§ 24. Hungary (textbook)

§24. Hungary

 

1. Installationcommunism

            Hungaryafter World War I the second time in the XX century. suffered huge losses.Trying M. Horthy political maneuvers (such as the Romanian King Mihai) exitWar failed. Hungary was occupied by German troops, and in powerBuda put Hungarian fascists (selashysty). Hungary remained to the endally of Germany, and its territory were carried out brutal fights.

The consequences of WorldWar for Hungary

Human loss

147 thousand 280 thousand soldiers and civilians.

Losses

40% of national wealth. Considerable damage.  Reparatory payment of the USSR, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, on principle  partial compensation (66%).

Territorial changes

Restoring Borders  As of January 1, 1938

Socioeconomic Impact

The fall in GDP. Financial and fuel crisis. The threat of hunger.  Unemployment. Refugees.

Political changes

Full  discredit the right-wing parties. Dissolution and ban fascist parties and  organizations. Multi-recovery. The most numerous and influential  Party was a minority of farmers (PDSH).

            In December 1944 for liberationTerritory was formed Hungarian National Independence Front, which inDebrecen formed a provisional government. He made a truce with theanti-Hitler coalition and declared war on Germany. April 4, 1945completed the liberation of Hungary.

            There were renewed activitycreated by different political parties. The most numerous and influential party was smallfarmers (PDSH) that the elections in 1945 has 57% of votes inWhile the Communists and their allies 15%.

 

Activities of the Provisional Government

-       dismissed and  eliminated all  fascist  party organization;

-       multi-recovery;

-       installed in the business working control;

-       began land reform (confiscation and distribution of land subject to  landowners and the Catholic Church);

-       February 1, 1946 Hungary was proclaimed a republic.

            By signing  peace treaty in 1947 Hungaryremained under the control of the Federal Control Board (CU).

            After the restoration of fullsovereignty of Hungary, the Communists attempted to gain victory in the elections1947 Back in March, 1946 they left the Communists formed a bloc instock (UCP, USDP, the National Peasant Party). But the elections in August1947 they had only 22% of the vote. Not having received the Communists winlaunch a campaign of search and discovery of his "reactionary conspiracies" and"Counterrevolutionary rebellion."

            Such accusations have been leveledagainst party most small farmers, includinghead of the government against F. Nadia. This enabled the Communists, who together withSocial Democrats in the Hungarian Labor Party (UPT), to come to power.

            The Communists set  one of the most rigid communistregimes.

 

Table.: Features of constructionsocialism in Hungary

-       UPT leader Mathias Rakoshi considered himself the most consistent  disciple of Stalin and sought throughout  follow him.

-       Industrialization held in forced mode especially under the slogan  "Transform the country Hungary iron and steel. Although the  base in the country was not.

-       Cooperations accompanied robbing villagers and 1952 2 / 3  peasant families had no stockpiles of grain.

-       The highest proportions reached repression. September 3 million. repressed the population  amounted to 1 million Carried out in show trials. The first  in September 1949 against Foreign Minister Laszlo Raina  and 6 of its employees. They was presented the allegations of crimes of state:  relationship with U.S. and  Yugoslav secret services and high treason. Accused admitted in  committing a "crime" and all seven were executed. Also imprisoned was  and future leader Janos Kadar UPT.

 

2. Revolution1956

            Top 50's, the Hungarians lived worsethan the late 1940's, but the country was transformed intoindustrial and agricultural.

            Changes in the Soviet leadership,especially condemnation "of Stalin's personality cult" of XX Party Congress, ledto the formation in UPT reform wing under pressure which was partiallyRehabilitation of Repressed. Moreover Rakoshi as a faithful follower of Stalin, notenjoyed the support of the new Soviet leadership.

