§ 8. 2. Features of the political and economic development of Western countries: USA, Canada, Western Europe (textbook)

§8.2. Features of the political and economic development of the West:U.S., Canada, Western Europe




1. Marshall Plan

            World War II dezorhanizuvala economic life of the world, destroyed the economicpotential has led to unprecedented militarization, breaking economic ties,violated global trade, financial disorder, significant increase in debt and so on. AllThese problems required immediate development. They needed substantial material,financial commitment, hard work to reverse the effects of war. The onlyworld country, which augmented their economic potential in the world were the United States. Sothey undertook a mission to become a locomotive for global recovery,but of course by his role model.

            World War II brought little positive U.S. economy.Reduction of military orders threatening drop in production, growthunemployment. Acutely the problem of conversion - placed the economy onpeaceful manner.

            These problems can be resolved due to external market where the U.S. is notremaining competitors. But that was impossible because of devastation of Europe and Asiaprolonged war. Pidkazuvala logic is needed to provide loans to these countries,economic assistance, invest in their economies, despite the fact that marketCapital in the U.S. itself was untouched. However, neither private capital nor the government does notwilling to risk investing in countries with unstable economiesregimes.

            June 5, 1947 U.S. Secretary of State Marshall, speakingHarvard University, outlined the major provisions of economic assistanceStates affected by war. The plan was to solve the following tasks:help the U.S. economy to get rid of oversaturation of the market of goods and capital,facilitate the conversion, and at the same time ensure the returndisrupted the economy of Europe, the strengthening of European democracy. Toparticipation in the plan were invited to the USSR and Eastern Europe. Countriesreceiving assistance should have to provide information about the state of their economy, aboutlosses during the war, reserves and plans of care. 2 / 3aid they had to spend to purchase American goods. Based on theseData U.S. Congress decides on the amount of assistance. Distribution of aid involvedExecutive Committee of European Economic Cooperationheaded by an American administrator.

            The first reaction of Moscow to planMarshall was not unequivocally negative. As mentioned Minister of Foreign AffairsUSSR, Molotov, Soviet Foreign Ministry initially wanted to participate in the planMarshall all socialist countries, but quickly realized that this is wrong."If the West consider a problem in our failures, so we didcorrectly.

            The Soviet government claimed that countries that receive assistancelose its economic independence and to rely on yourself inreconstruction of national economies. The Soviet government, criticizing the plan, notoffered nothing in return, and thus took a decisive step towards the division of Europe anddeployment of the Cold War.

June 181947 The New York Times wrote: "The task was the factto open the door to Russia, in which - Washington was confident -it does not go down. "

            12-15 July 1947 Paris Conference on sixteen countries (England,France, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Italy,Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, Switzerland, Sweden)U.S. proposal was accepted and formed the Organization of European EconomicCooperation (OYEES).

            April 2, 1948 Congress passed the law number 472 of foreign aidStates.

            U.S. aid received from 18 countries. During the 1948-1951 biennium theyreceived 12.5 billion. These countriesnot lost their independence and autonomy, but rather a renewedeconomic potential and become even U.S. competitors in world markets.Assistance provided no change in the political and social developmentstate, such as Yugoslavia was socialist path of development.

            September 27, 1950 U.S. Presidentannounced a bill on additional and emergency appropriations. In one ofitems noted that countries that transfer USSR materials that arethreat to the U.S. are denied aid. Even in 1949 CreatedCoordinating Committee for Export Control (KOKOM) strategic materialsequipment or technology in socialist countries. He stopped the activityonly April 1, 1994

            Thus, the Marshall Plan with acontributed to overcoming the difficulties of the U.S. economy, rebuilding Europe withother - led to split Europe into allies and enemies of the USSR and the USA becameone of the causes of the Cold War.


2. Economic development in the Westsecond half of the twentieth century.

            In World War II, the U.S. economy has not suffered and IndustryWestern Europe and Japan were seriously damaged. The financial costs of theseof the war amounted to 962 billion dollars, and material costs of about 4 trillion. dollars. Many had the material means andwork to eliminate the effect of the most destructive in historyWar. With considerable effort, material assistance from the United States to planMarshal in 1951 Western Europe received 13 billion dollars. Top50 years European countries have managed to rebuild their industry. YetU.S. exceeded in 1950 European production volume by 1,5 timesJapan 30 times.

            But very quickly, within 50 years, based on the growing technicallevel to concentrate on major areas of science and technologyprogress, Western European states and Japan have achieved important successes, have changedthe balance of power in the world market in their favor.


