§ 15. France (textbook)

§15. France

 

1.

            World War II and the occupationcountry inflicted great damage the French economy. While the human loss andextent of damage were smaller than during World War II, mostenterprises did not work (60%), there was a card system, lackedraw, food resources. Was massive unemployment. Flourishing "blackmarket and speculation, high prices (prices increased 6 times). Industrial productionin the country dropped three times, and agricultural - twice.There were about 600 thousand unemployed. In the colonies openedpowerful national liberation struggle: independence was declaredDemocratic Republic of Vietnam, in Laos, Cambodia broke out guerrillastruggle, Syria, Lebanon, local people clashed with Frenchtroops.

 

The consequences of WorldWar for France

Human loss

Died: 200 thousand military and 173 thousands  civilians

Losses

Currency Frank lost

Territorial changes

Restoration of pre-war borders. Getting collapse  French colonial empire.

Socioeconomic Impact

The fall in GDP to the level in 1891 Industrial  decreased production in the country three times, and farm - more  than doubled.

About 600 thousand unemployed. 2 million  immigrants.

Prices compared with pre-war times increased 6 times.  There was the card system. They also lack basic necessities.  Foreign trade ceased.

Political changes

End of the Third Republic. Installation  Interim regime. Pre-war political parties descended from the political arena. Leading  started to play the role of the Communist (PCF) and Socialist (SFIO) party  People's Republican Movement (MRP).

International situation

Participation de Gaulle and "Free France" in the fight against fascism  and the role played in this fight resistance movement, allowed France  Despite the heavy defeat of 1940 war in a state of complete winners.  France retained its status of great power. Got a seat in the UN and UN Security Council  separate zone of occupation in Germany and Austria, as the other states  signed agreements with the Allies and Germany took part in the work  International Military Tribunal.

 

            Political environmentcharacterized by enormous impact forces of the Resistance movement, rapid growthdemocratic and anti-fascist forces. Pre-war political parties descended frompolitical arena. Started to play the leading role the Communist (PCF) andSocialist (SFIO) party, the People's Republican Movement (MRP). In the firstpost-war elections in October 1945 Constituent Assembly in PCF hashighest number of votes and five of its members entered the government, whichheaded by Charles de Gaulle. All three political parties supported the creation ofFrench parliamentary republic. De Gaulle, not being a fan of eitherparties called for a presidential republic. These and other contradictionsDe Gaulle was forced to retire (the next 12 years he participated inpolitical life, however, closely followed by him). Under pressure from Communists andSocialists in the country to restore social labor legislation duringPopular Front (40-hour work week, two-week vacation thatpayable, etc.). There were partial nationalization of industry (factoriesReno, five banks, power, etc.) and created the public sectoreconomy, which produced 15-20% of industrial production and controlled 35-40%investment. The owners of nationalized enterprises cooperated withHitler did not receive compensation. Installed to control the workingenterprises with the number of employees over 50 .. The increased salaries by 80%pensions and assistance to 80-130%. A unified state system of insurance, etc..

 

Scheme:Development of French in the postwar period

Timed Mode(1944-1946 biennium)

 


FourthRepublic (1946-1958 biennium)

 

Fifth Republic(1958 - present day)

 

2. Fourth Republic

            In 1946 adoptedconstitution of the Fourth Republic. France proclaimed "indivisible,secular, democratic and social republic. " There vvodylos generalsuffrage and equal rights of men and women. By ordinary political rightswere added to the right to work, recreation, social welfare, education. Alsodeclared the right of workers to participate in the management of the enterprise, the righton trade union and political activities, the right to strike.

The Constitutionfor the possibility of nationalization, socialization of property if itgained "national public service features or the actual monopoly.

Urivnyuvalys inrights of citizens of France and the colonies. "French Empire" zaminyalas term"French Union". France yazuvalas obligation to avoid "all kinds ofcolonization, "promised" not to wage war to win and neveruse its forces against settlement of any nation. "

            Country proclaimedparliamentary republic. The main role in the life of the country had to playbicameral parliament, which elected the president with limited powers.

            Election 1946 in newParliament strengthened the leading role in politics PCF, SFIO, MRP.

            Mode Fourth Republic was notstable. Significant impact on internal political processes had"Cold War". PCF supported the USSR and it certainly influencedwork of parliament and government. (From 1946 to 1958 the government changed in 1924(Average of every government in power was less than half a year, and some -two to three days). Growing tensions between communists and socialists, whosubsequently led to the rupture of their relationship. Falling living standards.Industrialists were dissatisfied with the conduct policy of nationalization.

