§ 8. 1. The World after World War II (textbook)

§8.1. The World after World War II

 

1. CreationOf the United Nations (UN)

            During the Second World War there was aon the formation of an international organization that took over the functionsbankrupt the League of Nations.

            Spring 1944 at a conference inWashington estate of Dumbarton Oaks representatives of the USSR, USA, England and Chinaprepared a proposal for a Council and discussed the main provisions of the CharterUN.

At Yaltaconference in February 1945 U.S., USSR and England decided toconvene a UN conference April 25, 1945 in San Francisco.The conference could be all States that have declared war on Germany andJapan to March 1, 1945 The right to become members of the UN received UkrainianSSR and Byelorussian SSR.

In discussingquestion of the mechanism of the UN between the leaders of the three states have a discussion.Stalin's position was that States bore the bruntWar liable for peace. Therefore, small countries in the UN does not wantprovide such rights, enjoying as they could contradict a majorStates. Roosevelt agreed with this view of Stalin. Churchill, however, denied:"Let the eagle allow the small birds sing, but to pay attention totheir singing is not - let them sing. "

            Conference in San Franciscoheld from 25 April to June 26, 1945 It was attended by about 300delegates from 46 countries worldwide. In discussing the UN Charter there were two problems:decision-making in the Security Council and the issue of custody of the colonies anddependent territories. Relative to the first of them was adopted Sovietproposal according to which Security Council decisions (USSR, USA, England, France, China)unanimously adopted. These countries received the right to "veto". ThroughThis law excluded the possibility of using the authority of internationalorganization to justify actions that contradict the principles of the UN Charter. However,impair the effectiveness of the UN as an instrument for the protection of peace, while agreecountries with different interests have been frustrating. However, decisions taken bySecurity satisfy the interests of all States. As to the second issue agreed thatcare system should promote development of the peoples of dependent territories "toward self-government or independence. "

            In the Charter adopted at the conferenceCouncil noted that this new organization is to maintain international peace andcollective security measures, the development of friendly relations among nations,international cooperation in solving economic problems,social and humanitarian nature. UN was founded on the principlessovereign equality of all members, peaceful adjustment of disputes, maintenancethe use of force. UN had no right to interfere in internal affairs, exceptwhen such intervention is necessary to keep the peace.

            The official date of establishment of the UNis October 24, 1945, when it was approved by the UN Charter.

            The supreme organ of the United Nations determinedGeneral Assembly, which meets at its session once a year. Itresponsibilities include approving the budget organization, new members,electing non-permanent members of the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Councilissues of custody of the International Court, the Secretariat led by Secretary GeneralUN.

            The supreme body was identified and alsoThe Security Council, which then consisted of 11 members (now 15, of which 10non-permanent, elected for two years, and 5 permanent). Security CouncilCharter is a permanent body, which is responsible forpeacekeeping. To implement its authority RB has the right to imposeaggressor sanctions, blockade and enter to apply force against him. Inresolving all matters except procedural require unanimity permanentmembers of the RB.

 

Scheme: MainUN structure

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Table.: UN Secretary-General

T. H. Lee  (Norway)

1945-1953 biennium

D. Hamarsheld  (Sweden)

1953-1961 biennium

U. S. Tan (Burma)

1961-1971 biennium

K. Waldheim  (Austria)

1972-1981 biennium

Perez de Cuellar H.  (Peru)

1982-1991 he

B. Boutros Ghali  (Egypt)

1991-1996 he

K. Atta Annan  (Ghana)

Since 1996

 

            Under the auspices of the UN was created variousspecialized organizations: UNESCO (United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization), WHO (World Health Organization), ILO(International Labour Organization), FAO (Food and AgricultureOrganization), UNICEF (UN Children's Fund), etc.

            Currently there are about 190UN member states. UN General Assembly began its activities in 1946 Onthe first session were elected non-permanent members of the SC, appointed the first GeneralUN Secretary (it was Trygve Lie), established the Atomic Energy Commission. However,rivalry over the USSR and the U.S. and its supporters work the UN has been hampered.

            In 1948 UN adoptedDeclaration of Human Rights and the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, in which allzaklykalys countries to establish their policy priorities in the interests of a personover class and national.

 

2. Nurembergand Tokyo trials

            According to the Potsdam Conferenceformed the International Military Tribunal, which was to condemn warcriminals and crimes committed by them. On November 20, 1945 by October 11946 Nuremberg trial lasted over a group of major Germanwar criminals. International Military Tribunal found the accused guiltyimplementing training and conducting aggressive wars against peace-loving countries,violation of international treaties and agreements to implement planned war crimesconducted with particular cruelty, crimes against humanity (killingnations for racial and national characteristics). Goering, Ribbentrop, Keitel,Kaltenbrunneru, Rosenberg, Franco and other criminals (only 12 people.) Wassentence of death, some (Hess, Funk) - life imprisonment.The Tribunal declared criminal leadership of the Nazi Party, SS, SD, the Gestapo.The requirement to recognize the Soviet criminal organizations Hitler's government, Supremecommand and general staff were not supported. The representative of the Soviet Unionexpressed disagreement with the decision to excuse mine and some other Germanleaders who financed the Nazi party.