The average annual growth rate of gross nationalproduct,%:




















            This phenomenal economic development in 50 and 60 years is one offeatures of post-war development of Western countries. The reasons for such a process isfew.

            Undoubtedly the impetus for growth was the implementation of the Marshall Plan.An important condition for economic growth was the expansion of the market. Internal Marketgot its development through the establishment of the state of prosperity. Gainspopulation grew and grew and consumption respectively. With increasing incomechanging the system of consumption. Decreased costs for food,increasing prices of durable goods: houses, cars,TVs, washing machines, etc. A significant factor was the economic boomrapid development of international trade. This in turn caused aninternationalization of economic life and pushed the country to focus oncertain technical level, because otherwise their products wereuncompetitive on world markets. Western Europe has become one of the centersworld trade. European exports exceeded U.S. 4 times.

            Years of economic growth coincided with a period of cheap oil extraction.After the war, the exploitation of oil in the Persian Gulf.Low cost, high quality and large size led to the productiondisplacement of oil by coal, which immediately reduced costs in production. Onwar was also the highest level of investment in industry. Bighteffectiveness of the implementation progress based on the STC. "ColdWar has stimulated the development of military industry. Support economicgrowth was the government's policy of Western countries, they actively promote, encourageinvestment and stimulate consumption.

            The economic boom 50's and 60'ssignificantly changed the West. They were mostly in industrializedcountries. Economic growth followed by industry and, consequently,declining share of agricultural production. The industry alsosignificant changes occurred. It completed the transition to technologies of massproduction. The dominant role begin to play the newest industry:radio, electronic, chemical, aviation. The share of traditional industries(Metallurgy, textile, coal) decreased.

            Despite the decline in the share of agricultural production ineconomy, agriculture also experienced growth, yet not sorapid as industry. Here too there were qualitative changes. AgricultureIndustry has been mechanized, was developing the farm, variousforms of cooperation. In the 70 years Western Europe with many speciesagricultural products has achieved self-sufficiency and even became exporter.

            New noticeable phenomenon of post-war economy of the West became PROACTIVEdevelopment of non-production sectors (services). This process contributed tostate of prosperity, trade, development service, warrantyof household durable goods (refrigerators, TVs andetc.).


Country prosperity - State  which guarantees its citizens a certain level of material and social  security, political rights and freedoms.


            The transition to mass production technologies has led to the emergence of largecompanies and firms that had certainly help reduce competition.But industrial growth that created favorable conditions for developmentbusiness, did not give manifest this tendency. Moreover, Western governmentspursued a policy of promoting competition. As a result, has this situation,that in a certain industry dominated by several firms.

            Economic growth was uneven, which resulted in the decline of one andrise of other Western countries. At the present stage, it all depends on the degreesaturation of advanced technologies. Yes, the U.S. lost the championship inrate. Soon there were three centers of world production: USA, Europe,Japan. Following the Group of Seven set out "new industrialstate "(Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico,Chile, etc.) that are stronger claim about themselves.

            An important factor in developing sustainable integration processes, which run in twodirections: horizontal - the creation of transnational corporations (TNCs) andvertical - the creation of international economic and political alliances.

            Powerful catalyst for the integration process was the World War II andSTC. Under conditions of overproduction appears specialization, which to some extent destroyscompetition through acquisitions, business association of one industry. In 60-70-years, this trend became decisive in the global economy. Private Corporationtook some industry in all countries. Thus createdTNCs - transnational corporations. Over time, TNCs absorb and unrelatedindustry to ensure a stable existence by swappinginvestment of some industries ("unprofitable") to other("Profitable"). TNCs have become world economic growth stimulantpolicy based on neo-colonialism - the spread of market relations into new regionsattract national and world economies into the world.

            Leadership of this policy haveBretton Woods system of payments (introduced in 1944 was, the basis of international payments was U.S. $)International Monetary Fund and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (WorldBank).

            With such a powerful financial institutions, MNCs countries impose modelsdevelopment, which guarantee a profit and free his removal.

            Countries which provided aid IMF and World Bank, takes two main requirements:political stability and market-oriented reforms. In fulfilling these requirementsgiven credit for 5.6 per cent per annum.

            Vertical integration has someaspects: economic, political, military. It actively develops fromearly 50's and has the greatest success in Europe (EU, CoE, NATO, etc.).

            Similar integration processes take place in other regions of the world: LatinAmerica, the Islamic world, the Asia-Pacific region.

