§ 26. Bulgaria (textbook)

§26. Bulgaria

 

1. Establishment of Communistregime

            Bulgaria's entry into World War IIled to the deployment of the rebel movement against the existing regime. In June1942  all opposition partiesbegan negotiations to unite their efforts in the fight against fascism. In Julyall anti-fascist forces were united in the domestic front and you  made a joint plan of action. In 1943,were established by local committees of the Fatherland Front.

            Approaching Soviet troops toBulgaria has given impetus to the popular uprising September 9, 1944, inresult of which came to power Fatherland Front government led byK. Georgiev. As a government composed of representatives of the Communists (4), have been analyzed (4), 4 membersof the "Link" and two social democrat.

            The Government of the Fatherland Front heldgeneral democratic reform. Installed working  control over production. The country waseliminated the monarchy and proclaimed a republic (1946).

            Afterof general objectives and signing a peace treaty (1947) inFatherland Front immediately broke out between the communists and fight BAPU.

            In 1947, BAPU leader N. Petkovawas convicted and executed. Thus communists have eliminated their chiefcompetitor and concentrated in the hands of all power.

            At Pierre fifth congress of BKP (December1948) G. Dimitrov to Stalin's request stated that "the Soviet regime and the regimepopular democracy are the two forms of the same system of governmentbased on the alliance between the workers of the city and village, because based on dictatorshipproletariat. The Soviet experience of - and only the best model for buildingsocialism in our country, exactly as in other countries' people's democracy ".

            In Bulgaria, began constructionSocialism with all this inherent  process characteristics: industrialization, collectivization, repressions.

            Of industrializationpreceded by the nationalization, which gave the necessary tools to create heavyindustry. For a short time were built in heavy industry giantsGabbro, Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna. But as in other socialist countriesindustrialization held camp excluding raw materials and laborresources.

            Collectivization began in1948 through the creation of cooperatives, where members of the cooperative paycarried out as follows: 78 percent for labor, and 22 - with land share.In 1967, payment for land share was eliminated altogether. Since1950 collectivization were held by violent means.

            Not lag behind othercommunist states Bulgaria and the communists in conducting purges. Mostknown political show trial process in November 1949First Secretary of Central Committee of BKP T. Kostova and another dozen well-known party and stateactivists were accused of crimes in public: communication with foreignspecial services, treason. All of them were shot. The country was formedV. Chervenkov personality cult.

            After Stalin's death and the Bulgarianleadership fight broke out between Mr. Chervenkov stalinists under spring andT. Zhivkov, who supported Moscow. In this struggle, defeated T. Zhivkov. DeathStalin, change management, criticism cult of personality at the XX Congress of the CPSU did not resultin  Bulgaria in the process of de-Stalinization.Poststalinizm poured into the country only cosmetic update mode: stoppedmass repression, decreased the rate of industrialization.

            In general, the Communist regime inBulgaria was the most loyal of their Moscow patrons. In his desireplease he even agree to eliminate the Bulgarian statehood. In1963 and 1973 BKP took decisions: appeal to the USSRrequest to accept Bulgaria as 16 Soviet republics. However, Sovietleadership wisely rejected these requests.

 

2. ModeT. Zhikov and its overthrow

            In 1954 GeneralSecretary of the Central Committee of BKP was Todor Zhivkov. Late 50's - 60's for the countrypassed without turmoil.

            In 1971 X held a congress BKPwhich adopted a new program BKP - building program developedsocialism. In the same year was taken and a new constitution in which  sealed leadership role and its ally BKPBAPU. The highest state authority was the State Council, which was elected Chairman T. Zhikov.

            At the end of the 60's, the were exhaustedresources that helped to make industrialization. Besides the existingcontrol system proved ineffective. The country began to increase difficulty. Inmid 80's, the Bulgaria joined the band of the economic crisis. Hundredsenterprises were unprofitable. Their existence is kept by grants fromstate budget. Rosli production costs. Imports of industrialequipment from Western countries, is linked with the desire to modernize a number of industriesnational economy, far exceed exports. Quality of Bulgariangoods did not meet international standards, making them competitivein western markets.

