§ 25. Romania (textbook)

§25. Romania

1. Becomingcommunism

            In World War II Romaniawas an ally of Nazi Germany and its troops were actively involved in combatactions of the USSR. However, after the defeat of German and Romanian armieseast exit of the Soviet army on the border with Romania, the situation in the country fundamentallychanged. King Mihay that actually was removed from power beforethe apparent defeat of the fascist bloc failed to act decisively. Before joiningSoviet troops in Bucharest it August 23, 1944 ordered the arrestpronimetsky minded Prime Minister Antonescu, concluded a truce withi allies declared war on Germany. For this Mikhailovsky was awarded the StalinOrder of Victory, he also donated the plane, and the French - OrderLegion of Honor. Romanian troops took part in combat operations onfinal stage of the war against the German i Hungarian troops on the territoryHungary.

            Introduction of Soviet troops in Romaniaforced the king to include in the government headed by Petru Groza, representativescommunists, who took Key positions. In October, 1945 CRC forNatsionalniy conference identified the course of building socialism in Romania.General TSKPR became George Georgy-Dej. In the first postwarelections in November 1946 Communist supporters i got the victory.

            Until February 1947 Romaniaremained under the control of CU. After signing the peace treaty restored Romaniaits sovereignty.

            During 1947 Communistsfirmly established in the government i eventually forced the king to abdicate and Mihayaemigrate. December 30, 1947 Romania was proclaimed the Romanian PeopleRepublic.

 

I wonder

            King with his family January 3, 1948forced to leave the country. He was deprived of citizenship and all property. Togetherwith his wife Anne of Bourbon-Parma Mikhailovsky lived in England, and later - in the U.S.. From1956 he and his family lived in a town near Versua Geneva (Switzerland).All the years of exile he hoped to return home and regainthrone. Since the mid 80's century. was to show political activity,Encouraging the Romanians "save dynasty. In March 1992He finally visited Romania on a private visit. King was restoredcitizenship. However, only 10% of Romanians favor restoring the monarchy. RulingRomania wants to use elite dynastic ties for Kingfaster acceptance into NATO and the EU.

 

            In February, 1948 wasUnity Congress KPR i CAP Romania, which was established RomanianCommunist Party. Becoming a consolidate IN POWER i eliminating their rivals,Communists begin to socialist construction.

            In June 1948 was conductednatsionalizatsiya full, and the "bourgeoisie eliminated as a class."

 

With the Grand National Assembly of law in Romania (July 111948)

            "Article 1.Natsionalizuyutsya all subsoil wealth that is not? state property, and allindustrial, banking,, insurance, mining, transport andTelecommunication private enterprises, associations and association?

 

            In December 1950 process"Socialization" of the economy culminated in the first five-yearplan for 1951-1955 was that provided for the industrialization andcollectivization (completed in 1962).

            In 1952, adoptedNRC constitution that secures the power by communists and socialist characterstate.

            Any manifestation of opposition governmentprydushuvalysya force carried out massive repression.

            Stalin's death made no significant changesin socialist construction in Romania. The country did not experience changes in power, andled to the de-Stalinization purely cosmetic.

            Not wanting to follow in linepolicy that began the Soviet leadership, Gheorghiu-Dej beginsmake positive steps aimed at ensuring greater independence ofMoscow. Role model was chosen China. So how would heunderwent de-Stalinization in the area of international relations of socialist countries.Skillfully maneuvering, using the contradictions between the USSR and China, Gheorghiu-Dej has achievedwithdrawal of Soviet troops from the country, and in 1964 defiantly madevisit to China.

 

2. ModeN. Ceausescu and his fall

            The line of his predecessor and continuedNikolai Ceausescu. Romania when it condemned the Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakiain 1968 In 1967, Romania has not severed diplomatic relations withIsrael, as did other countries ATS. Also, Romania was the onlysocialist country, which condemned the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.

            This position made it Romaniaoriginal maverick in the socialist camp in the West, which gave her nosmall benefits: cheap loans, preferential terms of trade with the West and more.