            At the end of 70 years in the worldcreated three economic centers: the U.S., Europe, Japan. In order to coordinate actionsThese centers are held joint meetings of the leaders of the seven most developedcountries (G-), meetings are held regularly once a year.

            In the late 60's - early 70'syears saw the first signs of changing economic conditions. Following the crisis1969-1970 biennium, which swept the U.S. and several other countries beganworld economic crisis from 1974-1975 - one of the most critical inhistory of industrial countries. The crisis has engulfed all sectors of economy.The export and import. This deprived the only quick way out ofcrisis - to increase exports. The average annual growth rate fell by half.Industrial production in Japan dropped by 21%, Italy - 19,3%France - 16,3%, USA - 13,7%, Germany - 12,3%, UK -9,9%.

            Reduction of growth coincided with the period when the labor market camebaby boomers. Sluggish economy failed to encourage absorption of the massworkers. As a result of increased unemployment. At the end of 70 years unemployedthere were 16.8 million. Stopped the growth of real wages, respectively,reduced purchasing power of citizens.

            In addition, in 1973 ended the era of cheap oil. Arab countriesseeking to undermine support for Israel's West, have introduced an embargo on the saleoil. Thereafter began a gradual rise in prices, and at the end of 70 yearsthey grew 10 times. This caused the energy crisis: increased costsproduction, reduced investment.

            But the biggest problem for Western countries was inflation, which at the end70 years is affected by double digits. There was a situation that has receivedcalled stagflation: a simultaneous decline in output growth and inflation.

            In 1979, England and France were retracted into new crisisoverproduction, which felt the most industrialized countries. After a slightproduction increase in late 1980 and early 1981. started a newstage of the crisis that engulfed all industrialized countries. Falling productionwas 3,9%. Although it was also less than in the 1974-1975 biennium, but the crisis waslonger.

            At the turn of 70-80's against these troubles began changing economiclandmarks. Policies to encourage economic growth has been replacedanti-inflation policy.

            For savings on budgetmid 80's managed to significantly reduce inflation (in the U.S. with 13.6 to 6.1%Britain from 21,5 to 8,6%). There was stabilization of oil prices and otherenergy.

            This was the terms for revitalization investments. Moreover, at that timeseems necessary fixed assets in connection with thetechnological revolution.

            Its main driving force and a symbol of a computer. In 1973American Steve Jobs created the first personal computer, and in 1977started their production. Leadership took firm EPLMac "and" Microsoft. "In stubborn competitionwon the last, and its owner Mr Gates has become one of the richest peopleworld.

            Computerization of causing a chain reaction. It opened the wayapplication of new technologies in manufacturing: robots, flexible technologylines, automatic design, etc. At the same time mass startedproduction of new materials. Developed, biotechnology, genetic engineering and so on.

            These changes have brought Western society to a new level. It entered intopostindustrial stage of development.

            Crises 70-80's led to the synchronization of cycles of vibration in the mainindustrialized countries. The objective of this process became internationalizedeconomic life of industrialized countries, the growth of the country's dependenceforeign trade activities of multinational corporations.

            Since 1982 to the 90'sthere is a new sustainable economic growth in western countries. This growthhas significant differences from the previous (60 years). Rate it much lower.Traditional industries (metallurgy, coal, textiles, shipbuilding)of an acute crisis. Production growth is not caused anfull employment. Unemployment in absolute terms even increased.

            But these figures hide unattractive deep qualitative changes.Also an increase labor productivity, the economy became less energy-intensive, decreasedconsumption of raw materials and production was environmentally friendly.

            Growth of 80 90 years is has caused a worldwide crisis. However, inmid 90's to the crisis facing the countries of the Asia-Pacificregion (beginning in Japan 1996 City), CIS countries and South America. This crisis was caused by the general crisisexport strategy development and restructuring in the region. InWestern Europe and the U.S. continued economic growth. At this stageU.S. growth slightly vpovilnylysya and Europe continuesgain momentum.


3. Social development in the Westsecond half of the twentieth century.

            Significant economic progress in the West after World War II could notnot cause the same social changes. Among them in the first place should be allocatedslowdown in population growth. It did not happen due to the increasemortality, resulting in reduction of fertility. It was dueespecially with the completion of the demographic revolution - fundamental changesin people's concept of how many children should be in the family.

