§ 16. Germany (textbook)

§16. Germany

 

1. The consequences of World War II. Division of Germany."Economic Miracle". Milestones of Germany

            Germany was defeated in the SecondWorld War and its fate decided the victorious. Guidelinepostwar Germany were developed at the Potsdam Conference inJuly-August 1945 West German earth (11 Land) find themselves in the U.S.,English and French zones of occupation (43 million). Office Germanywas in the hands of the Supervisory Board representatives of the winners.Predicted that in the future Germany will be united and democraticstate.

            West confrontation and the USSR tragicallyimpact on the fate of Germany: it passed through the line of confrontation between the twoworld systems. The Cold War forced the Western countries in a new wayassess the role of its occupation zone. With the enemy West Germany hadbecome a reliable pillar of the West.

 

ImplicationsWorld War II for Germany

Human loss

Discards - 7.836 million  people. (Other sources 11-13 million). 12 million  were in captivity. 12 million  were  refugees.

Losses

Almost complete destruction of cities and infrastructure,  particularly eastern areas. Germany also paid reparations to the victors  a confiscation of machines, equipment, valuables, goods and supplies  the employment of Germans. The loss of Silesia industrial region.

The losses in the fighting: West Zone - 20%, Eastern  Zone - 45%.

Losses due to reparations: West Zone - 12%  East Zone - 25%.

Territorial changes

24% of territory for Poland and the USSR. The split of Germany  in West Germany and East Germany. Formation of West Berlin.

Changes in the economy

Complete destruction of industrial and agricultural  production.

Social changes

8 million German refugees from Czechoslovakia, Poland and other  Eastern European countries.

Political changes

Installation of the regime (1945-1952). Split  Germany into two states - Germany (democracies) and GDR (totalitarian  mode).

 

            In 1947, England and USAmerged their occupation zones in Bizoniyu. In 1948 joined themFrench zone. In Germany, established a unified administration and militaryCommand. It drafted the constitution and established managementEconomy, headed by L. Erhard. He developed a program of economic reforms.The aim of the reforms was the establishment of social market economy. Although the programrozhodylas plans allies and the American Military Governor Clayunder its responsibility supported reform. Economic reforms includeda monetary reform and price. It will began in 1948 Moneyreform included the establishment of hard currency. July 28, 1948 occupationAdministration issued a decree by which the old reyhsmarky considered invalid andintroduced, new doychmarky. Every citizen has received 40 doychmarok (more later20 doychmarok). Pensions, salaries and rent were paid in1:1 ratio. Cash and wire money exchanged in proportionequal to one ten doychmarka reyhsmarkam. German bank has been createdlands.

            Price reform began after 3 days.Was repealed administrative resource allocation and price controls.Rozrehulyuvannya prices and wages carried out gradually, but steadily.State free of regulation and functions now handled by the percentage of allbank credit. Economic reform in 1948 transformed into economic1948-1956 he was the reform that brought the economy of Germany to third place in the world.Economic transformation and the results they gave, called the"German economic miracle."

 

Causes of rapid economic development of Germany:

·         solid startingopportunities, a solid industrial base, modern equipment;

·         competent leadershipreforms;

·         flexible tax andcredit policies, significant foreign investment (by the Marshall Plan - 50doychmarok billion);

·         organization of the nation;

·         tough operationlabor (62 hours working week, wages 65% of pre-war);

·         support economystate (long-term loans, 30% of shares belonged to the State);

·         lack of militaryexpenditures for 1955, the presence of foreign troops.

            Separate monetary reform in WestGermany led the USSR appropriate action. Blockade was established WesternBerlin. After this division of Germany became inevitable.

            September 7, 1949 wasproclaimed the Federal Republic of Germany.

            By form of government of Germany hasparliamentary republic. The government led by Chancellor.

            First became Chancellor of Germany KonradAdenauer (Bloc Christian Democratic Union and Christian SocialUnion - CDU / CSU). He was in power until 1963 Adenauer governmentclearly focusing on U.S. and Western values of democracy. In1952 he rejected the plan of the USSR's reunification.