            This situation in the country worriedU.S. dissatisfied polivinnyam France. They bet on the anti-forces within the country. In exchange for financial assistance under the Marshall Plan USACommunists demanded the withdrawal of the French government, which was done in May1947 In 1951 adopted by the majority system of elections toweaken the position of leftists.

EliminationCommunists in the government led to the collapse of the bloc of political parties, in cooperationFourth Republic which was based, caused to increase tension insociety. In November 1947 PCF has demonstrated its strength,organizing a nationwide strike, which put in danger the existenceRepublic.

            On the other hand, there was movement supportersDe Gaulle (Union of French people), which called for constitutionalreform and against the regime of the Fourth Republic. The main ideas were hollizmu:idea of nation, strong leadership and social reforms, creation of a managed economythrough cooperation of various sectors of society (see. scheme for art.   ).

            Tension in the society addedfailed colonial war in Indochina (1946-1954 biennium), Algeria(1954-1962 biennium), in other parts of France's colonial empire. Francefound itself in the face of national crisis. Farewell to the colonialFrance was the last for a long and painful. France was forced to leaveIndochina to the independence of Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria but it is partnot wanted. This caused a deep crisis.

            Algerian French (about1 million people) were strongly against Algerian independence and became the basisto consolidate supporters maintain colonial empire -ultrakolonialistiv, or just super. The liberation war of Algerian peopleforced France pulled in a long conflict, which destroyed the French2 million Algerians.

            The war has made the split in Frenchsociety: one part of the population was in favor of ending the war, the other (ultraand top military) - for its continuation. Taking advantage of this situation,country in the political arena went extreme force. In 1956, Communistsgained a majority in elections to the parliament. After criticism of the personality cult of Stalin andchanges in the USSR they trimmed authority undermined foreign sharesStalin. Meanwhile, in Algeria and ultra elite army openly carriedpreparations for a coup.

            In such difficult conditions the head of governmentKochi appealed to the national hero of France's General de Gaulle with a requestlead the government.

            Against the backdrop of political warfare, due toAmerican assistance, the economic situation in the country to 1949normalizuvalos. In the same year was canceled card system. In 1948reached the prewar level of production in industry and in 1950 -in agriculture. In 50 years in France, as in other Western countries,economic recovery began, but its growth rate was lower than in Germanyand Italy. Growth proceeded mainly by industry, which activelymodernized with state support. The important role played in this processnationalized sector, which proceeded according to plans(Programming). New branches of production: oil-refining,atomic, electronic. Introduced new technologies, the acquisition of which wasspent much of assistance under the Marshall Plan.

            French foreign policy sinceFourth Republic was fully subject to U.S. and logic of the ColdWar. France is a NATO member and was active colonial wars (Indochina,North Africa, Madagascar), trying to hold the remains of its colonialEmpire.

 

3. Formation of the fifth republic. Charles de Gaulle

            1958 was a turning point inhistory of France. June 1, 1958 De Gaulle received emergencypowers and dissolved Parliament once. In September a referendum approved the Frenchconstitution prepared by de Gaulle. Under the new constitution were expanded rightspresident who was elected for 7 years. The President received the right to issue ordonnanceWith the force of law,appoint the prime minister and other officials, dissolve the nationalmeeting. The president is the commander of the armed forces. There wasA new electoral system. Has changed the administrative-territorialdivision of the country. Colonies grew in overseas departments.

Hollizm

Hollizm

Political philosophy, a combination of French  traditions with the realities of 40-60-years of the twentieth century.

Public legal doctrine, which was introduced  Constitution in 1958

Political Programme S. De Gaulle.

Political movements that evolved from personal  Gaullist party to the modern French version neokonservatyzmu.

French model of state prosperity.

The exact footprint of modern French  society. ("Metro of Paris at 18 o'clock, that is an accurate reflection of French  society "(A. Malraux))

Ideology  "National greatness" of France

 

 

Public law  doctrine

Registration of a presidential republic:

-          Strengthening the executive in a large  presidential preference, which is an expression of national interests;

-          Personification of political power;

-          Dual responsibility of the government  the president and parliament;

-          Direct general presidential elections;

-          Expansion of direct democracy  (Referendums);

-          Limitations of a multiparty system  (Majority electoral system);

-          Limitation of powers of parliament.

 

Economic doctrine

Search for optimal economic model that  takes into account the national specifics of development:

-          Hard strategic planning;

-          Tight fiscal policy;

-          Expanding the public sector in basic perspective  industries;

-          Increase the share of public sector  economy;

-          Enhancing the investment budget  policy;

-          Inclusion in all economic processes  segments of the population;

-          Monetary policy.

 

Social Doctrine

Idea  "Association of labor, capital and personnel" as the basis of "third way" of development,  based on social partnership.