            Since ancient times formed an idea about the maximum number of children infamily. High infant mortality is not nothing left to save familyman. Because the work was manual and unskilled, the children helpeddeal with the economy and have support in old age. All this found itsimprint in ethnic, moral, and religious principles. The social status of womendetermined by the number of children in her big families was seen as God'smercy. All religions believe that the Lord only given to decide how many childrenWill parents.

            As a result of the industrial revolution, the rapid development of medicine and healthhealth situation gradually changed. Mortality has decreased, and the threatextinction of mankind disappeared. Work is in most kvalifikovanishoyu requiresproper education.

            Cost of family upbringingincreased, and parents face a choice: either there will be many children, but then theyunable to give them the necessary education or children will be less, but they willmore prepared for life. Parents increasingly have to opt forfewer children.

            Supported this process and the emancipation of women, increase their employmentsocial production, the emergence of their new life values and goals, notconnected with the family.

            Thus, the demographic behavior of people has changed dramatically: in returntargeting the maximum number of children confirmed their commitment to suchof which parents feel comfortable. In any case, this meantthat children become less falling birth rate.

            It should still consider that the war was lost a significant numbermale population, leading to changes in the proportion of male and femalepopulation in favor of the last significant portion of women remained unmarried.

            Reducing the birth rate has caused a number of significant consequences. It beganaging population. Children became less of their share in population structuredecreased. At the same time people began to live longer. In Western countries in 1986Life expectancy has increased to 70-80 years. Rapid decline in fertility in Europeled to the fact that during the economic boom of 60 years, thereproblem of labor shortage, which began to be solved by attractingImmigrants from Africa and Asia. With a minimum payment of foreigners were taken bywork, which in Europe was considered undesirable.

            Slightly decreased emigration from Europe, which was the main source ofU.S. population, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Israel,Latin America.

            After World War II in Europethe process of urbanization. The number of urban population has stabilized atlevel of 70-80% of the total population. At the same time has changed locationurban population in the city. The growth of living standards has enabled many to have theirhouses and cars, which led to significant population displacement insuburban portion closer to the comfort and fresh air. Also occurredconvergence of living standards of rural and local residents.

            Social structure has changedpopulation. Most of the working population is hired workers. Butwithin this large social group there are significant differences. Mostgrowing number of employed in services. Now in the West numberWorkers in services equaled the number of employees in manufacturing.

            Recently, as a resulttechnological revolution and the crisis of traditional industries have developed twopoles employment. At one - highly qualified newareas that most do not even have a competitive labor market and the demand forwhich increases. At another - doomed workers sectors threatens themunemployment.

            The technological revolution boreneed for highly skilled mental labor. Already, the mental workersLabour (employees, scientific and technical workers, administrative and managerialstaff) equalized with the number of employed manual labor.

            The situation of workers hired qualitativelychanged. The state took over their right to collective social protectionabuse entrepreneurs, defended the legislation. Increased their standard of living.They ceased to be proletarians, that "nothing to lose but theirchains. "Having a lot in terms of personal property and securitiessecurities, they left a contrast to other segments of society. Disappearedpsychology specific employee. Most of them consider themselvesfrom the middle, meaning primarily the level of their income.

            Serious changes in the structureand strength of the rural population. It decreased by half. In this villagepeople do not like the traditional peasantry. Modern farmrequires highly skilled labor and fully market-oriented.

Changed placerole of small and medium businesses. Previously he was associated with craft andretail trade. After the war he seamlessly blended into the modern sector wasnot replaceable in the rapidly growing service sector. The technological revolutioncontributed to the creation of small and medium enterprises that tried to implementnew technologies.

            Big business also has undergone changes.Economic growth 60 years, STC created the conditions for the rapid enrichmentmany entrepreneurs. Revealing in this respect is an example of White Geytsa -the world's richest man - the owner of Microsoft, which creates softwaresoftware for computers. "The new rich" has given way to serious"Old." Rockefeller - one of the most under-incomeAmerican families in the early twentieth century .- won in 1986 only 67place in the list of the richest in the world.

            The emergence of large firmsmultinationals needs all the wider use of work professionallytrained administrators, managers. Their layer has grown.

            After the war changed and lifestylepopulation of Western countries. Most live in houses or apartments, almostevery family has a car, appliances, audio and video.Has changed the structure of the family budget. Meals are almostfifth part, but increased housing costs and transportation. Lesscohabitation has become widespread representatives of the two or even three generationsas it were. Families dropped. Secondary education has become universal.Also an increase in students. Higher education is no longer a privilege.

