§ 17. Italy (textbook)

§17. Italy

 

1. The overthrow of the monarchy. Adoption of Constitution1947

            Italy was one of theArsonists World War II, but she came out of it other thanGermany. Even in 1943 Mussolini was overthrown and the new government announcedwar Germany. In response, Germany occupied northern part of the countryand restored power to Mussolini. This has led to the deployment of mass resistance movement inattended by almost 500 thousand Italians. Partisans managed to liberatemuch of the territory of Italy, to capture a prisoner and executed Mussolini. Duringcombat anti-fascist alliance formed parties and movements: ChristianDemocrats, Communists, Socialists, who in 1944 joined the governmentItaly. Because of the Allies viewed Italy as the enemy and its territorynot been established occupation regime. The peace treaty in 1947 notprovided substantial territorial losses to Italy.

 

The consequences of World War II to Italy

Human loss

Approximately 330 thousand deaths and of missing 85 thousand wounded. In other  data - 556 ths.

Property, economic impact

One third of the national wealth. In 1945 volume of industrial  production amounted to 40% of pre-war, the GDP was at 1909 Flourished  speculation and "black market".

Territorial changes

The loss of all colonies (Libya, Somalia), Division of Trieste with Yugoslavia. Transfer  Dodecanese Islands in Greece. The country was occupied by British and American troops.

Social consequences

Unemployment (2 million people), disability issues.

Political changes

The overthrow of the monarchy, the declaration of the republic. The dominance of the political  HDP life, SPI, KPI

 

            Resistance Movement in Italy putsignificant impact on the postwar development. Leading role in post-warpolitics played Christian Democrats (HDP), and the CommunistsSocialists. In 1945 these parties formed the government. Immediately afterWar, the government conducted important reforms: aside the landlords' land was transferredpeasants; put a moving scale salary (she periodically increaseddepending on the cost of living); forbidden dismissal withoutconsent of trade unions, workers councils were created in enterprises.

            An important questionpostwar Italy has been the decision of the fate of the monarchy. KingVictor-Emmanuel III discredited collaboration with the Nazis duringWar has undermined the authority of the monarchy as a state institution. Under these conditions, leftparties were required to replace the monarchy with a republic. June 2, 1946together with elections to the Constituent Assembly held a referendum on preservationmonarchy. The Catholic Church and were part of the HDP for the preservation of the monarchyheaded by the son of King. In a sharp political struggle 12.7 million people lostvote for a republic, 10.7 million people - for the monarchy. Italy wasrepublic. In the elections to the Constituent Assembly the majority of seats were HDP (for themvotes submitted 8.1 million), the Italian Socialist Party (ISP - 4,7million votes) and the Italian Communist Party (ICP - 4,3 million votes). Theseparties have formed a new state government.

            The deployment of the ColdWar increased the relationship between HDP and ICP. In May 1947 the headChristian Democrat government Alchide De Gasperi pressure Americans (theyItaly refused to provide assistance if the government will be communists) formedGovernment has no Communists. Constituent Assembly adopted in December 1947Constitution, under which Italy was proclaimed a democratic, parliamentaryrepublic and introduced Italy's first ever universal suffrage.Royalty forbidden to return to Italy. The supreme authorityproclaimed a bicameral parliament, which elected president - headstate. The executive power led by the head of the Council of Ministers, which was intendedzatverdzhuvavsya president and parliament.

 

2. Alchyde De Gasperi.Italian "economic miracle"

            The first parliamentary electionsbased on the new constitution gave HDP confident superiority which formed a government onled by A. De Gasperi (1881-1954). He to 1953 was in power inItaly played the same role in the history of the country as K. Adenauer in Germany.

            A. De Gasperi beinghighly educated person, a member of the Resistance movement, with rich life experience,Italy is not thought beyond the European community. In 1949, onefirst became a member of NATO - the only former fascist countries, whichwas found the following honor (Germany accepted into NATO in 1955). Although, unlikefrom countries that formed NATO, Italy was neither North nor the Atlanticstate. Britain and other allied countries initially denied membershipItaly, fearing that it will become a consumer of union resources. Eventually the Alliesagreed that the decision of Italy to NATO will serve to strengthen pro-Westernpolitical forces in Italy, and facilitate the involvement of this country to the westerneconomic structures. In 1957 Italy was one of the EU co-founded.

            Select a democratic pathdevelopment became one of the reasons the Italian "economic miracle".

            In 50-60's Italyexperienced a period of rapid economic development. The pace of growth in Europeit is inferior only to Germany. With economic growth, Italy couldsettle debts and stabilize the currency lyre. Increased lifelevel Italians formed state of prosperity. The results of thisgrowth mainly took advantage of industrialized north of the country. Southremained a source of poverty and social tension.

 

Causesas conditions of the Italian "economic miracle"

·         Agrarian reform, which  slightly lifted acute social tensions in rural areas and the land problem. Farmers  received credit for buying 1.5 million hectares. Contributed to the domestic market,  modernization of agriculture.