            Looking out from the situation thatHistorically, the Bulgarian leadership sought to use the experience of Germany and Japanwhere, in addition to large enterprises, a large number of medium and small, thatclearly serve its partners. We started small and created specializedmedium-sized enterprises using the latest technology and not beingCall connected rigid planning to respond quickly  changes in consumer demand. To expandties with the West was permitted to establish joint ventures withmixed capital in Bulgaria and abroad.

            All these measures have not given the expectedresult. Administrative-command system, saving your hardcentrally planned economy hindered efficient. Decreasedindebtedness of the country ($ 9 billion.).

            The situation was complicated to crisisAs agriculture. Rate of association of state farms andproduction cooperatives in the agro-industrial complexes (AIC) led to agiant agribusiness, which amounted to 50-75 hectares. The resulting profit themtransferred almost completely to the center. Former become cooperators inagricultural workers who have little interest in its result  work. BillPanel runaway youth from the village. Forharvest had involve the army. Since 1985, Bulgariawhich was exporter of agricultural products, was forced to import foodproducts.

 

T. Zhikov Activities in the economic development of Bulgaria in the 70-80-twentieth century.

Activities

In agriculture

The industry

At call  state farms and production cooperatives in the agro-industrial complexes (AIC)  involved in growing, processing and marketing of products.

Creation  new sectors: electrical and nuclear power.

Industrial  specialization within the CMEA.

Development  tourism.

Borrowing in  Western countries to modernize the industry.

Creation  network of small and medium enterprises to quickly respond to changes  demand.

Results

Elimination  cooperatives and cooperative ownership.

Fall  agricultural production. Food crisis.

Since 1985 imports  agricultural products (potatoes, onions, etc.).

Development  Wine, wine, vegetables, oily crops.

Disproportion in  development industries.

`Linguistic object property  to the markets of CEA (85% of exports).

Growth  External debt (11 billion dollars)..

Networking  production of the first socialist country in modern personal computers,  com pact discs and more. But quality is much inferior world  samples and was not competitive.

            Low economic efficiencyled to a decrease in living standards, unprecedented proportions camespeculation and corruption. T. Zhivkov, who concentrated in the hands of a great powerhis political course more zahostryuvav difficulties experienced Bulgaria.Surrounding yourself and your family picking up the board of the personally loyalhis people, Zhivkov dealt severely with those who tried to speak withcriticism against him.

            The national policy Zhivkov tookcourse to bolharyzatsiyu all ethnic groups, ethnic minorities, to create"Monolithic unity of the Bulgarian nation." This policy led to an attack onCopyright Turkic and Muslim populations: closed mosquebanned Muslim rituals, and people were forced to forcibly removeBulgarian names (in 1984-1985 almost 850 thousand people. were forced to changeMuslim names to Bulgarian).

 

Your profile Zhikov T.

1.Povna  loyalty and subordination to their patrons in Moscow.

2.Prodovzhennya industrialization  country. Creation of new industries: electrical, chemical,  engineering, nuclear power.

3.Stvorennya  AIC.

4.Byurokratyzatsiya  (Per 1000 people. Accounted for 200 officials).

5.Koruptsiya,  abuse, lawlessness, enriching the ruling elite.

6.Polityka  bolharyzatsiyi minorities. The persecution of Islam and the Turkic  population.

7.Zaprovadzhennya  syste71my privileges granted by the social, professional and  hierarchical basis.

 

            The population of Bulgaria welcomed the restructuring,that began in the Soviet Union, expecting the party-state leadership that is constantlystressed the commitment to its Soviet Union, will follow his example.

            Summer 1987 at the plenum of the Central CommitteeBKP Zhivkov was forced to admit that there are "cases of recurrence of the cult of personality" andpromised to do away with the all-powerful party machine. Was declaredneed for a "new model of socialism"  reforms and economic managementadministrative division of the country. However, the announced reforms have not resulted inElimination of administrative-command system. Plenitude of power, stillwas concentrated in the hands Zhikov and his entourage.