            Nuremberg Trials - the first inhistory of the international court over a group of persons who possess state and turnedits a tool of terrible crimes. For the first time in legal practice have been convictedpolitical leaders responsible for aggression and war crimes, crimes againstmankind and humanity. This was the beginning of the process clearance of Europe from fascism(Nazism).

 

I wonder

            In Germany in the early postwar yearswas 2 million trials and Nazi war criminals. Sameprocess has encompassed all of Europe. Especially France, Belgium, Holland,Norway, Yugoslavia, Poland. In Ukraine, there were also trials of Nazisand manuals that crimes committed in the territory of the USSR. The largest of these -Kyiv process.

 

            Above the main Japanese militarycriminals from May 3, 1946 on November 12, 1948 the International MilitaryTribunal for the Far East held the Tokyo trial (The same processesheld in Vladivostok and Khabarovsk). For participation in the preparation and resolutionaggressive war, the implementation of mass destruction of civilians inoccupied countries and prisoners of war crimes and other criminals were seven majorsentence of death, 16 - life imprisonment. Among those executed wereformer Japanese Prime Minister, Minister of War, by the highestgenerals.

            Addressing questions on the post-warpeaceful settlement of the increasingly complicated by rivalry between the U.S. and the USSR.

 

3. Peace treatieswith former allies Germany

            For the preparation of peace agreements withGermany, Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Finland Council was establishedForeign Ministers. For approval of matters related to peacecontracts, from 29 July to October 15, 1946 Peace held in Parisconference with participation of 21 States. During the conference oftenthere were conflicts between supporters of the Soviet Union and Western countries. Between Bulgaria andGreece, as well as between Yugoslavia and Italy exacerbated territorialcontradiction.

            After the conferenceCouncil meetings of foreign ministers of the most pressing issues of peaceagreements were resolved through mutual concessions and compromises. Thus 10February 1947 Paris was signed peace treaties with Italy,Finland, Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania, and their conditions predictedusually return to prewar borders, for demilitarization, denazification,democratization dekartelizatsiyi. Italy refused all of its colonies,destroying military fortifications on the borders, limited the number of armedforces.

            The city of Trieste with the surroundingterritory turned into Free Territory of Trieste.

            Italy paid reparations to the USSR100 million dollars. Finland has passed the USSR in the north regionPetsamo (Pechenga) and - on lease for 50 years naval basePorkkala-Udd in the Gulf. Romania, Finland USSR paid 300 millionU.S. reparations in the form of supplies of goods, Hungary - 200 million dollars.Anticipated withdrawal of occupation troops from the territory, exceptHungary and Romania, where Soviet troops remained.

            Peace treaty with AlliesGermany after World War II differed significantly in that they were notdemeaning to the vanquished states, as it was after the First World War.

            Peace treaty with Germany andJapan were in 1951, and the German question was finally settledin 1990

            Temporarily in Germany, Austria,Japan, Korea introduced, the occupation zone. Peace treaty with Japan wassigned under the victorious countries. Yes, Germany, Austria, Berlin andVienna were divided into four zones of occupation of England, U.S., USSR and France.The purpose of the occupation of Germany proclaimed revival of one country from whichwould never have had the threat of war, the elimination of dangerous for peacecivil, political and military structures. However, to realize this goal in the postwaryears failed. The Cold War, which began, led toformation in 1949 two German states: the Federal RepublicGermany (FRG) and German Democratic Republic (GDR). Occupation of Japancarried out in order to create such political and economic structures thatwould ensure the development of the country on a democratic path and turned to Japanin the country from which would also not based threat of war.

 

Results

            The changes that occurred as a resultWorld War II were so dramatic that the world could notreturn to prewar conditions. Was a change of world leaders. Formedtwo superpowers. The leading countries of the world were put to the challengeformation of a new system of international relations that would ensureat least take account of the others. Given the negative experience of settlementafter World War II, leaders of the anti-Hitler coalition no longersought to humiliation of the vanquished and by solving their ownproblems. The changes of borders in Europe were minimal. To maintain peace andsecurity in the world created the United Nations. However, the process of establishing a new worldorder influenced the rivalry between the two superpower which has grown into"Cold war".

 

Questions and tasks:

1.    When and for what purpose the UN was created?

2.    What is the mechanism of the UN? What is the Security Council, whichits function?

3.    What human and material losses during World War II?

4.    For what purpose were conducted Nuremberg and Tokyoprotsnesy court? What are their results?

5.    Fill in the table: peace with the Allies in Germany.

Items for comparison

Finland

Italy

Romania

Hungary

Bulgaria

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.    With `yasuyte general the results of the Second World War.