 

Structural-logical scheme: split Germany. The formation of West Germany and East Germany

Area occupation of Germany

French (Western)

English (Northwest)

American (Southwest)

Soviet (Eastern)

Bizoniya (1946    City)

 

Tryzoniya (1948)

 

Monetary and    economic reform (1948)

 

Proclamation    creation of the German Democratic Republic (7 October 1949)

 

Proclamation    creation of the Federal Republic of Germany (September 7 1949)

 

Closing the borders with West Germany. Berlin    crisis (1948-1949 biennium)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction to ATS (1955)

 

Introduction to CEA (1950)

 
Extension of the Marshall Plan

(From 1949)

Introduction

NATO (1955)

Introduction to EYES

(1957)

 

            The political system of Germany called2

 

ChancellorGermany

 

Chancellor

Years  tenure

Headed  party coalition

K. Adenauer

1949-1963

CDU / CSU - FDP 

L. Erhard

1963-1966

CDU / CSU - FDP

K. Kizinher

1966-1969

CDU / CSU - SPD

W. Brandt

1969-1974

SPD - FDP

G. Schmidt

1974-1982

SPD - FDP

H. Kohl

1982-1990

CDU / CSU - FDP

 

            In 1952, in Germany was canceledoccupation regime. 1955 Germany became a NATO member that has completed the splitEurope into two hostile camps. In 1957 Germany joined the EEC, and thishealed her from France. In 50 years of Germany, becoming the economic powerhouse,questioned its eastern borders and demanded restoration of the GermanFrontier 1937 Ignoring the new realities in Europe threatened to Germanydrop in prestige in the international arena.

            SPD has initiated discussions aboutchanges in foreign policy of Germany. The discussion ended with the political realignmentforces in the country. In 1969 created a new government headed by the leaderSocial Democrat Willy Brandt. As a result of a "new easternpolicy "(recognition of existing borders, establishing diplomatic andtrade relations with the socialist camp) Germany raised itsinternational prestige and has become a major trading partner for the EastEurope and the USSR.

CD_11_II_9

Willy Brandt

 

            70 years werebreakthrough in terms of internal development of Germany. Like other Western countriesGermany swept crisis. Reduced dynamics of the industry. Dangerous problemwas political terrorism. He grew up with the youth movement 60 years,most of them perceived ultrarevolyutsiyni slogans. But these slogans are notreceived support in the society and some young people tried to eliminatecapitalism by terror. Leading role among the terrorist organizationsplayed the "Red Army Faction. The victims of terror in 70 yearsa 41 person. In the early 80's police arrested the majority of Germanyterrorists.

            A notable phenomenon of political life70-80's are new mass movements. The biggest was the movement for environmental protectionenvironment - the movement of "green." Late 70's camemass pacifist movement in the deployment of nuclear in Germanymissiles.

            Such phenomena in the life of Germany wereindicator of the crisis state of prosperity and the traditional political parties. Itresulted in the early 80's to the next realignment of political forces incountry. Free Democratic Party once again supported the bloc CDU / CSU, which allowedopportunity in 1982 become Chancellor of Germany Helmut Christian DemocratsKohl. Kohl's government undertook similar measures, and that Thatcher in Britain and Reagan inUSA. Since 1983 in Germany began economic growth.

 

2. German DevelopmentDemocratic Republic (GDR)

            Otherwise, the usual fate of the eastern landsGermany. Caught in the Soviet zone of occupation, they began to be seen asintegral part of the Soviet zone of influence. Leading role in political lifethese lands were to play the Communists, who in 1946 together withSocial Democrats in Germany's Socialist Unity Party (SED). AroundCommunists combined several parties. During the 1945-1949 biennium Sovietmilitary administration (dud), acting in accordance with the principles of demilitarizationdenazification, demilitarization of a series of events:

- Eliminationfascist state apparatus, parties and organizations;

- Punishmentwar criminals;

- Agriculturalreform - likvidovuvalos landlordism, land handedmalozemelnym peasants, agricultural workers and immigrants;

- Likvidovuvalysmonopoly;

-natsionalizovuvalas property and Nazi war criminals;

- Local authoritieswas assigned to structures formed by the SED;

- Carriededucational reform.