            But in domestic policy, Ceausescucarried out the steps that led to the formation of the most rigid in Romaniatotalitarian regime in Eastern Europe (excluding Albania). The country startedforced industrialization. When not deposits of oil have been establishedhuge refining complex, which eventually led to the fact that in 80 yearsRomania to become an exporter of oil in the importer. Committed grandProjects like the Danube - Black Sea. Romania is trying to produce:machines, cars, aircraft. Although this was not the required numberskilled labor, engineering personnel and resources.

            Ceausescu also sought to eliminatethe difference between city and village. This likvidovuvalys"Wasted" the village, and their inhabitants moved in ahromista. InTransylvania, where the large Hungarian minority (1750 thousand people. - 7.5%Romania's population), this policy was called "territorialsystematization, "which, along with the policy of the Hungarian minority Rumanization(Hungarians were declared "Romanians of Hungarian nationality") causedlegitimate grievances of the Hungarian population. Even in 1968 was eliminatedHungarian Autonomous Region.

            In political  field of all the fullness of power was concentrated inhands of Ceausescu. The country was established cult of his personality. Ceausescu called"Genius of the Carpathians" and "Danube views. To strengthen the government allmajor public office sat his relatives (40 persons).. So his wife Helenjoined the political executive of the Central Committee, Deputy Prime Minister, PresidentAcademy of Sciences. The main instruments of power have become public safety -"Sekuritate" that even controlled the private lives of citizens.

            Such a policy at the end of Ceausescu80 years led the country to the very grave situation. Disproportion in the developmentindustry has led the domestic market to a lack of basic industrialgoods. Low agricultural productivity, which also wasundermined by policies of "territorial systematization" led tointerruptions in providing food.

            Outer side of the country reached 21 billiondollars. Ceausescu assessed this situation as threatening and the only debtorworld in which  urgency decidedrepay debt. Romania imports curtailed to a minimum, includingenergy.

            Power stations were beingcontrol of army officers. Introduced strict limits on power consumptionindustry and population. With the onset of evening  of falling into the darkness, burn only onetenth lamp. On weekdays television work 2-3 hours a day.Limited to home heating. Forbidden to use in refrigeratorswinter. In almost all exports shipped food (and  all that was demanded), and domestic consumptionregulated. In the Money (large industrial center) was a realrevolt of the population that was brutally suppressed "sekuritate.

            While the country lived in povertyCeausescu's plan had 62 palaces, 22 hunting houses, two ships, etc. OnCeausescu's personal accounts in foreign banks stored about 1 billion andall his assets estimated at $ 5 billion. USA.

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Nikolai Ceausescu

 

Your N. Ceausescu regime

1.    Pokazne confrontation with Moscow. Maintaining relations with China, Albania,  Israel, the United States. Convictions some steps Soviet foreign policy.

2.    Continued industrialization. "Commodity" industrializm. Relying on  own resources: oil, gas, coal, copper, iron, lead, zinc, gold and  others.

3.    Preponderance of special services "Sekuritate.

4.    Bureaucratization.

5.    Corruption, abuse, lawlessness, enriching the ruling elite, especially  Ceausescu family.

6.    Politics Rumanization minorities. Prosecution figures  Hungarian national liberation movement.

            Against the background of dramatic changes in EasternEurope  Romania continued to live byold schemes. In November 1989 XIV Congress of the RCP held, which adoptednew development plan for a socialist society by 2010.

            In December 1989 Ceausescuwent on a visit to Iran. At this time in Romania began the dramatic events.December 15, 1989 representatives of local authorities decided to Timisoaratransfer to work in the Protestant village priest Laszlo Tekes, whichdefended the rights of the Hungarian minority. Municipal Court agreed with him vysylytyapartment, but attendees are not allowed such lawlessness. Next daystarted spontaneous demonstrations during which slogans have appeared "DownCeausescu. "Soldiers and security service tried to disperse the demonstrators,but without success. December 17 at a meeting of the RCP Central Committee Politkomisiyi Ceausescu nastoyav onuse of weapons against the demonstrators. The same day, troops began to shootby protestors (killed 100 people., injuring 200 people.).

            December 18-19, democratic forcesbegin to unite in the fight against dictatorships. December 20, 1989Ceausescu, speaking on radio and television events in Timishaori assessed as workhands of international agents in the county was created Timosh extraordinary authority.

            But repression has not helped,demonstrations and strikes swept across the country.

