§ 14. United Kingdom (textbook)

§14. United Kingdom

 

1.

            After World War II Englandfinally lost its "palm" in international relations.It starts with the collapse of the largest British colonial empire. AfterEngland remained a debilitating war among great powers, but could not hang aboutStand by with the U.S. and the USSR.

 

ImplicationsSecond World War for England

Human loss

265 thousand troops (without loss of 100 thousand people.  Commonwealth and Empire) and 70 thousand civilians.

Losses

A quarter of national wealth ($ 30 billion.) Internal  debt has increased 3 times, external -

Territorial changes

The beginning of the collapse of the British colonial empire.

Socioeconomic Impact

GDP 1936-1937 biennium Financial and fuel  crisis. Unemployment 2 million.

Political changes

Defeat at the first postwar elections conservatives  Labour's rise to power.

 

            After six years of war Britishleast thought about claims to global domination. It appears especially in the firstpost-election July 26, 1945 English voted forLabour are clearly formulated its main goal - to create in Englandprosperous state. Labour leader Clement Ettli formed a government whichundertook to implement a number of reforms.

            As a result of reforms undertakenLabour was nationalized coal, gas, steel industryindustry, power, communications, transport, the Bank of England.Business Owners compensation payable - 2.5 billion poundssterling. Subsequently, the nationalization of growth were reduced, Labour became clearthat the state can not take on too much. It was announced on coursemixed economy.

            The process of nationalization and the creationstate ownership was primarily due to the fact that the state assumedproblem solving national problems: the accumulation of financialresources to carry forth broad social reform and developmentreliable infrastructure, transport systems, a single power supply, maintenanceunprofitable but strategically necessary for the economy of state industries(Coal mining, shipbuilding, etc.). Compensation was to provide ex-owners  opportunity to invest yourcapital in other more profitable industries.

            Labour cabinet was more attentioneconomy given the issues of programming, regulation of employment,exports and imports, and others. For the Marshall Plan England received about 2.5 billiondollars, which contributed to the structural reorientation of the British economy, whilereinforced its dependence on the United States.

            Labour performed wellprogram of social reforms: the abolition antyprofspilkovyh laws, expansionfree health care and housing expansion.Labour have made further limiting the power of the British House of LordsParliament.

            In the field of foreign policyLabour remained in alliance with the U.S. position and fully shared the dangeragainst the Soviet threat. In 1949, England became a NATO member.Most difficult problems for post-war Britain was the colonial fateEmpire. India's independence was inevitable, and this had to resign.Independence was granted Palestine and Jordan, but it did not go overwanted. In the colonies became deploy national-liberation movement, which becamerecruit armed character (Malaya, Kenya, etc.).

            Labour's reforms have led toexorbitant increase in public spending and a sharp increase in deficitbudget, falling living standards.

 

"Prime ministersBritain in the postwar period»

Prime ministers

Years  tenure

Party  accessory

K. Etli

1945-1951

Labour

W. Churchill

1951-1955

Conservative

A. Eden

1955-1957

Conservative

G. Makmilan

1957-1961

Conservative

A. D. Hume

1961-1964

Conservative

G. Wilson

1964-1970

Labour

E. Heath

1970-1974

Conservative

G. Wilson

1974-1976

Labour

D. Callaghan

1976-1979

Labour

M. Thatcher

1979-1990

Conservative

D. Major

1990-1997

Conservative

Blair

1997-2007

Labour

G. Brown

2007-…

Labour

 

2.Rozpad British colonial empire. The Prime yerstvoW. Churchill.

Financialdifficulties contributed to the victory in 1951 Conservatives, led by W. Churchill. Maintask of his administration he formed in the phrase: "I do not want to attendfuneral of the British Empire. "

Main eventsW. Churchill government were:

 

1.    Conservation status of great power. Creationits own nuclear weapons.

2.    Save as much ofBritish Empire. Containment collapse of the empire.

3.    The close alliance with the United States. Coordinationpolicy.

4.    Strengthening the financial system returnconfidence in the pound.

5.    Make a partial re-nationalization,reduction of social programs.

            In 1952, King diedGeorge IV, came to the throne by his daughter Elizabeth II. In the same yearUK, trying to remain a superpower, the U.S. created bynuclear weapons.

            In 50 years England, like otherWestern nations, joined the band of economic growth. But the pace of developmentwere too low. This is explained by the following circumstances: in previous years itdeveloped economy in the absence of competition in the large marketEmpire colonies provided her with cheap raw materials and food, so Englanddid not have sufficient incentives.

            W. Churchill to stop decayEmpire secured England a great power status, but he failed to overcomeall negative phenomena, which accumulated in the country.

 

3. "The patient manEurope ". England in the 60's and 70's.