            October 7, 1949 in Sovietzone of occupation was proclaimed German Democratic Republic (GDR). OnUnlike Germany, the GDR became a unitary state. Former federal state authoritiesgovernments were eliminated. SED was the ruling party, which immediatelybegan to build socialism. Decision was taken at a partySED Conference in July 1952

            GDR, as industrializedState not required industrialization. Efforts were directed at creatingown research in metallurgy and fuel and energy base. Sourceinvestment was saving wage workers and emergencytaxes on farmers and entrepreneurs. This has led to falling living standardspopulation compared with the pre-war time.

            Stalin's death became a seriousblow to his followers in Eastern Europe. The first is feltR & D managers, faced with a national uprising against the existing regime 15-18June 1953

 

I wonder

       May 281953 GDR government took a very unpopular decision to raise standardsCharging by 10%.

       June 21953 GDR leaders Walter and Otto Ulbriht Hrotevol were caused inMoscow, where they pointed to errors in the construction of socialism (Beria, Molotov,Malenkov sought some liberalization).

These two events have encouraged people to talk. The firstBerlin rose builders who worked for Stalin alley. Theyarrayed in columns and headed to the city center, requiring, first, newtariffs, and subsequently chanted "Down with the bearded (Ulbrihta)freedom to strike, the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Germany, recoveryGerman unity. Demonstrators storm the captured City Hall. Werereleased political prisoners. Speeches spread across the country. It began destroyingborder fortifications on the border with Germany. June 17 participated in demonstrationsOver 300 thousand people. Speech seized, according to German historians, 700settlements. In all the events attended by more than 1 million people. LeadershipEast Germany was in despair. It appealed to the High Commissioner of the USSR in the GDRV. Semenov. He calmed the GDR leadership and said that "Moscow gave ordersenter a state of emergency. "

       June 17 at13.00 East Berlin military commandant, Major-General announced the Dubravastate of emergency. "To establish good public order inSoviet sector of Berlin command:

1.    With 13 hours of June 171953 in the Soviet sector of Berlin declared state of emergency.

2.    Barreddemonstrations, meetings, rallies and other gatherings of more than three persons oncheeks and squares, as well as in public buildings.

3.    Do not fullymovement of pedestrians and vehicles from 21 hours to 5 hours.

4.    Violation of this orderpunishable under the laws of war. "

On the streets of Berlin, Magdeburg, where performances were the moststrong and organized, there were Soviet tanks. The workers weresuppressed. According to figures released in the events of June 1953 died125 people., At the lowest estimate was 25 thousand people arrested. Theredocumented unconfirmed information that a part of Soviet soldiers (more than40), who refused to fire on the unarmed workers were convicted andexecuted. GDR intellectuals remained loyal to the existing regime.

 

            After the suppression of the workerswas some liberalization of the regime:

- Was approvedprivate law;

- Given the freedomchurch, youth organizations were created new parties;

- In agriculturesector conducted cautious policy;

- Skasovuvalascensorship;

- Increasedpayroll taxes and eliminated emergency;

- Soviet Union announcedcease extracting reparations.

            Through these activities wereachieve relative stabilization of the regime. But living in the GDR was muchlower than in Germany. Card system was eliminated in 1958 (In Germany in1949).

            The big problem for the GDR wasproblem of West Berlin. West Berlin was an enclave open marketEconomy in the center of this plan and used residents of West Berlin (2million), acquiring cheap food and other commodities. Loss of research for twentyyears of open borders were 120 billion marks. West Berlin becamewindow through which residents departed in Germany GDR. From 1949 to 1961has left almost 2.7 million people.

            In terms of military commandATS NATO and West Berlin was regarded as a base for the future, "Armyinvasion "as the most likely place for the new World War II. Berlinwas the site of some 60 intelligence agencies around the world.

            Under these circumstances, the Soviet leadership and researchsought to neutralize the negative impact. Question of the solution Berlinproblems of the Soviet leadership began to actively raise from1958 Not having achieved their negotiations, the Soviet leadershipfailed to act decisively. On the night of 12 on August 13, 1961 around WestBerlin wall was erected that completely cut any connection betweenEast and West Berlin. Since the Soviet Union established a blockade is not unlikefrom the 1948-1949 biennium, the crisis that arose were quickly overcome.American and Soviet troops withdrew on the streets of Berlin, two daysreturned to their barracks. It is a symbol of the Cold War,division of Germany and Europe.

