§ 35. Middle East Countries (textbook)

§ 35. Middle East Countries

 

1. "White" and the Islamic Revolution in Iran

            Iran after its restorationsovereignty in 1946 long been in a state of politicalinstability. In 1953, due to the military coup to powerMohammed Reza Shah came to smell, which has managed to stabilize the situation in the country.

            1962 he proclaimed in the countrybeginning "white revolution" - the reforms aimed atmodernize the country and eliminate feudalism. The program of reforms and changingutochnyuvalas. For years the "white revolution" in Iran was conductedagrarian reform (restricted landlordism and possession of religiousMuslim communities), industrialization, reform education and health care.1963 women were granted suffrage. Was limited to traditionalInstitute of polygamy. Actively nasadzhuvavsya western lifestyle, westernfashion.

            Reforms had significant impact ondevelopment of Iran. Agrarian reform violated the traditional social structurerelations in the countryside. Hundreds of thousands of people migrated to towns. Eliminationlandlord commodity economy has led to a reductionagricultural production. Iran became an importer of food.Growth of industrial production did not succeed in growing urbanpopulation, causing massive unemployment and discontent that posylyuvalosshahskoho blatant luxury palace and enrichment at the expense ofrevenues from oil exports. In foreign policy was guided by the shah and the U.S.Western countries. Iran was a member bloc SAINT (Baghdad Pact).

            This policy has caused massive Shahdiscontent of the population, which was an expression of Muslim clergy.Performances of the masses under religious slogans have occurred repeatedly in Iran,since the nineteenth century.

            The defeat of the revolution in 1951accompanied by destruction of the legal political opposition. The only influentialforce left the clergy, which occupied a privileged position in Iran.Total in the country there were 200 thousand Worship service, 80 thousandmosques, 300 religious schools, where studied, 60 thousand people. Thisto add 60 thousand Mohamed offspring the male line and 1 millionfor women. All these people regardless of occupation were considered respectable people andwealthy devout Muslims.

            Religious leader of the opposition wasAyatollah Khomeini. Khomeini developed a theory of the Islamic Revolution and the creationIslamic state. He divided society into three groups: impoverished,pious, the ministers of Satan. Servants of Satan were considered to check its surroundingsintelligentsia, imperialists, communists. The ultimate aim of combating Khomeiniproclaimed the founding of the World Islamic state. In the mind of Khomeini Islamacted not only a means of moral perfectionism, but also an instrumentsocial changes of society. Khomeini as a negative attitude to Westerncivilization and to the ideas of socialism: "Not the West, not East and Islam."

            The confrontation between the Shah andclergy acquired increasingly irreconcilable nature. Repression Shahincreased the authority of religious opposition. In it, spoke against the shahPeople's Party of Iran (Tude), and radical left organization fedayiv modzhaheddiniv,National Front, Iran's Democratic Union nations.

            Shahskoho growing crisis mode withevery year. Under such conditions the shah applied different means to retain power.The prohibition of government in the days of traditional mourning marches led to believespontaneous explosion of dissatisfaction. Shah was the final authorityblown executed by soldiers of the religious-political rally September 81978 Square staunchly spare (1,5 ths.). In response to November 261978 announced opposition in the country mourning. Demonstrations in citiesaccompanied by collisions with military and police. Fedayi and modzhaheddinycarrying out attacks on police agencies, foreigners leaving the masscountry. Shah tries to make concessions the opposition by appointing a prime ministeropposition leader Shahpura Bakhtiar, was not successful. Bakhtiyar immediately lostsupport the opposition. Every day the revolution rose and 16 January1979 Shah left the country. Bakhtiyar increasingly lost control oversituation in the country. Everywhere created a revolutionary Islamic committees.