            It is to avoid major catastrophe,appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers I. Nadia. He sharply condemned the persecution andforced collectivization of peasants. This resulted in confrontation between the two leaders. 9March 1955 CC UPT accused Nadia of opportunism. April 14 ChairmanCouncil of Ministers appointed Hehedyusha. In November Nadia gathered even eliminatefrom the party. But the July 18, 1956 Pressure Rakoshi USSR, as the firstSecretary of the CC was replaced UPT G

            At this point, when the party was conductedinternal struggle in Budapest October 23, 1956 was a many-demonstration in support of reforms in Poland, which grew into a general statementRakoshi population against the regime.

            Management estimated that UPT performanceas a counterrevolutionary in Budapest and troops were put. This immediately increased thesituation in the capital. Begun fighting. (Q, where rebels tookweapons remains open to the present day). The first clash took place nearHouse Radio. Armed groups seized the depot and several companies arsenaltelegraph, newspaper editors Sabad NEP and others. AttackedArtillery School, military factories, police stations and military,prison, of which 10 thousand have been released criminals and 3,3 thousandpolitical prisoners. In all the clashes between the Hungarian troops revolted and inHungary 40 cities killed more than 1 thousand people.

            On the night of 24 October addressed CC UPTto the USSR for help. Was elected a new Politburo UPT. I. Nagy became headgovernment. He announced the establishment of martial law and curfewThe enterprises started to workers' wives. October 24 in BudapestSoviet troops entered and occupied the strategic points of the city, but not in clashesentered.

 

The official Tass statement (25 October 1956)

            Yesterday (24 October) late at nightunderground reactionary organizations attempted to call in Budapestcounterrevolutionary rebellion against the national government? Detachments rebels. Howable to capture weapons, provoked bloodshed in some places. Forcerevolutionary agenda began to oppose the rebels. By ordernewly appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers Imre Nadia was announced in statesiege. UPR Government appealed to the Soviet government asking for help. Inaccordance with the request of the Soviet military that  are found in Hungary under the WarsawAgreement, provided assistance to troops of the Hungarian Republic in restoring order inBudapest? Today the end of the day gamble enemy was eliminated. In Budapestrestored order. "

 

            25 October Secretary of the CC UPTJ. Kadar was elected. Before the Soviet delegation arrived in Budapest at the head ofA. Mikoyan and Mikhail Suslov. But in the party and government dominated confusion.Nagy was not a strong national leader and failed to master the situation. 28October he turned on the radio to stop the fire and demanded the withdrawal ofSoviet troops. After the withdrawal of Soviet troops in Budapest startedreal hunt on state security officials and party functionaries. 30October was taken by the Budapest City Party House, and all hisdefenders were shot. Under such conditions, management evaluated the event as UPTnational revolution. It was decided to disband and create a UPTHungarian Social Workers Party and the restoration of multiparty system. GovernmentI. Nadia was turned into a coalition. Great importance was the declarationSoviet Government that relations with the countries there has been a socialviolation of their sovereignty.

CD_II_30

HungarianRevolutionaries accompanied

employeesecret police. 1956

 

            I. November 1 Nagy announced the release ofHungary ATS and the neutrality of the country. Across the country, wracked"Foundations of socialism" renewed its activities and created newdifferent political parties, dismissed cooperatives were created independentunions etc.

            This development troubledSoviet leadership, which viewed it as a threat to socialism. Backingsupport of communist parties of other countries (including Yugoslavia and China)Soviet  User unable to directaggression (Operation Whirlwind "). In the morning of November 4, 1912 Soviet divisionsArmy of the USSR and Romania began the invasion of Hungary. Formally, suchof reflection upon the revolutionary worker-peasant government underJ. Kadar, which was formed in Salnok. The fighting unfoldedin Badapeshti where rebels opposed to 10 November. Became centers of resistance regionBudapest around theater Korvin.

 

Working withdocument

From the manifesto of the State Minister Istvan Bibo

            "? InSituation, I declare the following:

Hungary does not intend to conduct anti-Soviet policyInstead, it expresses its desire to live fully in the Commonwealth of theEastern European nations who seek to organize life in their countries undera sign of freedom and justice in a society devoid of exploitation.