 

I wonder

            As a result of construction of the wall wascut 97 streets and 96 highways, which `yednuvaly West Berlin fromEast and other areas of research. Four branches were cut subway and 8electric trains, stopped the movement of river boats, which floated on the river Spree. Firstwall was a fence of barbed wire that ohoronyalas. Subsequently"Berlin wall" consisted of two 4 m high walls, between whichfrontier ran from 150 to 8 m wide. The total length of 155 km. It wasbuilt 25 patrol points and has a 245 firing positions. Inearly days were able to overcome a wall about 5 thousand Germans, who did not want to live incommunist paradise. Since August against fugitives were to use weapons. In generalfor the life of the wall near him were killed over a hundred people were injured200. The latest victim, Chris Heffroy, who was shot to death February 51989

 

            In the 60's economic developmentResearch accelerated. This is largely due to economic reforms1963 In the early 60's was completed and a metallurgicalfuel and energy base, chemical and electrical industry. ButEast Germany's economy continued to remain multistructural. 17% of industrial productsproduced in the private sector. Increased living standards. East Germany has become the leadingcountry on this indicator among socialist countries.

            On the international scene there was researchin relative isolation: it has diplomatic relations only with socialistcountries.

            "New Eastern Policy,launched by Chancellor of Germany W. Brandt, raised serious differences inmanagement research. Some believed that the normalization of relations with Germany will allowsecure the existence of research and help get out of international isolation. AssociationGermany believed they cause the far future and relations with Germany shouldbuild as with any other state. Others suggested that Germany can recognizeonly if its withdrawal from NATO.

            Under pressure from Moscow was takenfirst point of view, and its active supporter Erich Honekker became the new leaderSED and the GDR. In 1972, signed an agreement on the basics of relations betweentwo Germanies.

            In domestic policy Honekker E.went to copy the Soviet model. In the early 70's waseliminated all private companies through the purchase. Workshops, smalltraders were integrated plants in the rights of cooperatives. Key elementseconomic reform 60 years was eliminated.

            Held a strengthening of politicalcontrol over society, which carried out the ministry of state security(MDB, "Stasi"). At 16.6 mln.osib population in the ministry was85 thousand permanent employees and 109 thousand freelancers. Almost allDomestic research was commonly dossier. MDB made great progress in fightingdissent in the GDR.

            Activity and exploration of research showing:its agents was the personal secretary to Mr. Brandt and some other officials inGermany. Exploration also had extensive links with various international terroristorganizations.

            Neostalinizm in East Germany, as in otherEastern European countries rapidly led to economic stagnation, foreigndebt, social problems and, consequently, to increase dissatisfaction.Tightening of controls led to a massive flight of people in Germany. In response, governmentgave the order to shoot anyone who wants to cross. It made for some timepossibility to stop the flight of citizens.

            Changes in Eastern Europe80 years have given new impetus to escape to Germany. Citizens of the GDR used toThis open border between Hungary and Austria. Perestroika in the Soviet Union causedleadership in East Germany almost open discontent: it sought to do all thatreduce its impact. But among the general public it caused a populationsupport. The arrival of Gorbachev in October 1989 to celebrate 40 years of researchhas become a mass movement for renewal. Subdue the power of these performances have beenimpossible.

            October 11, 1989 leadershipSED appealed to the public with a proposal to hold a referendum on the futuresocialism on German soil.

            October 18 Honekker filed inresignation. This was the signal for the deployment of mass demonstrations, the formationnew political parties. All citizens were entitled to free travel oncountry. Further events unfolded with unprecedented speed. November 4, 1989held in Berlin 500,000th demonstration. Nov. 7 in resigngovernment, and November 8, the party leadership, headed by E. Krenz. November 9demolished Berlin Wall. November 13 was set up a new government headed byH. Modrovym.

            December 2 was removed from the constitutionarticle about the role of the working class and its party in society. Allcomposition of the SED Central Committee resigned, and Honekker and other former leaders are excludedwith SED, which was renamed the Party of Democratic Socialism.

In March1990 in the country held its first free elections. Research got a chanceevolve on a democratic path.