·         Retrieved U.S.  United Kingdom of its interests reparations from Italy.

·         Help for the "plan  Marshall (1,5 billion dollars.), Which allowed in briefly to resume prewar  level of production (1948 - in industry, 1950 - in agriculture  households).

·         State support  large corporations, encourage the centralization of capital. As a result of  large industrial empires: Fiat, Montecatini, Pirelli, Edison, and Olivetti  others.

·         Create a major public  enterprises and large-size public sector (40%  industry).

·         Significant  investment in the development of backward South.

·         Cheap labor.

·         Attracting foreign  capital.

·         Participation in the European  integration processes. Founding members of the EEC.

·         Creating broad  social security system has contributed to the broad domestic market.

·         Restructuring  economy, export orientation. Upgrading technological base, the introduction  STC advances.

·         Benefits for small and  medium sized businesses. Great issue of inexpensive quality goods everyday  demand, household appliances, clothes, shoes and more.

·         Money 300  thousands of Italians who each year leaving to work abroad.

·         Developing  resorts, tourism, recreation and entertainment.

            Rapid economicaccompanied by mass development and the labor movement, which has achieved significantresults. In terms of wages, social securitypensions gave way to Italy only to Scandinavian countries.

 

3. Politicaldevelopment of Italy in the 70-90-years of the twentieth century. Italy at the beginning of.

            At a time when fighting was conducted bysocial rights, increased the authority of the Left parties and the Christian Democratslost its popularity. Backwardness of the South created the social basis forCommunist Party.  Notwithstandinggeneral authority of the fall of the communists in Western Europe, in Italy theyretain a strong position. Also, ICP has managed to maintain influence in society throughview of its political line. ICP recognized the value of democratic system andrevolutionary change course to put forward a strategy of structural reformssociety. In 1972, Communists there were 1.7 million people beinglargest party in Italy. In addition, the ICP to make changes in strategy and tactics,and the very ideology of the communist movement. ICP was initiated developmentyevrokomunizmu ideology - a kind of Communist attempts by some WesternEurope reject the dogmas of Marxism-Leninism. These efforts led to the rupturerelations between the CPSU and the ICP. After the collapse of the socialist system ICP declareda Democratic Party leftists and occupies an important place in political lifecountry.

            Starting with 1960 HDP,Wishing to keep the majority in parliament, includes representatives in governmentother parties. Thus, in 1960 created a coalition with right-wing parties(Monarchists and neo-fascist). This allowed the government to neo-fascist rally thatcaused a wave of discontent in the country. It came even to armed conflicts. Congresscould not hold, and the government resigned.

            During the 1963-1976 biennium HDPentered into a coalition with the ISP. Center-left government led by Aldo Moro. This governmentincreased state intervention in economic life of society, received a five-yeareconomic program, was nationalized electrical industry.Zaprovadzhuvavsya 40-hour work week, expanded trade union rights inenterprises. Adopted laws of the land involved the protection of tenants and to limitspeculation in housing construction.

            Late 60's Italy, asother Western countries benefited from the massive youth movement that supported theworkers. In November 1969 held a general strike, which wasattended by 20 million people. Almost all the strikers demands were met.

            The economic crisis from 1974-1975aggravated the problems of Italy. Grew so high and the popularity of the Communists. OnElection 1976 ICP has 34,4% of votes (227 seats of 630).HDP leaders refused to allow communists in government. This led to a crisis inHDP and split society.

            Part HDP led by Aldo Moro, understandingthat ignoring the communists in acute economic crisis will lead tounprecedented social upheaval, embarked on an agreement with the ICP, whichICP obliged to maintain the existing government on condition that he willimplement a coordinated program of two parties.

            Prospectsstability in the country are not happy with the leaders of the Khmerbrigades - ultralivoyi terrorist organization that wanted to cometo power on a wave of social discontent. Aldo Moro was kidnapped and laterhis body was found in the car in the center of Rome. Under such conditions, HDPrefuses further cooperation with the ICP. In turn, ISPs refuse toHDP support. As a result HDP form a coalition with small right-wing partiescreating a multiparty coalition. In the 80 years in power were alreadyp'yatypartiyni governments. But the more parties in government, the less it is durable.Constant change of governments has become a tradition in Italy.

            Political instability has contributedof terrorism on the part of neo-fascist, and from ultralivyh organizations.Since 1969 to 1981 the hands of terrorists killed 386 people.Fortius use is a serious act was an explosion at the railway station in Bologna. ByItaly corruption levels had no equal in Western Europe. Corruption in the countrylinked also with the peculiarities of the political mechanism of Italy. Elections in the countryconducted on a proportional system: voters do not vote for a particularcandidate and the party. Members of the parliamentary factions defines itselfParty. Thus the conditions for the existence consisted behind the scenes of political life.Much in Italy to resolve secretly - in the offices of party orresult of inter-party negotiations. Lack of openness in discussingimportant financial issues (government spending, taxes, subsidies, etc.).contributed to the development of corruption and, consequently, increase the influence of the Italian mafia.