            Beforeface the world I reject slanderous accusations that gloriousHungarian Revolution mired in fascist or anti-Semitic speeches.In the struggle took part regardless of class or religious differencesthe entire Hungarian nation. Touching and glorious was humane, wise behaviorinsurgent people. Ready for an equitable division andinsurgent only foreign power against oppressors and their Hungarian punitivegroups. The government was able to as soon as possible to cope with some streetreprisals, and the performances of ultraconservative forces which have shownarmed violence. The claim that this had to enter the territorycountry's huge foreign army - not serious and cynical. On the contrary:presence of this army was a major source of anxiety and unrest.

            IHungarian urge people not to consider the supreme authority of the country's occupation armyor it created a puppet government and against them, using allpossible means of passive resistance, except those that would supply and zachipalyUtilities Budapest. To give the order for fighting back I have no right, becausejoined in the government's work only the day before. And I have no information on militarysituation in the country, and so would be irresponsible on my part to controlway blood th Hungarian youth. Hungarian people, and this paid considerableblood u to show the world its commitment to freedom and justice.Now is the turn of the world show great power of the United Nations Charter,force volelyubnosti peoples. I ask the wise and courageous decision of largeStates and the United Nations and the interests of my oppressed nation?

Hungary! Take care of you! "

 

            I. Nagy sought refuge inYugoslav Embassy. He was taken to Romania. Where was issuedHungary, then convicted and executed. After the military suppression of statements notstopped. Almost until the end of the year took place in the country strikes demonstrationagainst the new government led by J. Kadar, to which he replied repression. 28601people were arrested: 500 of them were executed, 5913 were imprisoned.

            During the events in street battles killed2973 people. Significant losses incurred and Soviets: 720 killed, 1540wounded, 51 missing missing. New senior management was imposed Hungarianspower not enjoyed by any authority. But J. Kadar step by step couldgain credibility and to restore civil peace. Were criticized Rakoshi,rehabilitated victims of his repression, eliminated the negative phenomena in conductingcooperation and industrialization. Repression of the events of 1956 werestopped.

 

3. "Showcase"socialism. Kadarivskyy socialism

            In the second half of the 50-60'sHungary was carried out one of the most fundamental economic reforms that gavespace for development of private initiative and cooperators. Thanks to reformsHungarians living standards steadily rose almost to the end of the 70's, the Mostsuccessfully been developing agriculture and it turned into one of Hungarylargest exporters of agricultural products in Europe.

            Despite the inconsistencyreforms in the period neostalinizmu existed in Hungary the most liberalpolitical regime with all countries of Eastern Europe.

Reforms J. Kadar (60 to 80 years)

In the political sphere

In industry and management

In agriculture

Termination and  rejection of political repression.

The introduction of alternative  elections to the National Assembly and local authorities.

In taking  decisions followed the principle of interests of various strata  society.

Tolerance to  all that is contrary to the principles of socialism. Adherence to the principle: "Who does not  against us is for us. "

Do not strive for  manifestations of national support regime, the people must tolerate him  treat.

Introduction  relatively free travel abroad.

Coordination  course in the USSR, but to be one step ahead of him.

Reduction of central government.

Decentralization of management.

Retrieved from directive planning.

Limiting the impact of party bureaucracy to economic  processes.

Providing financial and economic enterprises  independence.

Retrieved from further industrialization.

Splitting of large enterprises. Building on the basis  optimal system  smaller.

The introduction of economic incentives work.

Differentiation of wages.

Drawing on  West to modernize the industry.

Promote and  development of small businesses in the service sector.

Compliance  principle of voluntariness in the creation of agricultural cooperatives  (Cooperatives owned 75% of arable land).

Elective  managers of cooperatives.

Cancel  directive planning.

Deregulation  cooperatives to purchase agricultural machinery, fertilizers, plant protection system  etc. abroad.

Tax  benefits.

Creation  network of private enterprise to service equipment, processing  agricultural products and so on.