 

3. At call Germany. The country at the present stage

In December1989 raised the issue of merging the two Germanies. Begun lookingformula association.

            First, the GDR leadership believed thatThis process will be long. But elections in 1990 victory gave the CDU, whichadvocated the immediate reunification of Germany on the basis of the constitutionally enshrinedGermany joining the scheme on land east of the federation. The government formed by the CDU leaderLothar de Mez'yerom, started implementing this process.

            June 1, 1990 in the GDR wasentered West German money (doychmarky). August 31 elections andrestored lands six in the GDR. September 12 USSR, USA, England, Francesigned a final settlement of the German question.

            October 3, 1990 heldunification of Germany, whose capital was Berlin. In early elections immediatelyunited Germany winning coalition CDU / CSU with the FDP.

 

AssociationGermany has generated a number of problems:

- Integrationlands in eastern Germany;

- Structuraleconomic restructuring of research;

- Socialtension;

- Hostility toforeign workers (5 million);

- DevelopmentGermany's new foreign policy.

            After the unification of Germany wasfull member of the international community. Asked to provideGermany places in the Security Council. In Europe, Germany has become the most populated (80million) with a powerful economic potential.

            Chancellor of a united Germanyremained H. Kohl. In his domestic policy, he continued his previous course"Conservative Revolution. The main problem for the united Germanywas the Integration of East German lands: restructuring and modernizationeconomic recovery of the land system, forming the new government and partystructures and especially change of thinking, habits and attitude towards work and others.In 1990-1993 he in East Germany and the observed decline in productionfalling living standards, but in 1994 due to significantinvestment of this negative trend could reverse.

            After unification, Germany has conductedactive foreign policy. Yes, she, along with France was one of the maindrivers of integration processes in Europe, the main commercial and politicalpartner for most countries of Eastern Europe. Actively maintained relations withRussia, Ukraine and the Baltic states.

            The course, held G. Kohl, wassupported by voters during the next parliamentary elections in 1994

            Modernization of the eastern lands, activeforeign policy needed substantial expenses in 1996 werefelt such a strong economy as a German. Increased public deficits,spread unemployment. Trying to fix the situation by increasingtaxes caused social conflict. With the current situation, the Government of H. Kohlsuggested that the traditional way in the spirit of policy conservativeRevolution: reducing social spending, strictgovernment spending, stimulate investment by reducing taxesfrom wealthy citizens. These measures, according to economists and oppositionshould help revive economic growth and reduce unemployment. Butmajority refused to support the policy of "tighteningbelts. "This, as well as general polivinnya governments of Western countries, becameH. Kohl chancellorship disastrous. In the elections in September 1998 woncoalition led by Social Democrats. New German Chancellor Gerhard becameSchroeder.

For Schroederthe main issue remained the integration of the eastern lands and providingsteady growth of German economy. Significant results new chancellorreached in the process of European integration. Germany is one of the mainpeople like the idea of EU enlargement to the East. After accession May 1, 2004EU to 10 new members of Germany became the center of the united Europe.

 

Results

            Completion of the Second World Warwas the completion of the tragedy of the German people. He waited for new trial.Beginning of the Cold War between the USSR and the USA led to the division of Germany into twoStates of Germany and East Germany, which tried to implement diametrically opposite modelsdevelopment. Trying to build a communist society full of research endscollapse. Democratic changes in the USSR and Eastern Europe created the conditions forunite the two German states. The overthrow of the Berlin Wall (November 91989), which was a symbol of the division of Germany and Europe was the firstimportant step towards unification. October 3, 1990 association heldGermany, whose capital was Berlin. New Germany has become a powerful stateEurope and the world, a significant factor in international relations.

 

Questions and tasks:

1.    When was the GDR?

2.    What speeches were caused by population in 1953r.7

3.    What caused the building of the Berlinwall?

4.    What reforms were made in 60 years? Whattheir consequences?

5.    What was the impetus for democratic change inResearch?

6.    Explain the phrase: "Voting feet.

 

1.    When heldunification of Germany?

2.    Who was the Chancellorof the united Germany?

3.    Which policies carriesmodern government Nimechchyny7

 

Fill in the table:The consequences of German unification

Positive impact

Adverse effects