            Summer 1989 situation incountry dramatically exacerbated. Zhivkov announced "restructuring" is not justifiedexpectations. Inflation continued to grow and market hunger. Act rightfree travel abroad has led to massive flight to Turkey Muslimand Turkic-speaking population,  in whichmainly engaged in agriculture (350 thousand people have left. althoughwas much more interested, but Turkey closed the border). Events in East Germany,Czechoslovakia and other Eastern European countries resulted in motion forces thatperformed by a real adjustment.

            In late October 1989 memberPolitburo BKP Foreign Minister P. Mladenov sent a party leadershipOpen letter accused T. Zhikov in Method Not Allowedmanagement. November 10, 1989 CC BKP Zhikov dismissed from office by Secretary General,and soon from his post as Chairman of the State Council. In the newly created post of presidentBulgaria  was  Peter Mladenova elected.

 

I wonder

Bulgarian President

President

The period of

Party Membership

Peter Mladenov

April 1990  -  July 1990

BSP

Zhelyu Zhelev

August 1990 -  November 1996

SDS

Peter Stoyanov

November 1996 -  November 2001

At call  Democratic Forces (ODS)

Georgi Parvanov

November 2001  was -?

BSP

 

3. Contemporarysituation in Bulgaria

            After the overthrow of the regime in Zhikovcountry started to recover and dozens of political activityparties and organizations.  A number of parties andright-wing organizations, objects unified in the Union of Democratic Forces (SDS), whichadvocated the introduction of multiparty and parliamentary democracy. Inopposition to the BKP and moved BAPU. BKP was forced to engage in dialogue withopposition, but the negotiations had no result.

            The opposition refused to acceptparticipation in government, who headed the Communist A. Lukanov.

            In January 1990 XIVExtraordinary Congress of BKP declared main aim of restructuring the party and  update  democratic socialism. Party rejected the constitutionalposition on its leadership role in society, condemned the strain ininternational relations. Zhikov and several figures from his inner circle wereexpelled from the party. The new management team led by Alexander mauve, which by Zhikovsuffered persecution. BKP was renamed the Bulgarian SocialistParty (BSP).

            In January 1990 wasorganized a national roundtable of the main parties and organizations, which discussedmajor political and economic problems.

            The desire to consolidate all BSPpolitical forces for the crisis was not supported by the opposition, which does notwanted to take responsibility for the situation in which the country finds itself.

            In the parliamentary elections June 171990 BSP has 40 per cent of the vote, which gave her the right to form governmentheaded by O. Lukanov, but work constructively failed. Legislative WorkParliament was blocked unconstructive debate between the opposition and the Socialists.Political tension and overturned on the streets of cities: the mass starteddemonstrations, strikes, rallies. Finally BSP concessions. Mr. Mladenov gaveresigned from the presidency. August 1, 1990 new president wasZhelyu Zhelev was elected. In November 1990 resigned the government Lukanov.They were then formed a coalition government (SDS, BSP, BAPU) led byD. Popov. Popov government began radical economic reform (shocktherapy "). In February 1991 were liberalized prices, eliminatedetc.. Prices immediately rose several times. To pom `yakshyty" shock "the public waspaid compensation and increased wages. Summer has begun "a smallprivatization. Law on land privatization, which providedthe return of former land owners.

            July 12, 1991 wasapproved the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria. What is reinforcing democraticsystem, private property. Head of State proclaimed president.

            Then elections were held toparliament and president.

In the parliamentaryElection 1991 SDS won victory, which enabled her to form a governmentwithout the Socialists, headed by F. Dimitrov.

On the presidentialelections in January 1992 Bulgaria's president was re-elected ZhelyuZhelev. Elections summed up the first democratic transformation.

            Government along with F. Dimitrovaeconomic reforms launched a process of "de-". "De-"included the confiscation of property illegally awarded, public cleansingapparatus, the trial of T. Zhivkov and some party leaders,the law on restitution (return) of the former owners of property that wasnationalized by the communist regime.