            Decolonization has revealed all the weakEngland side. Efforts to preserve the empire contributed to conservation retardation.After the defeat in 1956 aggression by Britain, France and Israel against Egypt (Operation"Musketeer"), Britain refused to attempt to save the empire.The last attempt to preserve influence in former colonies has been strengtheningBritish Commonwealth of Nations. In Europe, the Conservatives tried to consolidateposition of England, created the European Free Trade Association, which wasa kind of counterweight to the EEC. All the defeat, both in domestic and in foreignpolicy resulted in "the English disease":       England every year lost its position of large State.

Components"English disease":

·         post-imperial syndrome;

·         economic lagloss of the former position;

·         olsterska problem;

·         "Selfishness" of unions.

            Labour's return to power is notcured England. In 1964, Prime Minister was G. Wilson. Attemptstrengthen separatist tendencies (state intervention in economic life) is notcontributed to the economic boom of England. It continued nationalization,established control over rents, prices, increased pensions and socialbenefits created by national control on prices and profits. However, these measureshad the opposite result. The economy finds itself in deep crisis, enhancedenergy crisis of the early 70's. Country gripped by massive unemployment.Financial situation of the English deteriorated. It seemed nothing could heal"Sick" England: No discovery of rich oil deposits in the NorthSea, not winning the World Cup championship in 1966, no globalglory "Bittlz" and "Rolling Stones".

            Against the background of these circumstances occurredshifts in social consciousness and politics major parties. AmongConservative supporters of the impact of increased development of private enterprise andcollapse of state intervention in the economy, European integration.

            The first attempts to England to join the EEChave not been successful. French President Charles de Gaulle twice vetoed byUK in EU decision, arguing that too close relationsEngland USA. Only in 1973 England's humiliation was "allowed"in Europe. The economic crisis 70 years prevented manifest positive qualitiesthis step. Economic hardship deepened, increased unemployment, inflation.

            Late 60's sharpenedIrish problem. After giving Ireland its independence in stockBritain left six counties of Northern Ireland, inhabited mainlyProtestant population. Ulster Catholic minority began in 1968the struggle for civil rights. In 1969 in Ulster was introducedBritish troops to restore order. In response to NorthIreland secret organization of Irish Republican Army (IRA) has solvedterror against the British soldiers. Mutual violence victims are increasinglybecame civilians. A wave of violence and overturned on other areasUK.

 

4. Thatcherism. The Prime yerstvo M. Thatcher and J. Meydzhera.

            Wilson's Labour government andCallaghan could not effectively solve urgent problems. The situation changedAfter winning the Conservatives. June 4, 1979 formedgovernment led by Margaret Thatcher. The new government vigorously resorted to measures which, inAccording to M. Thatcher had to give health economics and Englishfinances. The government called thatcherism. Scope of this policy wasfollowing:

 

Thatcherism

Main  Events

·         Tough measures against  inflation - cut spending, staff and social programs.

·         Support for private enterprise as  economic fundamentals.

·         Retrieved from severe regulation  business.

·         Denationalization (privatization) oil industry  aircraft industry and freight transport, part community property.

·         Limitation of right to strike, limited sphere  union activities.

·         Reducing tax rates, increase  indirect taxes.

·         Viewing social programs.

·         Support for private education and health  Health.

Results

Positive

Negative

·         Overcoming the crisis, improvement  economic conditions. High rates of economic growth.

·         Attract foreign investment.

·         Structural changes in the economy based on  high technologies. Modernization of traditional British industries  industry: shipbuilding, metallurgy, mining, etc..

·         Reduction of the public sector, improving  its profitability.

·         Low inflation.

·         Deficit-free budget.

·         Most Britons have become owners  property.

·         Growth with economic activity  population. Decreased unemployment.

 

 

·         Podorohshannya utilities and  transport.

·         A wide strike movement.

·         The growth of military spending.

·         Structural unemployment (caused by  structural changes in the economy).

 

            M. Thatcher cabinet Politicsmarked by firmness and determination, it takes into account the real needs of the time.

For example,privatization took place not "landslide", and in several stages:

            In 1979-1984 he futureowners sold the assets of companies, some of them transformed into"Public" corporation.

            In 1984-1989 he shareholdersformer state companies have individual owners. Since 1989main attention focused on the economic performance of privatizedenterprises.

            Thatcher strongly opposed ascalled "selfish" unions - strike that led touncontrolled wage increases and inflation to rise.From March 1984 by March 1985 strike lasted minersended in defeat. In the 80 years the country has weakened the trade union movement,number of British trade union congress fell in half.However, the authority of the Labour Party has fallen. Positive impact on economicdevelopment had increased oil production in the North Sea (about 100 million tonsannually), which fully satisfy the needs of England. The political course of study M.Thatcher secured reducing inflation, reducing unemployment. Againincreased rates of British Industry. Increased living standards,especially middle strata.