Stimulation  exports of agricultural products.

Implications

Liberalization  regime, the lack of political repression.

Harmonization of industrial development. The emergence of social  differentiation and hidden unemployment. The development of private enterprise.

Development  province.

Convert Hungary  on one of the main exporters of agricultural products in Europe.

            In the early 80's, the Hungaryfound itself in the face of economic difficulties, slowed the pace of developmentcountry. External debt grew to $ 11-12 billion. At a time whenUSSR began rebuilding in MSzMP begins to dominate the reform wing,which pinned hopes on the First Secretary of Budapest city MSzMPinitiative K. Grosso. Summer 1987 He headed the government and declared a programcontinuing reforms.

            In May 1988 reformershave made the convening of the party conference, which was approved course oneconomic reform and improving the political system. Forimplementation of the course were made personnel changes in leadership.

            K. Gross, with the consent of Moscow, tookSecretary General, and J. Kadar moved to the honorary position of chairmanparty. Also, without the consent of the party leadership in Moscow were introduced severalenterprising young activists among them was a young economist M. Nemeth, who wasauthor of the reforms.

            But the productive work in the government nothappened. Increasingly become the democratic opposition that prevented managethe old. In such conditions Pozhhai proposed radically change the politicalsystem and introduce a multi-system, but it withstood Gros, leadingto drop its authority.

            Summer and autumn in the Hungarian Parliamentimportant changes took place: from the bridge of his deputy under public pressurehad to give up some party leaders and conservative MPs.

            Parliament passed a series of democraticlaws: freedom of assembly and meetings, organizations and associations, the press, aboutstrikes. Also adopted a decision on establishing the position of President anda constitutional court. The new prime minister was Nemeth. Reformedactivity and led to intensified political life in the country. Began to appearvarious "informal" organizations and movements. For 1988 theirthere were over 40, and at the end of 1989 was registered in 1950political parties and 140 different unions, movements and organizations. An important step towardsrevival was the adoption of multi-party law.

            Most importantly,opposition parties were: the Union of Free Democrats (MD), social-democraticParty of Hungary (SD), small independent party hosts (NPDH) etc.

            Multi become a reality,MSzMP but refused to acknowledge the new realities and the then Prime Minister Nemethannounced its withdrawal from MSzMP and to conduct independent policy to newparliamentary elections. Also, in a country dominated by the movement Reviewing events1956

            Finally MSzMP was forced to go onnegotiations with the opposition and 18 April was signed  agreement on the terms of the transition tomultiparty system. Only SVD and MD refused to sign the document, statingthey do not want  a compromisealliance with the Communists.

            Summer 1989 Parliamentceased to be a one-party. Places that resigned, took members ofopposition. An important event was the revaluation of events 1956, which becamecalled, "a popular uprising aimed at overthrowing Stalinism""1956 Revolution" and reburial of Imre dust Nadia heroes in the areathe center of Budapest.

            The government made a decisive Nemethturn toward liberalization of relations with the West. On the border with Austria weredismantled border fence was allowed free entry and exitcountry. Through open borders to Austria hlynuv flow "tourists" fromEast Germany, eager to leave their socialist motherland.

            October 23, 1989 UPR wasrenamed the Republic of Hungary.

Democraticprocesses have led to the crisis and the collapse MSzMP. At the XIV Congress MSzMP, which passed inOctober 1989 it was renamed in USP (Hungarian SocialistParty), but some Orthodox leaders in early 1990 revivedMSzMP.

            Spring 1990 Hungarydemocratic elections were held in parliament where the opposition took most of theParty 89%, and USP - 11%. The new government led by Jozsef Antall historian and presidentbecame a leader writer Arpad Hents SVD.

            The Government continued economic Antalla J.transformation started by the Socialists on the development of market relations. Alsostarted to pay compensation to those who had property confiscated during the1948-1952, the Hungary also came out with CEA and ATS. In 1991, itsterritories were the withdrawal of Soviet troops.