            Mafia as an organization, there was atSicily in the Middle Ages to defend themselves peasants. Anyone vstupav she musthas been serving the mafia, to obey the "father" and remain silent. Violation of these rulesthreatened with death. This form was not replaceable for the subsequent indifferent countries, organized crime groups. In Italy, the Mafia, having merged withcorrupt elements, has become extremely powerful and dangerous force.

            In 80 years, 90 state institutionsItaly experienced a deep crisis. She appreciated a significant state deficitand inefficiency of the public sector. Tried to overcome power crisisp'yatypartiynyy government leader ISPs Bettina Kraksi (1983-1987 biennium). Hemade reforms in the spirit of the conservative revolution, significant efforts directed atfight against mafia and restriction of privileges the Catholic Church. But to overcome the crisisand failed.

            In February 1992 Italylaunched large-scale company "Clean Hands", directed against the mafiastructures. During this operation revealed numerous cases of corruption in the highestechelons of power and leadership among the major political parties (strikingexample was the scandal involving bribery in Milan in 1992). In the followingtwo years found themselves under investigation HDP leaders, ISPs, several ministers, MPs,senators, businessmen, generally more than 2 million people. Almost all the topItalian society, traditional political parties were discredited.

            But in the Cold War, whenItalian authorities opposed the Communist Party, the most numerousEurope - ICP, these "sins" law enforcement agencies, allies Italy zaplyuschuvalyeyes. At the end of the Cold War, these motifs have disappeared, and the judicial system Italyfailed to act decisively against corruption.

            Italy has become a necessitycomprehensive reforms. In 1993, Italians in a referendum supportedfor the elimination of the proportional electoral system. This was the beginning of reformItalian political life. The reforms led to the establishment Second Republic in Italy. In1994 Elections were held on a new basis, which showed a new arrangementpolitical forces in the country. In the elections were fundamentally new top stillunknown political parties united to bring in a block "Freedom Pole": "ForwardItaly! "Led by millionaire Silvio Berlusconi (media mogul); LeagueNorth "under the direction of transformation advocates argue for a federal ItalyState Umberto Boss, "National Alliance" - an association of nationalist andright parties?. Gianfranco Fini. Left Party (former Communists and supportersSocialists), who united to bring the alliance of progressive forces suffered defeat.  But right-wing victory was not long, they blockcollapsed and Berlusconi resigned. The next Italian government headed by financierLamberto Dini no party affiliation. The main task of government was to provide financialrecovery of the country. Nevertheless, this non-partisan government of technocrats not lastedlong. In 1996 held regular elections, in which center-left wonblock "Olive Tree". During left coalition government (1996-2001 biennium)headed by the prime yeramy Romano Prodi, and since 1998 M.D `Alem achieved significantresults. Was carried out privatization of public sector,recreation finance, significantly reduced unemployment, the reform efforts of the armedforces (abolished conscription total), Italy actively participated inEuropean integration. However, much of the promised social reformsremained bumazi. The negative impact on the development of the country had a war onBalkans (refugees reduction in exports). Changed public opinionin Operation Clean Hands ". All this helped to turn right. In the elections2001 Block wins right parties "Freedom House, led byS. Berlusconi. In his policy was the right course for the deepening of Europeanintegration of social reform legislation.

 

Results

            In the second half of the twentieth century. Italywas a difficult way of overcoming the fascist past. Thanks to the persistenceItaly's political elite has become one of the leading countries of Western Europe, becomingmember of the "G-7".In 50 and 60 years in the country's economy experienced a "economic miracle".The most difficult problem for the country was corruption, which became significantfactor in political life. It became the basis for the prosperity of organizedcrime - mafia, which penetrated the country's political structure. 90 yearsTwentieth century. became the period of a widespread anti-corruption.Were made drastic changes in political life, which was the basis forassertion that in Italy been established Second Republic (early 90's).

 

Questions and tasks:

1.    Describe the consequences of the Second World WarItaly.

2.    Name the political forces of Italy, which played a leadingrole after the Second World War.

3.    Once in Italy the monarchy has been overthrown? What forces werefor the preservation of the monarchy, and which by its overthrow?

4.    Under the Constitution, 1947 Italy becameparliamentary or presidential republic?

5.    A. De Gasperi compared with K. Adenauer, the role playedthese two leaders for their countries?

6.    Identify the components of the Italian "economic miracle".

7.    What has caused the power of the Italian Communists?

8.    What were killed Aldo Moro?

9.    What is the mafia that its influence on political developmentItaly?

10. Describe features of political life in Italy60-80's.

11. What are the causes of political crisis in the country in 90 years? As itwas overcome?

 

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