            In February 1979 in IranKhomeini returned. Then the interim committee was established IslamicRevolution, which led Bazarhan. Clergy sought to keep the revolution inkeeping the peace, but it failed. When provoked battles in the baseAir Force near Tehran between troops and rebels shahskoyuGuard, capital of the rebellion broke out. The monarchy was overthrown in Iran. ToFebruary 12, 1979 clashes subside.

            The new Iranian leadership announcedto leave the country with St., to break military and civilian contracts with U.S. andWestern countries; annulled an agreement with international oil consortium;eliminate U.S. base (50 thousand employees) and severed diplomaticrelations with Israel. Obscured by foreign firms and banks. In March1979 Iran Islamic republic was proclaimed and adopted newconstitution. In response to the U.S. asylum granting of check Iranian, Iranstarted anti-American campaign that ended in capture 52American citizens hostage.

            Hostage-taking setUnited States Government the necessity of action. U.S. severeddiplomatic relations with Iran, froze Iranian assets in U.S.banks have developed Operation Eagle Claw "for the liberation of hostages.But the collision in the air planes and helicopters from landing led to the failureoperation. Shah's death in July 1980 removed the tension, and in 1981hostages returned home.

            Soon after the victory of the revolution inIran increased the differences between its members. Advanced demarcation betweenpolitical forces. The main struggle broke out between secular parties andclergy. Gradually usuvalys from power and left-liberal opposition,Islamization took all sides of social and political life. For severalKhomeini years, eliminated repression by the opposition and headed by a religious,and secular power.

            Attempts to export the Islamic revolutionwar with Iraq and destabilized the situation in some regions of the Islamic world,especially in the Persian Gulf.

            Islamic revolution in Iran becameculmination of the process of politicization of Islam. Elevated Iranian revolution waveIslamic fundamentalism has not lost its force. The current IranianUser spends more balanced policy, not fine, as before, the directconfrontation with other countries. Every year more seriously fundamentalistsexpress yourself. The most wide scope of their reach in Algeria, wherethey launched terrorist activity against foreigners and government agencies.

 

In an interview Ayatollah Khomeini (March 1979)

            The Revolution made inbenefit disadvantaged in the name of the establishment in Iran sacred principles of Islam.Shiite clergy has become a decisive power in the victory antyshahskoho movement. Onfinal stage of the revolution half a million army, which took top patrioticlayers of command, came to the side of the insurgent people.

            Oryou know about that particular role. Played in these events mosque? These templeswere not only the spiritual life, and the centers of armed resistance to the regime.You should know that the mosque in the Islamic world enjoys an unwritten lawimmunity. The government, of course, could arrest any priest, butonly outside the house.

            ? The main thing istogether with shahskym regime we ended imposed connected Iranian people wrongand alien Western ideas. Finished with pornography on the silver screen and bookshelves, with dens for drug addicts, brothels and casinos. And those who tryrestore all the criminal obscenity, punishment - even to death.

            We are not cruel andfair. Shah acted cruelly, if dealt with all who threatenedthrone. For several months preceding the uprising, was martyred in the punisherzastinkah or shot more than 3 thousand Shiite and Sunni clergy.Security officials natravlyuvaly ethnic groups and national minorities.Laying responsibility for the provocation of Shiite clergy. Now withcriminal criminal regime are finished. Know: The main villain wasof course, himself shah. Until the fall of the monarchy in his foreign accountsbanks there were more than three billions of dollars. It is taken apart byborder jewels, paintings of famous European artists, invaluablePersian miniatures. Not behind him and bureaucratic elite. And these gentlemennot small accounts in foreign banks, land plots in Western Europeand America. Many of them escaped. Nothing doberemosya to them?

            Try to evaluate newsituation that created the Islamic Revolution in Asia: a severe blow toAmerican strategy of establishing full control over the oil-richcountries of the Middle East. For many years Iran was a strategicsupport the U.S. soldiery in this part of the globe. All this came to an end. Weannulled all US-Iranian military agreements were fired from the groundpentahonivskoyi presence, came out aggressive SAINT block, torediplomatic racist government of South Africa and Israel. Now the U.S. Air Force does notcan use our airfields to threaten neighbors. We closedpolygons, which housed American missiles. Targetedmainly on Soviet territory. Closed-station electronicespionage and listening to broadcast the USSR.