            November 15, 1985 wassigned the Anglo-Irish agreement of Ulster, according to which Ireland receivedright to participate in the management of the North. However, the problem of terrorism persists,as proponents of continued IRA activity. In 1994, IRAannounced the truce, but in early 1996 explosions were heard again.

            In foreign policy, conservativesambivalent position occupied by Atlantic solidarity. Since sharpeninginternational tension in 1979 Britain joined the hardanti-Soviet activities. Thatcher firmly and resolutely defended the interests ofBritain in the EEC. In foreign policy, M. Thatcher gained widespreadpopularity in the country after the successful conclusion of the conflict with Argentina aroundFalkland Islands (1982). Argentine troops who occupiedIslands, British troops were forced to capitulate. Losses in Englandthe war: killed 250 people., 6 battleships, 10 aircraft. Argentinalost 500 people., several ships over 70 aircraft. This victorydemonstrated a spirit of revival and helped England to victory Thatcherearly elections.

04

Duringmilitary conflict between Britain and

 Argentina in the Falkland Islands (Malvinas)Islands. 1982

 

            After winning1983 Conservatives continued to implement its reform program.Before 1990 was privatized 21 state-owned company, 9 million Britons areshareholders, 2 / 3 family - owners of houses or flats.

            However, late 80's governmentThatcher faced with a number of critical problems: the European economic integration,popular protests against the introduction of "poll" tax and others.

            The guide Conservativesexacerbated conflicts, particularly after a former cabinet ministerM. Thatcher M. Hazeltayn criticized the policies of the Iron Lady. " InNovember 1990 Thatcher resigned. The new prime minister wasJohn Meydzher who tried to preserve the achievements tetcheryzmu. BatteryConservatives in power (18 years) that nothing could offernew, tired of the British. Their achievements - reducing taxesprivatization, etc., have treated them with guilt. This wave of disbelief inConservatives in elections May 1, 1997 Labor won a convincingvictory, received an absolute majority of seats in both houses of parliament. NewPrime Minister Tony Blair became the youngest ever England twentieth century.policies.

 

5. Labour in power. The Prime yerstvo T. Blair

            Blair immediately set about the reformthat can be called radical. Reform of the Constitutional order affectedUK. Formed regional parliaments in Scotland and Wales.An important step was the gradual reform of the House of Lords in order to transformin her body to be elected, not appointed that. Generally assumedchange the electoral system to the English Parliament.

            Labour Government did not confineconstitutional reforms. Him launched reforms in education, healthhealth. In the present system of health and education are amongthe best in the world, ahead of French and German.

            Due T. Blair wasthe signing of a political settlement olsterskoyi problem. Primarycontents of this paper is that Ireland rejectsreunification with Northern Ireland and the UK allows NorthIreland to self-determination up to the office if this is supported by populationreferendum. The agreement provides for cessation of violence, self-introduction(Northern Irish Assembly), surrender of weapons and a referendum on the statusNorthern Ireland.

            An important achievement of Labourpresent day is to overcome the problem of unemployment. Currently unemployedamong young people does not exceed several thousand, while for the periodConservative government - amounts to 3 million people. Also, Blair's government couldcontrol inflation and to increase social spending. CurrentlyBritain's economy ranked fourth in the world.

            In his Labour Party may be an assetrecord and that the first time in the postwar years significantly reduced ratesCrime.

OpponentsLabour Conservatives, in turn, argue that changes the worldconjuncture broad social policy to be a serious blow to England.It should be economical.

            In foreign policy, asConservatives and Labour clearly coordinate its policy with the U.S., areparticipated in almost all foreign policy moves of Americans (the war against the regimeSaddam Hussein in Iraq, etc.). Within the European Union often have a particularposition.

            In 2007, newPrime Minister Gordon Brown appointed the UK. He has a reputationmoderate eurosceptics, belongs to the social democratic wingLabour Party (unlike the Social Liberal Blair).

            Britain was among the firstcountries that supported the restructuring of the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union recognized the countryUkraine's independence.

25

London - the financial capital of the world

 

Results

            After World War II Englandfinally lost its primacy in the world. Began the collapse of Britishcolonial empire. This process was too painful for England."English disease" is so heavily affected country, which seemed, Englandnever occupy a place among the leading countries. However, due toM. Thatcher of England took its rightful place in the world.

 

Questions and tasks:

1. Fill in the table: "Labour Reformssecond half of the 40 th century. "

Reforms

Result

 

 

  1. What is the main objective of the second     prime yerstva W. Churchill?
  2. Did he achieve this     goal?

Completetable:"Recipes" for treating "the English disease".

"Recipes"  Labour

"Recipes"  Conservative "

 

 

            4. Definebenefits of the Board T. Blair.