§ 3. Military actions in the middle of 1941 - 1942 рр. (textbook)

§3. Military actions in the middle of 1941 - 1942 рр.

 
1. PreparationGermany's attack on the USSR. Plan "Barbarossa"

            It follows from the end of hostilities incontinental Europe, Germany has a huge under YOUR controlgeopolitical space. It occupied Poland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Denmark,Norway, Luxembourg, much of France, Yugoslavia, Greece.

            At the start of his chancellorshipHitler openly talked about their plans for further territorial changes inEurope and establish a "new order". He had a scheme to GermanyGermans join populated area surrounding states. Thus, incenter of Europe had formed "steel block" around which would organizeclose to the Germans neariyski race - State satelity, deprived of theirindependent financial, economic systems, the army, the management structure etc..Had dominion over all nimetskyy "new order". To follow him,formed a special DEPARTMENTS, service haulyayterstva, komisariaty.

            Directly to the Reich included:Saar, Austria, Sudetenland, Memelska region. The remains of the independent Czech Republicbecame a "protectorate." It follows from Poland to the Reich's seizure of land back,vidtyati from the Treaty of Versailles Germany: Denmark pozbuvalas partsShlezvih-Holstein and Alsace and France Lotarynhiyi. The structure of the Reich vidiyshlaSlovenia from Yugoslavia, Shtiriya, iliriyskyh several other states.

            Significant amounts the Territorialdistaly allies Germany. Hungary vidiyshly land from Slovakia (frontierterritory), Romania (Transylvania) and Yugoslavia (Vojvodina), Bulgariaregained the southern Dobrudja, and annexed part of Yugoslavia andGreek Macedonia, Frakiyu. Bold pieces seizures territory dilyvsya Fuhrerwith his friend Il Duce - Italy got some border territories of France,of Greece and Yugoslavia.

            Germany Soyuzni state hadpay nerivnopravnymy trade agreements in the market for beztsinGermany its agricultural products in exchange for expensive products industry,with prices dictated reyhsbank. In these conditions, the aggressive alliance with Germanyand Italy joined Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Slovakia andFinland and Vishi regime in France. Countries "oci" supported Spain. Itdid not prevent Hitleru represent future aggression against the USSR as a crusade marchagainst Bolshevism. Significant advantages of the state "oci" reached in Afrytsi, China andIndokytayi.

 

Table.: Building block of aggressive

Date

Event

October  1936

Italo-German  protocol of cooperation ("Berlin-Tokyo Axis)

November 25  1936

Agreement between  Germany and Japan to fight against the Communist International  ("Anti-Comintern Pact")

November 6  1937

Joining Italy  the Anti-Comintern Pact. Formation of "Axis Berlin - Rome - Tokyo"

February 24  1939

Accession  Hungary and the Manchu-Go to the Anti-Comintern Pact

March 27  1939

Accession  Spain, the Anti-Comintern Pact

May 22  1939

Agreement between  Germany and Italy on military and political cooperation for 10  years ("Steel pact").

August  1939

Slovak-German  military agreement

September-November  1940

Negotiations between  Germany and the Soviet Union on the accession of the latter to the Triple Pact. USSR gave  Germany agreed but did not give answers

September 27  1940

Triple pact  between Germany, Italy and Japan

November 20  1940

Accession  Hungary joined the Triple Pact

November 23  1940

Accession  Romania Triple Pact

November 24  1940

Accession  Slovakia to the Triple Pact

March 1  1941

Accession  Bulgaria to the Triple Pact

May  1941

Develop a plan of joint  Action against Germany and Finland, USSR (Plan "Blue blue fox"). Accession  Finland to the Triple Pact

June  1941

Accession  Spain to Triple Pact

March 25  1941

Accession of Yugoslavia  to Triple Covenant (agreement not yet entered into force)

June 15  1941

Accession  Independent State of Croatia (NDH) to the Triple Pact

November 25  1941

Extension of  Anti-Comintern Pact of 5 years. Join him in Finland, Croatia,  Of Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, the Chinese Government Wang Tszynveya

1942

Accession  Of Siam (Thailand), Manchzhou-Guo Wang and the Chinese government to Triple Tszynveya  Covenant

 

            An important element of preparationGermany to war with the USSR was the use of industrial, raw,food and financial resources uyarmlenyh countries.

