted the "Declaration on the Conservation and Protection of Democracy in America"which was anti-communist orientation. Authorizing intervention in the OASinternal affairs of countries that threatened the communist threat.

            The desire of governments of LatinAmerica to escape from economic backwardness and take the path of sustainableeconomic development has given impetus to economic integration, which developsat the subregional and regional levels. Economic integration includesmeans to block the liberalization of mutual trade and investment regime;forms common currency space, coordination and harmonization of domestictrade; a collective foreign policy tocreation on the continent of free trade and its subsequent transformation intocommon market.

            In pursuing these objectives orientedactivities of regional associations that occur in 50 years. In 1959established Inter-American Development Bank. In 1960 Argentina, Brazil,Uruguay, Paraguay, Peru created a Latin American association of freeTrade (Louth). Louth was later combined 22 States of the region and evenCuba. In 1980, Louth was reorganized into the Latin American Integration Association(LAI). In the process of economic integration agreements and the "common market"in 1975 there is the Latin American Economic System (LAES). Thereand subregional organizations - the Central America Common Market(TSASR), Caribbean Free Trade Association (KAVT). Venezuela, Colombia,Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia formed the so-called Andean group. In 1991,Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay formed the Southern Common MarketLatin America (Mercosur). The contract provided for a customs union and coordinationeconomic development. In addition, there are associations created to addressspecific issues. In 1983 Mexico, Chile, Colombia, PanamaKontadorsku together in a group to resolve conflicts in CentralAmerica. Functions Amazon pact designed to solve environmentalproblem. To solve the debt problems in 1984 createdCartagena group.

            Despite the number oforganizations, the real integration of Latin America remained a dream.Military dictatorship, revolution, revolutions, guerrilla movements, the interstateconflicts and ambitions of individual leaders hinder this process.

            In the early 90's were formednecessary conditions for the better development of integration processes. In all countries exceptCuba, came to power democratically elected presidents, governments. Startedbroad economic reforms. USA, Canada and Mexico in 1992 signedof the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA). It also tendsChile. In 1995, Miami held a meeting of leaders in the hemisphere,where U.S. President Bill Clinton proposed the creation of a common marketAlaska to Tierra del Fuego, which consumers would be 850 million people. butintegration processes in the region went a bit different scenario.

            The most effective economicAssociation of South America was the Mercosur, which are united the most powerfulregional economy: the Brazilian and Argentine. Since its formation inpresent day volume of bilateral trade FF countries increased by 3 times. Managed to savegoals in national economies. Under the free trade agreementbetween the four countries were eliminated tariffs on 905 goods, consistentcommon external tariffs on 85% of imported goods, established mechanismregular consultations at the level of Heads of State and Government, Ministers of Foreignaffairs, economics, finance, trade, social security, culture, underwhich is a coordination of national policies.

            Performance manifested in Mercosuryears of economic crises in Brazil and Argentina in the late 90's.Twentieth century. In addition, the Union had been saved from economic decline and Uruguay, and Paraguay.Business latter also shows a remarkable growth rate (up to 10% per year)and dotyahuyetsya to more developed partners. Decided to repeat the success of ParaguayBolivia and Ecuador, demanding to join the union. After July 1, 2004was joining Mercosur and the Andes Group. As a result, SouthAmerica emerged a common market with a population of 350 thousand people. Leadersnew alliance is actively discussing the idea of a united Latin Americancurrency to resist dollarization (Ecuador moved to the U.S. dollar, under suchis threatened and Argentina). By seeking to join the new union and Mexico,is disappointed in NAFTA. If that happens, it will be the beginning of the collapseeconomic dependence of Latin America from the U.S..

 

Results

            In the second halfTwentieth century. Latin American countries have made great advances in the transformationof agro-raw appendage of the world market in the region with developedinfrastructure and industry. Top countries in the region - Brazil,Argentina, Mexico were on the verge of first ten countries for volumeindustrial production. Significant changes took place in political life,gone traditional authoritarian dictatorship. Utverdzhuyutsya traditionparliamentarism and democracy. The new government bases its policy on the basis of findingcompromise, consensus, reconciliation of various political forces. Much has changed roleLatin America and the international arena, their foreign policyemerged from the shadow of U.S. policy. Nevertheless, stored and sufficientserious problems affecting the development of the region: debtlow living large part of population, social contrast, extendedinsurgency, corruption, drug trafficking, terrorism and so on.

 

Inquiries and questions:

1.    Fill in the table: "Ways of modernization in Latin America

Stages

Countries

Features  modernization

 

 

 

Or

Stages

Development  Economy

Political Highlights  Events

 

 

 

2.    What provokedexistence of mass guerrilla movements in Latin America?

3.    Why trybuild a socialist society in Latin America weredefeated?

4.    What phenomenonCuba?

5.    What causedintegration processes in Latin America?

6.    Name the super regional organizations and movements in LatinAmerica.