? Dream of creating nuclear energy?

            March 30 mustheld a referendum on Iran's polity .* almost twentymillion voters, regardless of gender, ethnicity and religionneed to answer only one question: "Are you for the fact that Iran has been declaredIslamic republic? ". And then held a referendum on the mainlaw of the country.

            In the West we wantsubmit a medieval obscurantist? Meanwhile, contact the mainprovisions of our constitution. All citizens - men and women -possess the same social, economic and political rights. Womenmay be elected to any public office. Citizens have the rightform trade unions, social and political association. Supposed freedomprinting, holding rallies, meetings and demonstrations. Iran claims that itrefuses to participate in aggressive blocs. Will not provide its territoryfor foreign military bases. Based on the principle of foreign policyneutrality and noninterference in internal affairs of other states. "  

            * Onreferendum on March 30, 1979 90% of voters would say on Islamicrepublic.

 

2. Afghanistan in the second half of the XX -XXI century. Civil War

            At the end of 70 years in terms of Afghanistaneconomic development took place among 108 developing countries. Countryas if frozen in its development. Over 90% of the population lived in ruralarea and was located under the power of local landowners, tribal leaders,mullahs, etc. About 3 million Afghans led a nomadic life. In the spiritual lifecountry's most conservative forms of Islam prevailed. In Afghanistanformed a single nation and a country torn by internecine strife national-ethnic.The central government has never controlled the whole territory. Majoritypopulation was illiterate.

            Before 1973 Afghanistanthere was a monarchy. Last King Zahir Shah was. July 17, 1973 princeMohammed Daoud coup carried out, dropping his cousin andabolished the monarchy, declaring himself president of Afghanistan.

            In 60 years Afghanistan has arisenopposition movement, was driven by intelligence. January 1, 1965was established People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (NDPA), which placeda task to carry out national-democratic revolution, tosocial transformation and to remove the backwardness of the country. The ultimate goalproclaimed the construction of socialism. Party existed semi. In1966 NDPA was outlined in a split caused by rivalries between leaders andalso differences in the tactics of struggle. 1977 faction leaders signedStatement of unity NDPA, but the merger was incomplete: the military organizationexisted separately.

            In 60 years of organizational oformyvsyaand the movement of Islamic fundamentalists who spoke on cleaning of Islamlayers and establish itself as a theocratic government. During the coupDowd of Muslim Youth-led Hulbeddinom Hekmatiyaromadvocated for an immediate armed uprising to seize power. In June 1975they began to rebel activities in some provinces, but not receivedsupport of the population, were defeated. Some emigrated to the fundamentalistsPakistan, where Pakistani security services using established a basic framework foranti-regime Dowd.

            In April 1978 leaders NDPAorganized a revolt which became known under the name "Saurska Revolution.April 30, 1978 the country was proclaimed Democratic RepublicAfghanistan. Led the state NM Tarak, his deputies were Karmal and B.J. Amin. In May 1978 announced a program of socio-economicReform: the destruction of large land holdings, democratization of public life;elimination of national oppression and discrimination; proclamation of equalitywomen, the elimination of illiteracy and unemployment, strengthening public sectoreconomy, the principles of non-alignment and neutrality. In carrying out thesereforms are not taken into account the national cultural tradition, high rates were takenand used administrative measures. In mid-NDPA brokeinter-faction fighting and personality cult nasadzhuvavsya Tarak. In December 1978between the USSR and the DRA was an agreement on friendship and cooperation.