            In the postwar period endedemancipation of women. Women's work has become one of the conditions of economic development 50-60'syears and one of the sources of increasing family income. Contributed to women's libevolution of the family. Marriages were later, but less persistent. Feminist Movementgained wide circulation. Women are already working in areas traditionally male(Army, Navy, supersonic aircraft, etc.).

            At the same time a modern Western societyand generates its own specific social problems. The quickening pace of life and workforcing a person to be in constant stress. Not everyone can withstand this pressure.Alcoholism, drug addiction - is trying to avoid real life.

            Crime pushed desireachieve rapid enrichment of material illegally. Heavysocial and psychological effects is chronic unemployment, even ifunemployed receiving assistance. Man loses self-respect. Social apathyturns into aggression and violence, respectively. Part of the unemployed believecause of its foreign workers who take their place, thatleads to the popularity of ultra-nationalist slogans and accommodation to the pogromsforeigners.


4. Political development in the Westsecond half of the twentieth century.

            The development of political historyWest in the postwar period - is primarily the development of liberaldemocracy. He walked two directions.

            In 70 years in Western Europe waseliminated the last fascist and authoritarian regimes. In 1974 inresult of the revolution opened the way to democracy in Portugal. In the samewas overthrown by the military regime in Greece. In 1975 after deathFranco was on a democratic Spain.

            All these years in Western countries wentthe expansion of universal suffrage. There is no country wherewould not have the right to vote are women. After the mass campaign for civil rightsabolished all kinds of political discrimination against blacks in the U.S.. Age limit for mostcountries decreased to 18. The promotion of universal suffrage strengthenedprinciple of democracy whereby the people and he is the only source of power.Proof of this is increasingly the methods of direct democracy(Referendum) in addressing important national issues. Yes, the French in1969 by referendum decided the fate of President Charles de Gaulle, and in1980 Swedes decided to close nuclear plants.

            But democracy alone does notfull guarantee of freedom. Often, when a majority of MPsmake decisions that violate rights. Therefore important that along withdevelopment of democracy followed the consolidation and expansion of rights and freedoms.After World War II increased their list. In 1948 UN wasadopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which are collected into a single entitycivil, political, economic, social and cultural rights which were 30articles. It was later adopted the Declaration of the rights of children.

            An important guarantee of freedom is the divisionpower into legislative, executive and judicial. This excludedconcentration of power, usurpation and misuse. This principle is the basisWestern political system, regardless of form of government (republic,monarchy).

            After the Second World War,conditions, when was the formation of the state of prosperity, increased weightexecutive. In the hands of the president, prime minister and ministersconcentrated enormous power, both secret and open, which caused anabuse and a major political scandal: 1962 in Germany,1972 - United States, 1976-1983 biennium - in Japan and Italy - in  80-90-years, etc.

            As a result of expansion functionsStates increased bureaucratization of society, which leads to such abuses,as bribery, delays, extortion, etc. This provoked massive protests thatbecame the basis of coming to power in 70 to 80 years figures "conservativerevolution. "During the struggle with bureaucracy were improved form of controlby government agencies from the public. Many countries have introduced specialposition of the Parliamentary Commissioner for Human Rights, which collects and obnaroduyecitizen complaints and officials represented on this basis of their recommendations.

            Despite these negative phenomenaidea of democracy took root in public consciousness. It helped thatdemocracy coincided with the economic rise of 50's and 60's. Inconsciousness of ordinary citizens of democracy associated with prosperity. Taking rootDemocracy contributed to changes in political culture. The welfare,education led to the erosion of social protection in society andrespectively, to the establishment of political moderation, dialogue, compromise.This contributed to the influence of moderate political parties that are incenter of the political spectrum: liberal, conservative,Christian democratic, social democratic and more.

            The influence of the same radical parties and fallingthey had to adapt its doctrine to the moods of the masses. Those who do notwanted to do this, found themselves isolated. Some encouraged it to expandmass terror that has become a serious problem for the West in 70 years.With the police and in the absence of social base for radical movementsterrorism for some time managed to tame. However, since the 90's, he turned tonew force. The basis of modern terrorism is unresolvednational and territorial problems, the difference in living standards in many countriesworld. Special Islamic terrorism has reached proportions. Terror Act 1911September 2001 in New York became the turning point in the deployment of planetaryscale to combat terrorism.