            December 21, 1989 Ceausescu gaveorder to hold a rally in support of the existing regime, which hedelivered a speech in which he promised to increase salaries, pensions, etc. But peoplewho gathered in the square began to shout anti-government slogans.

            Then Ceausescu ordered to shootdemonstrators, and the decree of 22 December declared a state of emergency.

            But the army moved to the sidedemonstrators. These include the National Salvation Front headed byIon Illiyesku, former member of the RCP, to remove Ceausescu in disagreement with his policies.

            December 22 Ceausescu and his wifeleave the capital by helicopter, but were near the town of Targovistearrested.

            23 December in the city came trueCeausescu in Bucharest, the army and the real battle ensued. December 24 camefracture. NSF took over all full power. December 25 after a military tribunalShort Session (2 hours) pryhovoryv Ceausescu couple to death thatonce it was done. They were accused of genocide, whose victims were60 thousand people., Harm the country and undermining the national economy,transferring billions of public funds to personal accounts and trying to escape fromcountry. This rapid procedure the court explained the danger from"Sekuritate. During the fighting in the capital killed about 1,5 thousandpeople.

            Thus, events in Romania1989 evolved a different scenario than in other Eastern European countries.Hard antyreformystskyy course Ceausescu did not leave any chance of peacefullymake the transition to democracy. Feature of Romania in the transition to democracywas what was missing between "socialist renewal."

            Although to date norife with controversy on the assessment of events in Romania: some argue that it waspopular revolt that developed into a democratic revolution, others that it was"Palace coup" which provoked a popular uprising.

 

Chronology of the fall of communism in Romania

Date

Events

1987

Proclamation  CCP "agrarian revolution" which included the elimination of 50% of villages and  creation of industrial centers. Speeches population suppressed by force.

1988

Fuel and  food crisis. Bread seems on the cards - 300 grams per day. Arrest  prominent Romanian economist interview the newspaper Izvestia and congratulations  Gorbachev on His Birthday

November  1989

Re-election  N. Ceausescu Secretary General of the CRC and the proclamation of his "hero among  Hero Nation

December 16  1989

People rally  against the deportation of a priest in m.Timishoara

December 21  1989

Pro-government  develops into an opposition rally, protesters used against tanks

22-24 December  1989

Fighting on the streets of Bucharest  between people and the insurgent forces of state security. Killing 1104 people. Family Escape  Ceausescu's Bucharest

December 25  1989

The trial  Ceausescu couple and their execution

May  1990

General  elections, forming a coalition government

June  1990

Two-year plan  transition to the market beginning of privatization. Deep economic crisis

 

3. Romania afterRevolution 1989

            Democratic Revolution gave impetusto intensify political life. The country began to emerge new parties (105)while the RCP (4 million people.) ceased to exist.

            In the parliamentary elections in May1990 NSF received a victory (2 / 3 of seats in bicameral parliament)I. Illiyesku became the president, who headed market-oriented reforms anddemocratization.

 

Biography

            Ion Illiyesku (born in1930) studied in the USSR, a graduate engineer. His careerbegan in 1955 Research Institute in Bucharest hydropower, but quicklyswitched to political activity, making the party very successful career.In 1953 he became a member of the Romanian Workers' Party. 1956-1960 biennium -secretary of the Central Union of Working Youth in the 1961-1967 biennium - Works in the office of the Central CommitteeMRS, in 1967-1971, the - First Secretary of the CPM and the Minister of Youth, in1971 - Secretary of the Central Committee for Ideology MRS. However, in the early 70'shis successful career was interrupted. After a conflict with N. Ceausescu wasRemove from the highest echelons of power. He refused to implement the Chinese experience"Cultural revolution" in Romania. December events in 1989 caught Illiyeskuas director of technical publishing house in Bucharest. Quickly zoriyentuvavshys,He led the National Salvation Front - first a provisional authority and thenParty. May 20, 1990 was elected president (voted85% of voters). Held the presidency for November 1996 . Thenbecame a senator. Leader established in 1993 Party of Social DemocracyRomania. December 10, 2000 re-elected president.