 

Employees                                                                                          Capital

Entrepreneurs                                  Sharing scheme                               in management

Managers                                                                                           for information

 

 

Foreign policy doctrine

Transformation of the bipolar model of world order,  creating a "third pole" of influence in international relations.

-          National military doctrine "defense to  all azimuths;

-          Formation axis Paris - Bonn;

-          The concept of Western European integration  "Europe homeland";

-          "The doctrine of cooperation" with the former  colonies;

-          Peaceful coexistence and dialogue with  super.

 

            The largest party wasdehollivskyy Union for a new republic. The second place took fans de Gaullewhich is not included in the Union - are independent. These two games have occupied a dominantthe situation in parliament. In December 1958 De Gaulle was elected president.

            The main problem of the Fifth Republicimmediately, of course, was Algeria. The main task for de Gaulle believedrestoring greatness of France. It vbachalas him as a powerful country withstrong government that conducts independent policy. Colonialism, he believedobstacle to resolving this issue. In 1960 was granted independence14 African colonies of France. Thus de Gaulle openly stated that heagainst the colonial empire. But Algeria was more difficult: it was necessaryreckon with ultra (supporters of preserving the colonial empire). Heventured into conflict with them. September 16, 1959 de Gaulle for the first time in itsspeech solemnly recognized by the Algerian people the right to self-determination. It wascourageous step. In response to Algiers January 24, 1960 French officersraised a revolt. With decisive action ultra mutiny was suppressed. April 221961 ibid exploded even more dangerous insurrection, headed by GeneralShawl. The insurgents took control a substantial part of the Algerian territory andgovernment representatives were arrested. In most French supporters were found Shalya.President de Gaulle acted firmly and decisively. Mutiny was suppressed, and leadersarrested. However, after this ultra vhamuvalysya not. At the president waswere several assassination attempts. Yet the Algerian problem was solved. InMarch 1962 Evian was reached agreement on a ceasefire. InThat same year, Algeria became independent. Imposition de Gaulle and supportmajority of the population made it possible to get rid of the colonial past of France. Onthe ruins of the French colonial empire for positions in the formerestates give the so-called French community (FrenchCommunity).

            These measures contributed to the socialand political stability of France. The country was established personal profileof the de Gaulle.

            Stabilization of the country and contributedcompletion in 60 years the French economy modernization. Significant role in thisprocess played a state which has assumed all the costs of forming newindustries and strategic directions of development. Public Sectorproduced 10% of industrial products. Top 10 (of 25) industrial and financialgroups received significant state subsidies. Laid the foundation for energyFrance's independence by building nuclear power plants (give 25%country's electricity). The pace of growth only inferior to the Japanese. Francebecome a modern industrial state with advanced multiindustry. Having achieved a significant increase in exports to France mid-60'syears paid off with all of its debts and was again creditor state.It completed the modernization of agricultural production: Frenchpeasant became a farmer, and France became the largest exporteragricultural products in Europe.

            Meanwhile in a number of accumulatedproblems. The rapid economic development under the influence of significant NTR needednumber of educated engineers, administrators, etc. Development and productionmodernization of agriculture caused urbanization. Ruralyouth, having come off from the traditional philosophy and finding themselves in marginalcondition was favorable environment for the spread ultrarevolyutsiynyh views.French entrepreneurs, strengthening the support of their positions by the state, beganhnitytys tight regulation (deryzhyzmom).

            Trade unions, workers were alsodissatisfied with excessive control of labor relations by statestructures. Traditional values, social structure, political power -all required changes.

            These factors caused the crisis andFifth Republic in the late 60's.

            In March 1968 startedstudent unrest. Students supported the democratization of education andassure human rights. The government decided to suppress the power of studentmovement, which was the detonator of mass unrest. In the Sorbonne was put police.In response, the students declared war on police. On the night of 10 students on May 11captured the Latin Quarter of Paris and built barricades. In Paris was charged2 / 3 gendarmerie forces and the security personnel stormed the barricades of students. Underwhile pushing the injury to thousands of people. Then studentsunrest spread across the country. At this point the students supported the unionand communists, began a general strike. Authority for some time been paralyzed.Gradually the steps of students recruited by extremist nature in connection withspread anarchist, Trotskyite and Maoist ideas and ideas for newleft ". wave of pogroms, burning cars and more. Extremismoccasioned the gap between the student and labor movement (at this timestriking about 10 million people). Then de Gaulle failed to act decisively:Reform - as disorder - no! ".

            May 25, 1968 government went toconcessions to workers. With trade unions was signed General protocol: inindustry wage was increased by 35% and in agricultureeconomy - by 56%, shortened work week, expanded rightsunions. However, the strikes continued.