            Economic reforms were accompaniedsignificant decrease in living standards, a significant social stratification,emergence of unemployment, which reached significant proportions (12-15% of the workingpopulation. Mass closures, inflation reached threesignednumbers. Numerous were corrupt privatization. L. Bereva Government (December1992 - October 1994) failed to stabilize the situation, but stoppedradical "discommunization. This situation affected the confidence insociety. Again, to gain popularity are left-wing forces. BSP and its allies(Democratic Left), which maintained a strong position and in parliamentary elections1994 won,  using  dissatisfaction  population consequences of economic reforms. InJanuary 1995 formed the leftist government headed by J. Videnovym. The government actually leftstop reform. Attempts to restore the administrative-command methods of managementeconomy, land reform impeded. Corruption flourished, financialspeculation impunity were pyramid schemes.  This policy led in 1996 to a deep economic crisis. Fallproduction, inflation, poverty reached a critical threshold. Especiallyoutraged people lack bread. In addition, the repayment period came on the outsidedebt - $ 2 billion. In such circumstances, the presidential election victoryrepresentative of the democratic forces took Peter Stoyanov. Against Libya, with the majorityin parliament, tried to keep control of the government, replacing Videnova onanother of its representative. Intent to bankrupt policies led toexplosion of popular discontent. On the night of 10 on January 11, 1997 enragedpeople went to storm the parliament (National Assembly). The actions of demonstratorsMPs have supported right-wing and centrist parties. Meanwhile crisiscountry reached its peak.

            April 19, 1997 wereparliamentary elections, which won a victory of democratic forces (right andcentrist). The new government headed by Ivan Kostov. The primary measure of newGovernment was the establishment of a Currency Board - International Finance Authoritycontrol, which took over key functions of the Bulgarian Nationalbank and finance ministry. Through the activities of the inflation was stopped,nation avoided bankruptcy (external debt was 10 billion dollars)..Stabilization gave new impetus to reforms in the country started economicexaltation. The government also launched Kostava Corruption and Organizedcrime, which took unprecedented dimensions. The question of corruption has become a leadingBulgarian society at the turn of the millennia. Criticism of government incorruption has gained political capital the former king of BulgariaSimeon II, who returned to the country in the late 90's. He createdAnti-corruption party that the elections in 2001 won. Simeon becamePrime Minister. President G. Parvanov became a country. The main taskSimon considers the integration of Bulgaria into NATO and the EU. In this way the countryhas achieved significant results and is a candidate for EU membership in 2004joined NATO.

 

Biography

            Simeon IISaxe-Coburg Gotha (b. 1937) son of King Boris III.Succeeded to the throne in 1943 after her father died. In 1946 afterproclamation of the Republic of Bulgaria was forced with her family to emigrate toEgypt. In 1951 King family moved to Spain. Simeon studiedCollege of Alexandria (Egypt), the French College (Spain). The MilitaryAcademy in Pennsylvania (USA). Speaks English, German, French,Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic. Successfully engagedbusiness. Married with five children.

 

Results

            To1948 Communists finally firmly established in power in Bulgaria and camethe construction of socialism with the Stalinist model. The period of de-Stalinization ledto change the country's leadership but not a course that has pursued. Thereset mode Zhikov T.. All his experiments  suffered complete collapse. In 1990, countryon the path of democratic development, but in the way it has toovercome great difficulties and resistance to anti-democratic forces.

 

FAQtasks:

1.    Describe the government's Fatherland Front.

2.    How and when to power in Bulgaria came Communists?

3.    What are the main features of socialism in Bulgaria?

4.    Why economic reforms T. Zhikov in 70 to 80 years of the twentieth century. suffereddefeat?

5.    Identify the basic features of T. Zhikov regime.

6.    What caused the sharp political struggle in Bulgaria in the mid 90'sTwentieth century.

7.    Fill the table: Bulgaria today.

Governments

 

Party  accessory

Period  tenure

Main events  domestic and foreign policy