 

            The main opposition parties becameNational Liberal and National tsaranystska (peasant), who is accused of TNF inneokomunizmi and imitation reforms. Ceausescu's legacy always gave of himselfknow. In March 1990, there were clashes between Romanians and Hungarians inTargu Uresh. In November 1990 - Opposition by many thousands of permanentrally tried to remove the president and the government (they suspected they had stolenrevolution in the nation), which ended the bloody drama. Begun emergeforces have adopted a motto of "Greater Romania", whichprovides for accession of Romania to Bessarabia (Moldova) and Bukovina. This wassignificant impact on developments in the Republic of Moldova.

            After 1992 in the countryheld a special election, which took the victory again and it Illiyesku J.block "Red Square".

            The period 1992-1996 he in historyRomania is controversial. On the one hand, economic reforms were accompaniedgrowth of corruption and organized crime, privatization was carried out withflagrant violation of law, increased poverty. On the other hand, beganto appear in `real owner, the peasantry, which still did not react desire to workthe period of communist rule, got the opportunity to work in theirland and themselves. Despite all the problems (corruption, inflation, unemployment,falling living standards, etc.) since 1994 Romania's economy begins to slowincrease the gross national product. One of the factors that contributedeconomic growth was that in the period of Ceausescu's industrialenterprises of the country have been equipped with new equipment and technology that produced competitiveproducts. Another important factor was the purposeful activities of governmentUkraine's entry into the European structures and NATO. The country joined the WorldTrade Organization (WTO), an associate member. This opened accessRomanian products in EU markets.

            Advances in the economy, notaccompanied by a real positive changes in the political life thatimpeded the movement toward integration into European structures.

            Spring 1996 heldelections that seemed to provide the necessary changes in political life.In the elections won right and centrist forces  gained a majority in parliament. OnPresidential election winner Emil Constantinescu, professor, formerRector of the University of Bucharest. Right and centrists led by Constantinescudeclared course towards democratic transformation and radical economic reform.However, to implement the principles declared they could not, in pohruznuvshyinter-party disputes and corruption. While standard of livingsteadily dropped. The deterioration of living connected with the board yazuvalocenter-right coalition, which begins to lose any resistance. Left backbegan to gain popularity. In the elections of 2000 winsJ. Illiyesku.

            In an economic crisis in Romaniaand had to overcome significant problems with national minorities, especially Hungarians.Eventually the pressure the EU in 1997 Romania and Hungary signed an agreement thatsome died `yakshyv acute problem. Another problem is the borders of Romania,especially with Ukraine. While in 1997 agreement was entered, butremain many issues: border on the river Tisza, Fr. Zmiyinyy mouthDanube and more. Without solving these problems, Romania will be difficult to implementprimary objective of integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures.

 

Results

            After WorldWar and a short period of attempts at democratic development in Romaniaestablished communist regime. As in other Eastern European countriessocialist construction was carried out under the scheme imposed by Stalin originated. Butdevelopment of socialism in Romania had the feature. The period of de-Stalinizationnot characterized by changes in domestic policy and external changepolicy, which was cut in the policy of the USSR. At the same time, Romania remainedmember of CMEA and ATS. In domestic policy, 60-80-s N. Ceausescu undertooksteps that led to the creation in Romania one of the strictesttotalitarian regimes in Eastern Europe, which was overthrown bypopular uprising in December 1989 After the overthrow of the totalitarian regimecountry on the path of democratic development and establishment of market relations.In this way it has to overcome significant challenges. In 2004, countryjoined NATO. Romania is a candidate for EU membership in 2007

 

FAQtasks:

1.    When the authorities came to the Communists in Romania? What played a crucial role inestablishment of the communist regime in Romania?

2.    Who was the last monarch of Romania? When the country was declaredrepublic?

3.    Which scheme carried out socialist transformation in Romania?

4.    What features of de-Stalinization in Romania?

5.    Identify the basic features of N. Ceausescu regime

6.    What was the pretext for the overthrow of the Ceausescu regime in Romania, NM? Why modeCeausescu was overthrown by armed?

7.    Which path of development obrada Romania after the overthrow of Ceausescu's regime? Whatsuccesses and failures along the way?

8.    Fill in the table:

Development of Romania after the overthrow of the Ceausescu regime N.

Presidents

Characteristic  board

I. Illiyesku  (1990 - 1996)

 

E. Constantinescu  (1996-2000)

 

I. Iliescu (2000  -?)