            This policy of the new leadershipsparked armed resistance groups and the deployment of self-Partisanfight opposition parties (the Islamic Party of Afghanistan - HeadG. Hekmatiyar, the Islamic Society of Afghanistan, led by Mr Rabbani and others).. Onterritory of neighboring Iran and Pakistan were Afghan refugees (more than 3 millionpeople.), which became a source of replenishment of the armed opposition.

            In early January 1979situation in the country due to errors Afghan leadership, repression,internal factional struggle in NDPA, the collapse of the army, the armedopposition worsened. Since March-April 1979 Afghanleadership has repeatedly asked the USSR for armed assistance.

            In March 1979 H. Aminrevolutionary, removing from power Tarak, who was strangled. AfterAmin coup putting the country's dictatorial regime. Physical destructionsubjected to all that was discordant with his policies. Repressive methods did not giveresult: more than half the country was seized by the partisan movement, Aminlost control over the situation.

            At the end of 1979 SovietUser has ended up in a difficult position: further support for the regime Amincould lead to the fall of Soviet authority in the international arena and to the exitAfghanistan from the Soviet zone of influence. In the same period strained relationsbetween the USSR and the United States, an argument about Iran. The Soviet government,despite the objections of the General Staff of the USSR and diplomats decidedto introduce a limited contingent in Afghanistan of Soviet troops (approximately100 thousand people.) And the change of the Afghan leadership.

            Introduction of Soviet troops beganDecember 25, 1979 at 15 o'clock Moscow time. December 27Special Forces Alpha captured the presidential palace, in which the assaultAmin was killed. New Afghan leadership headed by Mr Karmal.

            The first of the new management gavereason for optimism: there were measures taken to respond to terror andrepression produced realistic exchange rate reform, attemptsexpand the social basis of the existing regime (a national-domesticFront (NPF), etc. These changes took place against the backdrop of a sharp innerstruggle. Introduction of Soviet troops failed to bring peace to the Afghan land.Guerrilla warfare has a form of jihad - holy war for the faith.Since the spring of 1980, Soviet troops gradually in vtyahnulysyastruggle with the opposition. During his stay in Afghanistan, they spent more than 400operations, but to overcome guerrilla movement failed.

            In the 80 years the processconsolidation of the armed opposition. In June 1981 was established IslamicUnion modzhaheddiniv Afghanistan, but he finally oformyvsya in 1985 Shouldnoted that in most cases armed groups obeyed fieldindividual commanders and political leaders. Often between different groupsOpposition arose combat.

            The participation of Soviet troops in Afghanistanconflict led to the fall of Soviet international prestige, its internationalisolation. Actions USSR condemned even socialist countries. Adverse effectsWar in Afghanistan and felt in the USSR (human and material losses).Awareness zhubnosti Soviet policy on Afghanistan has come in the periodBoard YV Andropov, but his death the Communist Party leaders and passivityvidtyahnuly solving the Afghan problem. The shift began with the arrivalGorbachev's power. Changes occurred in the Afghan leadership, headedM. Najibullah.

            In 1987 proclaimed the courseon national reconciliation in Afghanistan. April 14, 1988 betweenAfghanistan, Pakistan, USSR and USA concluded an agreement on Afghanistan, accordingwhich Soviet troops withdrawn from the country to February 15, 1989 Bystay of Soviet troops in Afghanistan killed 13 833 soldiers, 180military advisers, 584 other professionals (including 2378 Ukrainian).

            Withdrawal of Soviet troopsbrought peace to the Afghan land, the Geneva conventions are not performed. With the newpower of the civil war broke out, which did away with the Najibullah regime in M.April, 1992 President of the country became one of the opposition leaders Rabbani.

            But coming to power of oppositionstopped the civil war. The main faction leaders that brought togetheragainst were: Rabbani (President, Tajik), Hekmatiyar (Prime Minister,Pashtuns) Dostum (former Afghan army general, Uzbek) and others. In1994 in the conflict entered a new powerful force - the Taliban, whichbrings together students of religious schools and serving under the banner of guidanceorder in the country, establishment of Islamic order. War weary populationThe Taliban saw the hope of stability. This enabled the Taliban to Continueshort time to master the southern and central provinces. 27September 1996 Taliban forces entered the capital. Their first action wasa public execution Nadzhybuly and his brother, who were hiding in the UN. Talibanproclaimed the country the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan ".