            Compared with industrial nimetskymeconomical potential power of the Soviet Union look modest. The fate of the Soviet Union reached10% of world industrial production. Although the Soviet Union and Germany ahead inmanufacture of tanks, guns, planes, but lagged behind in producing automaticweapons, vehicles, communications equipment, optical devices, etc., that is whatwithout which modern war was impossible.

            Much of strategic raw materialsAccording to the Soviet Union supplied the commercial contracts in Germany. PriorGermany won the war from the Soviet Union not less than 2 million tons of grain, corn, beans, 1million tons of oil, 100 thousand tons of cotton, thousands of tons of nonferrous metals, etc.. Inturn in the USSR from Germany entered a significant amount of modernindustrial equipment, machines, vehicles, weapon designs, the Soviet specialistsacquainted with the German pomyslyvistyu, including the military field.

 

Table.: The industrial potential of Germany and the USSRbefore the war

 

Germany  and its satellites

USSR

Coal

391.2 million tons

251.9 million tons

Oil

7,7 million tons

1,1 million tons

Cast iron

25.3 million tons

14 million tons

Steel

30.9 million tons

19.1 million tons

Metal benches

1.7 million units.

0.71 million units.

 

            Directive number 21 - a plan BarbarossaHitler signed the December 18, 1940 (The name he coined himself Hitler). In thiswar plan in the East was launched immediately after the spring bezdorizhzhya izakinchytysya before the winter cold, ie, during May-November1941 In the course of the rapid campaign had to be the main force znyscheniRed Army in the border battles, and the residual state Russia can existjust a line, Volga - Arkhangelsk to nimetska Aviation had the opportunityparalyze its industrial district in the last Urali. The key points werelightning strike forces withdrew to London, resulting in the destruction of environment andcore group of Soviet troops in Belarus, which mean little in allratio "decisive success. Preparation for surgery"Barbarossa" had to be completed by May 15, 1941 But events on theBalkans have made some adjustments to the plans.

            As of June 21 at WesternUSSR borders Germany and its allies focused armies three groups: a group of armies"Pivnich (commander Field Marshal Leyeb) naysylnisha group of armies" Center "(Commander Field Marshal Bock), a group of armies "south" under the leadership of Field MarshalRundshtedta. Allies of Germany (Finland, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania,Italy, Croatia) put 29 more i Division 16 brigades (with other data 42.5Division).

            Each group had its task iYOUR action direction: "Pivnich - Leninhrad," Center "- i Minsk, Moscow," south "-Kyiv i next to the South on Dnepr. On the territory of Norway and Finland wasGerman army deployed "Norway" and second Finnish army. Army"Norway" was to seize Murmansk and Arctic, and the Finnishforces - to assist Army Group North to capture Leningrad.Overall nimetske grouping together with allies numbered 190 divisions, 5 Step 5million soldiers i officers and 47? 2 thousand guns, 3,8 thousand tanks, about 5 thousandAircraft (Other sources: 166 divisions - 4.3068 million people. personnel, 42 601guns and mortars, 4171 tanks and assault guns, 4846 aircraft).

            The Soviet Union is also preparing toWar. Before the Soviet leadership faced the question only when the USSR would be in itinvolved? Stalin hoped that it can dictate their conditions afterGermany and England mutually weaken each other. Went rapid modernizationArmy, which is expected to complete in 1942 Changed its structure.Were developed military-strategic plans. One of these plans attacks on Germanycalled "Thunderstorm" (not approved). According to the plan envisaged: twogroups from the region of Bialystok and Lvov cause prejudice to blowssurrounding the main forces of German troops in Poland and then reach to Berlin.The third group of Soviet troops had to acquire oil fields inRomania and Germany, thus he cut fuel sources.

            In June 1941 on the westborder of the Soviet Union was focused 171 Red Army Division - 3,25 million., 37.5thousand guns, 10.4 thousand tanks and 8627 planes (Other sources: 190divisions - 3289851 personnel, 59 787 guns and mortars, 15 687 tanks,10 743 aircraft).