            The post-war period - a timeflourishing of political parties. The system of representative democracy is impossible withouta political institution as a political party, which is like a mediatorbetween the population and authorities. In a democracy, the main task of politicalgames - to secure a mass base and gain power. In the struggle forvoters want political parties to take into account nationalnecessary, rather than a narrowly specific social stratum as it waslate nineteenth - early twentieth century.

            The growing influence of political partieshas several negative consequences. Many important issues are solved in the corridorsthe offices of party, faction. Battery power, usuallyleads to the merging parties and state institutions that breed corruption(Striking example of this - political development of Italy and Japan).

Characteristicreaction to the dominance of parties was the appearance in 70 years of mass democraticmovements, environmental (green), pacifist, feminist, antyhlobalistskyhetc.

            After the fall of CommunismNew states announced that they are choosing the democratic path. Butdemocracy encounters a serious resistance, which is connected with economic andpolitical processes in the new states. The formation of democratic regimescoincided with a period of severe economic crisis and a significant fall in living standards.Also in these countries under the guise of democratic phraseology of the ruling elitecorruption is rampant. There is a theft of national wealth. Even appearedcategory of politicians who skillfully manipulating democratic phraseologySeeking support and assistance to U.S. and Western Europe, usedthe power of his gain, pyramidal poplar nasadzhuyuchy in authoritarian regimes. Thisphenomenon peculiar to the CIS countries and Latin America. Best examplesFujimori presidency in Peru.


Milestones in the Westin the second half of the XX - XXI century.


Chronological  Frame

Characteristics,  content


The second half of 40's - early

 50's of the twentieth century.

Post-war reconstruction of Europe. Strengthening economic  U.S. position.



Twentieth century.

Formation model of the state of prosperity. "Economic Miracle"


70-ies of XX century.

The economic crisis, the crisis model state prosperity


80 first Top 90's Twentieth century.

"Conservative Revolution. The accelerated development of "new  economy.  Accelerate Integration  processes. Formation of the global economy


End of The Beginning of the twentieth century.

New era of prosperity of the state model.  Globalization. Crisis "new economy"


5. Globalization

EndTwentieth century. politicians, economists, public talking about the phenomenon"Globalization." Globalization - a term that referred to more deeper interdependencepeople and countries worldwide. This process has accelerated particularly late XX -at the beginning of. This was due to the termination of the Cold War,elimination of trade bar `interiors, joining the world financial markets,progression of the processes of integration and more. Globalization is a comprehensive nature:it caused changes in the economy, politics. Culture and environment. The reportUN Human Development for 1999 states: "Interrelation between people around the world became, as never before deepstrong and tight. He creates and provides much new development as beneficial,and destructive phenomenon. " Like any other human achievements, globalizationhas its positive and negative aspects.

            Positive aspects:

-       formation of the unity of world civilization;

-       accelerate the development of the world as a result of cross-fertilization of science andculture;

-       creates the conditions for eradicating poverty and solving other globalproblems;

-       reduces the likelihood of global war;

-       accelerating economic development of the world and more.

Negative side:

-       deepening divide between rich countries ("North", "golden billion") andpoor (the South). In 80 countries, per capita income falls, in someeven less than 50 years ago;

-       strengthen the impact of TNCs, which acted adversely to the national economy;

-       driving force behind globalization is free market economy. In conditions whereincome is much more than saving the planet;

-       unemployment;

-       changes in investment attractiveness can lead to disastrous economic crisisindividual countries.



            After the Second World WarWest entered a new period of development. After the post-war reconstructionbegan the process of development and prosperity of the state model, whichsurvived the crisis of 70 years and "conservative revolution" 80 years, strengthened and extendedits development. Model state prosperity, based on liberaldemocracy, market economy and social security system provideshigh standard of living of citizens and steady development of the West.


Questions and tasks:

1.    Objectives set by J. Marshall offering her plan? Whether the plan achieved its goal?What are the positive and negative aspects of the plan.

2.    Comment on the expression of speech, U.S. Secretary of State J. Achesona: "WithoutU.S. aid to Europe and leadership would not be able to maintain theirindependence, nor support the independence of others. "

3.    Identify the features of the model state prosperity.

4.    Identify the stages of the model state and give them prosperitycharacteristic.

5.    TNK What? What is their role in the modern economy?

6.    What changes in the social structure of society took place in the second half of the twentieth- At the beginning of.? Which ones are key?

7.    What contributed to the strengthening of democratic regimes in the West in the secondhalf of the twentieth century.?

8.    Determine what is globalization. Describe positive and negative sidesglobalization process.