            May 29, 1968 de Gaulleenlisted the support of the military and 31 May under the pretext of the threat of communistcoup dissolved parliament. In the capital, levied troops. In support of actiongovernment demonstration in Paris was 500 thousand persons. June 12 wasprohibited conduct demonstrations and announced the dissolution of the studentorganizations. June 16 Army units entered the Sorbonne. EndJune strikes stopped. Opting for concessions to trade unions and prydushyvshyextremist movements, de Gaulle achieved stabilization, but at the cost of trustMost French.

            Causes of student movements were:conflict of generations, painful process of restructuring the economy, whichaccompanied by the failure of traditional life, urbanization, the inadequacy of existingeducation realities of life and spread livoekstremistskyh ideas.

            The consequences of "studentRevolution became the democratization of education ("Law on HigherEducation "), fracture in the political views of French involvement in politicalSuppression of new social strata (women and immigrants).livoekstremistskyh spread ideas, and organizations around the world:Italy - "Red Brigades" in Germany "Red Army Faction," etc.

            In April 1969 De Gaulle wentresign. A referendum on local government opposed the Frenchposition of the president.

De Gaullecame to power, headed for developing independent foreign policy,creation of a strong France and Europe as a counterweight to the United States. According to de GaulleCommunists are less dangerous than the U.S.. To play a more independent role inNATO and in protest against the war in Vietnam, France withdrew from militarystructure of the organization. Independence was granted to all French colonies.In 1966, de Gaulle visited the Soviet Union, established normal relations between the twocountries. To put France flush with the Great Powers beganits own nuclear weapons. In February, 1960 France madetesting of nuclear weapons by joining the "nuclear club" U.S.USSR, Britain, created the nation's nuclear forces, includingstrategic missiles, bombers, submarines. However, de Gaulle becameone of the initiators of the easing of international tension.

 

4. France after de Gaulle

            In 1969 earlyelection of French President Georges Pompidou was elected. It, given the moodin a country weakened state regulation of social and economic lifeexpanded social legislation. Were improved relations with the U.S.. In1973 France lifted the veto on the adoption of the UK in the EEC.

 

PresidentsThe fifth republic

 

President

Years  presidency

Charles de Gaulle

1958-1969

Georges Pompidou

1969-1974

Val

1974-1981

Fran

1981-1995

Jacques Chirac

1995-…

 

            In 1974 after suddenPompidou's death, was elected president Valery Giscard d'Estaing. During hisBoard was completed rearrangement of political forces. Hollisty createdAssociation in support of the Republic (LPR), independent - the Union for FrenchDemocracy (SWFs), various socialist groups joined in the ranksFrench Socialist Party (FAT), which together with the PCF was the left opposition.

            Late 70's in Francedramatically changed economic environment that caused an exacerbationsocial problems. However, the crisis 70 years of leading countries leastFrance struck: the structure of its economy and energy independence have made itresilient to rising oil prices 70 years. This enabled the forces leftget a victory in the presidential and then parliamentary elections in 1981French President Francois Mitterrand was a socialist. The government, formed by leftforces tried to solve the crisis by expanding government intervention. InFrance held third wave of nationalization: natsionalizuvavsya numberfinancial-industrial groups. Expanded social programs and was introduced5-week vacation. These measures have increased even more inflation. Then the government introducedstate control of prices and wages, which immediately causeddiscontent of the population.

            In 1984, was sharpMitterrand's turn in policy. He appointed Prime Minister Jacques LPR leaderChirac, who made a transformation in the spirit of the conservative revolution. It wasannounced the privatization of public sector, which amounted to 30%, weakenedgovernment regulation of business, began fighting inflation. Last meanintroduction of strict cost regime that immediately led to the reduction of socialprograms. Against the backdrop of rising unemployment it caused discontent of the population. ThisMitterrand and skillfully used in elections in 1988 he again receivedvictory. Then left and won the parliamentary elections. Left extendedpolicy initiated by Jacques Chirac, which ensured a stable development. Butthrough the policy right, the left has clearly proven that their ideology is experiencingcrisis. This enabled the right step by step and occupy positionsParliamentary elections 1993 get the win. Mitterrand appointedPrime Minister representative of LPR. This time it was Eduar Baladyur.

            Leftist forces - FAT and PCF coveredcrisis. On the presidential elections in 1995 Jacques Chirac got the victory.The victory was not easy - left find the strength and even tookmajority in the first round. Jacques Chirac became president immediately announcedresumption of French nuclear testing, what provoked a wave of protests over aitself in France and abroad.