            Having established his power by 2 / 3the country, the Taliban have started to implement sharia law: Islamic normsmorality. Women are forbidden to work and learn, znyschuvalasya hometechnique. Men must wear beards and wrapper. Dozvolyalas only religiousEducation. In foreign policy, the Taliban announced Russia, USA, Iran, India, the mainenemies of the Afghan people. Key financial resources received from the Talibanopium trade. The 336 companies in the region worked only 6.

            Hard theocratic regime causedresistance in the population. Led antytalibskoyi opposition was Ahmed Shah Massoud -"Pandysherskyy lion," as they called it (Tadjik). A talented commander, activeparticipant in the war with Soviet troops. Around Masuda grouped representativesminority in Afghanistan (the Taliban represented the majority Pashtuntribes). In Massoud against the Taliban relied on the assistance of Russia, and India. On1997 antytalibska opposition controlled only 10% of the country. Onmid 2000 Taliban decided to do away with the coalition, deployingpowerful attack, but he achieved his goal.

            Taliban support variousterrorist and extremist Islamic organizations has trouble leadingcountries and the world community (especially impressed by the public actsvandalism committed by the Taliban, who destroyed Afghanistan monuments not Islamicculture).

            Taliban regime existed in the country toNovember 2001, when he was overthrown Northern Alliance troops(Antytalibska opposition) with the U.S. and UK aviation anddivisions of the West. The reason for overthrowing the Taliban regime was theirrefusal to issue an ultimatum to the U.S. organizer of the terrorist attack in New York on September 112001 and leader of the terrorist organization al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden.

The overthrow of the regimeTaliban did not bring stability to Afghanistan. Country and has no authoritativeleader (Massoud was killed in November 2001 assassination ofcarried out by Al Qaeda) who objects to the country united. Standing regime headed byHamid Karzai (February 2002), which is based on U.S. troops and others. Notenjoys broad popular support. Foreign aid to helpcountries proved insufficient and ineffective (900 million dollars.). Populationescape from poverty has begun to grow opium poppy masse. Afghanistan is onethe largest sources of drugs.

 

Civil WarAfghanistan

Period

Years

Characteristics, main events

І.

April 27, 1978 -27 December 1979 he

The April coup (saurska Revolution ") made NDPA. Overthrow  M. Daoud regime. Proclamation of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan led by  N. Tarak. Inner struggle between different factions NDPA ("Khalq" and  "Brocade"). The coup, installing Amin regime. Activities on the new government  radical modernization of the country were not accepted by much of the population.  The appearance of the Mujahideen movement (armed opposition, which operated under religious  national, ideological slogans). The beginning of civil war.

II.

December 27, 1979  - February 15, 1989 he

Soviet intervention in Afghanistan under the guise of slogans "of  international assistance to the brotherly people. " Forcible overthrow of the Amin government,  his death. Installing the pro-Soviet Government B. Karmal. Deployment  civil war. Plunging her Soviet troops. Consolidation movement  Mujahideen. Financial and material support for his West, U.S.  Arab and Islamic countries. Since 1986 gradual collapse  Soviet presence. Leadership Change in Afghanistan. To stop  war on January 15, 1987 Government announces policy Nadzhybuly  "National reconciliation". Adoption of new constitution. Termination  radical socio-economic reforms. April 1988 - Geneva  agreement on political settlement of the situation in Afghanistan. February 15  1989 - The withdrawal of Soviet troops from the country.

III.

December 1989 - April  1992

The fight against former leaders of the Mujahideen Nadzhybuly regime, which  zakydalas dependence on Moscow. Introduction coalition troops to Kabul, overthrowing  Nadzhybuly power.