 

Growth in the USSR Armed Forces in 1939-1941

 

At. 01/01/1939 by

On 06/22/1941, the

Personnel  (Thousands).

1943

5710

Division

136

303

Tanks (thousands)

18,4

23,3

Guns and  mortars (thousands)

55,8

115,9

Combat aircraft  (Thousands)

17,5

22,4

 

            Thus the Red Army and planspositioning itself forces on the western border show that Stalinpreparing for offensive, not defensive war against Germany. Butlevel of training and equipping the Red Army did not meet modern requirements.Much of the equipment was does float, especially lack of communicationand transport.

 

Stalin's military doctrine

1. Soviet Union never have to keep fighting for his  territory.

2. Be offensive to clear the decks, in case the enemy attacks, not to  defensive war.

3. Any aggression against the USSR will be immediately suspended general uprising  proletariat of the West.

 

2. BeginningWWII. Attacking Germany and its allies in the USSR

 

1

 

 

            German troops began offensivedawn on June 22, 1941, on Sunday. Before guns openedfire, hundreds of planes crossed the Soviet border i bombed 66 major airports,cities, including base Kronstadt fleet, Sevastopol, Ishmael. Forfirst day of Aviation War Soviet aircraft lost in 1811, including 1489 - rightat the airport. Despite the desperate resistance (Note featdefenders of Brest Fortress, which held back the enemy attack two weeks, andit was the last defender weapons in spring 1942), nimetski Tankcolumns advanced in some areas in the rear of the Soviet army to a depth of 50 km in some iplaces even crossed the old Soviet-Polish border.

 

CD_11_13

HitlerRivenschyny motorcyclists in the woods. 1941

 

            Previous policies of Stalin ledthe fact that the Soviet Union had one take on the huge forcesblow.

            Brunt German troopsdeposited against the troops of the Western Front (commander, General Paul D.). alreadyfirst days of Soviet troops in this area were surrounded (Bialystok - Minsk)and defeated. In 329 thousand taken prisoner Soviet soldiers, 3332 tanks,1809 guns. June 28 German troops took Minsk and continued to move oneast.

            Meanwhile, Army Group Northsuccessfully promoted in the Baltics, capturing Vilnius, Riga came to Pskovand Novgorod. This sector of the front faces the threat of German forces to breakLeningrad.

            The biggest enemy resistance encountered inUkraine. Near Lutsk-Brody-Rovno-Dubno broke out first in the WorldWar tank battle that lasted five days. Soviet mechanized corpsreceived orders to immediately discard the enemy that broke,  went on the offensive without proper training andumbrella. Although the enemy advance was delayed a week, itwas achieved with a price: with 4201 tanks in South-Western Frontthere are only 737. The enemy lost a few hundred.

CD_11_14

Fascistspass the river on the western border of the USSR. 1941

 

            In mid-July 1941battle broke out in Kyiv, Smolensk, near Novgorod (Luzhskyy defenseabroad) .. The price for the heroic efforts of the enemy offensive in all directions wassuspended, even suffered the first successful retaliation under Yelneyu.

 

Table.: The main battle in theSoviet-German front in 1941

Battle

Date

Course, result

Kiev defensive operation

July 7 - 26 September  1941

July 5  1941 German forces managed to break through the defenses at the junction of 5 and 6 th  Soviet Army and went to the defensive structures of the city. This event is  beginning of the Kiev Strategic Defense Operation, which lasted 83 days.  The German command estimated the breakthrough as a decisive victory, and fall Kyiv  regarded as a near-term. On July 21 Hitler appointed on parade  Capital. But these plans were not implemented. The German part of that  came to the first zone defense could not overcome it. First storm of Kyiv  July 11-14 proved a failure for the enemy. These events began a heroic  defense of the city, which lasted 71 days. Were unsuccessful for the enemy and the following  attempts to take the city. Heroism defenders of the city (over 120 thousand soldiers, with  of which 33 thousand - people militia) held steady defense. August 21, Hitler  decides to stop frontal attack the city. In Kyiv enemy lost 100  ths. The attack on Kyiv temporarily stopped. Meanwhile Historically threatening  position on the flanks of the South-Western Front, which defended the city. German  Tank parts of south and north of the city and beating defenders shut  ring near Lokhvytsia environment. Warrant withdrawal of Soviet troops were given  too late and the environment gets four Soviet army. Attempts to escape  of the environment were unsuccessful. Commander of South-Western Front Kirponos M.  killed in action. September 19 German troops came to Kyiv.