            Socio-Economic PolicyJacques Chirac in 1996-1998, was not unique. Unemployment reached the highestfigures after World War II, economic growth amounted to almostzero, the public sector worked less and less effective, government deficit grew.State barely holden with their social obligations (one of the reasonsfalling birthrate and aging population). Attempts to limit government spendingat the expense of social programs invariably triggered a wave of rallies and protests

            Jacques Chirac has dared to dissolveparliament and called fresh elections in order to secure the supportcarrying out unpopular reforms. But expectations were not met. In the elections1997 won the Socialists and Chirac had to bePrime Minister L. Jospin socialist. Nevertheless, the new government failed to immediatelycope with problems that have accumulated for a long time. In January 1998was a new social explosion, which with great difficulty managed to extinguish.Great expectations the government holds the continuation of the integration processesprivatization of public sector, reduction of military expenditures byradical reform of the army. Reduced strength of the army of 500 to 350thousand, changing structure, military doctrine, going back to warNATO structures. An important element of military reform is to reduce the carriernuclear weapons by 28% (withdrawn from combat duty surface ballisticmissiles). Jospin Reforms (1997-1999) gave a positive result: after a modesteconomic growth of 1990-1997 was an average of 1,3% per year1997-2000, the - 4% in 2001-2003 - 2%. Achieved success incombat unemployment through a broad program for youth employment,reducing the workweek from 39 hours to 35. So unemployment decreased from 12,6%in 1997 to 8,5% in 2001 In 2000-2001 - Were cut taxes.The main hope of further development of the French rely on deepeningIntegration into the EU.

            Presidential Election 2002were important milestones in the development of France. France faces a choice:continue its "special path" (extensive social programs, "hard"state control over business, etc.) or follow the Anglo-Saxon (USA,England et al.) Model (liberalization of social and economic processes), whichmore consistent with the recommendations of the EU institutions.

            The first roundPresidential elections were a shock to the French and world public. Insecond round of presidential elections came Jacques Chirac and French nationalist leaderLe Pen, who voted for a third of voters. Although Chirac won the second round(Voted by 82% of voters), the mere popularity of far-right ideasovertly racist, chauvinistic in a country with stable democratictradition indicates serious problems in the development of France. The mainproblems of modern France are the following: unemployment, providingsustainable development, crime, illegal immigration and more.

            A serious problem was the agingFrench population and therefore reduction of the working population,which has been incapable of providing the budget for the growing socialpayments. Trying to change the retirement age has caused a storm of socialprotests.

            In foreign policy, Jacques Chiraccontinues the traditional course, de Gaulle launched. France is one ofmain engines of European integration. Strives to limit U.S. influence in the region.Serious disagreements between the U.S. and France erupted on the war with Iraq. Franceadvocates of EU enlargement and NATO to Eastern European countries andcontinues to play a crucial role in the traditional regions of influence (especiallyin Africa). French armed forces play a significant role in peacekeepingUN operations. Chirac's government and prospects interested in developing relations withUkraine. Although the main partner in the former USSR, France considersRussia, which sometimes acts together on foreign policy.

 

Results

            Since the Second World War, France wascomplicated path. Fourth Republic appeared to be the wrong modelFrench state, which would assist in overcoming problems and ensure progresscountry. The collapse of French colonial empire and pulled by a crisisFourth Republic. Prominent role in the formation of a new model of FrenchState owned C. de Gaulle. Mortgaged its foundation the fifth republicstood the test of time. At present, France is one of the leading countriesworld, one of the main drivers of European integration.

 

Questions and tasks:

1.    What are the consequences of World War II to France?

2.    What political forces have become dominant in the early postwar years, and why?

3.    Describe the reform period of temporary regime.

4.    Identify key defining features of the Fourth Republic.

5.    Explain the expression: "Algeria killed the Fourth Republic.

6.    Fill tablytsyu6 "France for the Fourth Republic"

 

Economic Development

Political development

Foreign Policy

 

 

 

 

7.    List the achievements of France during the presidency of Charles de Gaulle.

8.    Describe Gaulle's foreign policy.

9.    Regarding the events in May 1968 Ф. Mitterrand(Then an MP, later, French President) said: "Young people do not alwayslaw, but the society that punishes its not always right. " Comment on thisexpression.

10. Make a comprehensive plan on the theme: "France after de Gaulle.

11. Complete the comparison chart.

 

 

Fourth Republic in France

Fifth Republic in France

Features  Economic Development

 

 

 

 

Features  political development

 

 

 

 

Foreign policy  rate

 

 

 

12. Describedevelopment of France today.

13. Whichforeign policy implementation in France now?

09

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