ІV.

April 1992 - September 27  1996

The struggle between the opposition leaders to power. The main opposing  parties were: Ahmad Shah Masood, B. Rabbani (Tajik), Hulbeddin  Hekmatiyar (pushtun. Radical Islamists), AR Dostum (Uzbek). Civic  War has passed into the sphere of ethnic confrontation. In September 1994  of `is a new force - the Taliban (graduates, students, Muslim  religious schools) led by Mohammad Omar. Gradually the Taliban  establish control of most of the country, and September 27, 1996 Kabul was captured,  setting its power by 90% of the country. One of the first acts of the Taliban  execution was the former leader of Afghanistan Nadzhybuly and his brother, who hid  in the UN.

V

September 27, 1996 November  2001

Fighting the Taliban (their ethnic Pashtuns are the backbone) against North  Alliance, headed by standing Rabbani, Massoud and Dostum. In controlled  Taliban territory was established regime, which was based on laws  Islam in the most severe form. It seemed that the Taliban tried to turn  life in medieval times.  After the attack in the U.S. September 11, 2001 Taliban have been accused of  Call yazkah and supporting the terrorist organization Al-Qaeda led by Osama Bin  Laden. U.S. ultimatum to cancel, granting the latter the Taliban find themselves in  war on anti-terrorism coalition countries. October 7, 2001  American troops and their allies began an operation against Taliban and al-Qaida  in Afghanistan (Operation Airtight freedom "). Their allies  made by the Northern Alliance led by Massoud (in November 2001 he died  of a terrorist act committed by Al-Qaeda). In November, troops  Northern Alliance with U.S. forces and their allies joined in Kabul.  Taliban regime was overthrown but Omar M. and W. B. Laden escaped from  capture.

VI.

November 2001 -?

After toppling the Taliban regime was established, headed by Hamid  Karzai (February 2002), which is based on U.S. troops and others. States.  Conducts operations against supporters of the Taliban launched a guerrilla  war against the new invaders.

 

Results

            After WorldWar in the Middle East region has undergone major changes. It was the site of struggleU.S. and the USSR in the Cold War. Iran's oil fields are not allowed to sleepAmerican strategists, and access to the Indian Ocean - the Soviet Union. Eventuallyimposed binding model for developing countries in the region, contrary to civilization and thathistorical development of countries (Iran - Western models, Afghanistan - Soviet)led to the explosion of folk who stood up for their own destiny. In1979 Iran broke out Islamic revolution, impact on the Islamiccountry feel to this time, civil war swept Afghanistan andcountry turned into a haven of terrorists and narkodilkiv.

 

Inquiries and questions:

1.    What is the purpose, reasons and driving forces of the revolution in Iran?

2.    What are the results and impact of the revolution?

3.    Complete the comparison chart

Items for comparison

"White Revolution"

Islamic Revolution

 

 

 

4.    Ayatollah Khomeini, gave this assessment of the events of 1978-1979 he in Iran: "Ourgreat Islamic revolution is primarily moral and spiritual than political andsocial revolution. " Do you agree with this assessment of the Islamic Revolution inIran? Justify your answer.

5.    What caused the "Saursku revolution" in Afghanistan?

6.    Why the proposed reforms were not accepted by NDPA population?

7.    What causes prolonged civil war in Afghanistan?

8.    Reason for the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan to our troops? What it led?

9.    What started in 1987 policy of national reconciliation notachieved its goal?

10. In 1992 Afghanistan was overthrown regime of Najibullah AM, but for peacecountries do not come. What caused the continuation of civil war?

11. How to change the character of civil war in Afghanistan after the appearance of motionTaliban?

12. What is the Northern Alliance? What strength he objects yednuvav?

13. Reason for the U.S. and some NATO countries have carried out the operation in Afghanistan"Airtight" freedom "?

14. Describe the situation in Afghanistan today.