 

Chronology of the elimination of the communist regime in Hungary

Date

Event

1987

Formation and  unauthorized publication of the Union of Free Democrats "

May  1988

Party  Conference - staffing update party, the actual resignation J. Kadar

January

1989

Introduction  multi

May  1989

Dismantling  border barriers on the border with Austria

April-September  1989

Round Table  all political forces. The decision to move to Hungary  parliamentary democracy

October  1989

Hungarian Folk  Republic was named the Republic of Hungary. Dissolution of the People's Militia

March-April  1990

The first free  Elections to the National Assembly, the victory of opposition parties. Election of President  A. Hentsa - writer, former dissident

September  1990

Act small  privatization

July-September  1991

Act  partial reimbursement of his former owners. Sharp fall in production  especially in agriculture - 45%

 

4. Hungary topresent stage

            After the political transformation andsocio-economic transformation at the turn of 80-90's efforts of the Government J. Antalfocused on the development of democratic processes, the transition to a sociallyoriented market economy and integration into NATO and the EU.

            Since 1991 Hungarylaunched mass privatization, which gradually included small, medium andlarge enterprises. As a result of mid-90's most goods inthe country produced in the private sector. Hungarian products has become competitive.70% of exports go to EU countries. Important in government policy was to attractforeign investment and significant debt service (21 billiondollars).. In this regard the government Antal also achieved considerable success. Hungaryabsorbing a larger share of foreign investments which were invested in the economyEastern European countries. Hungary also managed to stabilize the situation withexternal debt. But success had some bad signs: storedsignificant unemployment, the real results of the reforms, investment experienced onlyLiving in Budapest, while the province was in chronic crisis.Complex relationship remained in agriculture. Was a significantsocial stratification.

            These effects of reforms skillfullyused the leftist parties that the parliamentary elections in 1994 wonvictory. Left also formed a government headed by Dola Horn. The new governmentactually extended the previous year, with emphasis on social programs.He also focused on harmonization of the laws of Hungary and the lawEU countries. It began programs to develop the province. Continuationreformative activities provided in Hungary 1996-1999 he stable5% growth per year. An important success was the accession of Hungary into NATO(1999).

            In 1998, the regularparliamentary elections. New Prime Minister Viktor Orban was that continuedpolicy of their predecessors. On the presidential elections in 2000 victoryFerenc Madl took. In 2004, Hungary joined the EU.

 

Results

            After Horthy dictatorship, Nazisalashystskoho occupation regime and Hungary got a chance to get on the pathdemocratic development. But finding himself in the Soviet sphere of influence Hungaryon the path of building socialism with the Stalinist model. Mode was Rakoshimost violent and bloody among the communist regimes of Eastern Europe.The death of Stalin and his cult of personality criticism gave rise to revolutionaryoverthrow the regime. However, the revolution in 1956 not paved the way fordemocratic development was interrupted because of Soviet intervention. RRPJ. Kadar regime was the most liberal in Eastern Europe andreform turned Hungary into "showcase" of socialism. The democratic transformationin Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union's collapse led to the fall of the J. Kadar.

            Hungary was the only country in EasternEurope, where the transition from totalitarianism to democracy and market economytook place without major upheavals. Currently Hungary is a country withthe best dynamics of the countries of Europe, NATO and the EU.

 

FAQtasks:

1.    What were the consequences of the Second World War for Hungary?

2.    Identify the characteristics of building socialism in Hungary in the 40-50-yearsTwentieth century.

3.    With `yasuyte cause and reason to the revolution in 1956 in Hungary.

4.    How to evaluate actions of the USSR?

5.    Make structural and logical scheme "Hungarian Revolution in 1956.

6.    Why Hungarian Revolution 1956 defeated?

7.    Describe the development of Hungary in the 60 to 80 years of the twentieth century. What resultstenure Kadar Ya?

8.    As the transition from totalitarianism to democracy in Hungary?

9.    What steps  committed the Government of Hungarytowards integration into the European Union?