Value: frustrated  German plans to seize command of the east city. Forced to change  direction of the main shock, which eventually led to the failure of the plan "Barbarossa".

Battle of Smolensk

July 10 - September 10  1941

Battle of Smolensk  unfolding in front of 650 km  and in depth - 250 km.  After the defeat of Soviet troops in border fighting in early July, the German  troops went on the approaches to Smolensk. The Soviet command after  previous lesions was able to restore combat capability of troops of the Western Front  that made the fierce resistance of the enemy. Although German troops captured Smolensk,  loss (50% in tank parts, 30% - in the infantry) forced them to stop  offensive. At the final stage of the Smolensk battle Soviet troops  offensive in the Yelni by eliminating performance and forcing the first time  go to the enemy defense.

Meaning: stubborn  Defence of Soviet troops in the Moscow and Ukraine directly forced  enemy's main offensive strategy change. Main shock was now  aimed at Ukraine. This eventually led to the failure of the plan "Barbarossa".

Defense of Odessa

August 5 - October 16  1941

After the defeat  Southern Front Romanians German troops came to town and took him  siege. But take it east failed. Several assaults were of  repulsed with great losses to the enemy. Before leaving the city soviet  troops conducted a successful amphibious operation near the village Hryhorivka, capturing  Heavy gun that fired the city. Decision on termination of Defense  breakthrough was made by German troops in the Crimea. Evacuation of troops from Odessa  was no loss and suddenly the enemy. Troops evacuated from Odessa  focused on the defense of Sevastopol.

Value: Soviet  troops that carried out within 72 days chained to the defense of the city itself  significant enemy forces, causing them heavy losses - more than 300 thousand people. defense  gave the possibility of the Black Sea fleet during the second half  1941 control the entire Black Sea, threatening the coast  Romania and its oil fields.

Battle of Leningrad

July 10, 1941  - January 27, 1944

In early July  1941 German troops of Army Group North have reached a long-pokery  to the city. From July to August 10, 1941 fights broke on Luzhskomu  defense frontier. Broken through its August 25 German troops entered the  approaches to the city, but East could not master it. August 8 German  troops came to Ladozhskoho lake, taking the city was besieged. At the same time  Finnish Army came to town with the North. Moving away from storming the city  German command decided udushyty his continuous attacks and  blockade. The blockade lasted 900 days of the victims of which was 800 thousand  residents, most of whom died from hunger and cold. To save  city from 22 November 1941 to Ice Lake Ladoga was established "road  Life, then on the bottom of the lake was laid electrical cable and pipeline.  Trying to create a German command double ring of siege was foiled  troops Bolkhovsky Front (August-September 1942). 12-18 January  1943 as a result of Operation Spark was prorvano blockade of Leningrad  and 14-27 January 1944 siege of the city was cleared.

Meaning: Army Group  "North" has not fulfilled its strategic task of seizing the city.  Defense of chained themselves to the considerable forces of German troops. Managed  saved from final destruction of the Baltic Fleet of the USSR.

Siege of Sevastopol

October 30, 1941  - July 4, 1942

In October 1941  German troops invaded the Crimea. Zoe October they went to far  approaches to the city. The city was not equipped with defensive buildings from land, but  had a solid defense from the sea. In a short time around the city was set up three  line of defense. Although the city was torn from the rear areas of land, of  Black Sea Fleet in furthering the 250 days provided the defense of the city  necessary. The repeated assaults of German and Romanian troops were  reflected in large losses to the enemy (over 300 thousand people.). But  defeat Soviet troops in the Crimean front Kerch p-e enabled  German troops make a decisive offensive to break through the defense of the city. 3  July 1942 rate gave the order to evacuate the troops, but it was too late.  Able to evacuate only a small part of the city defenders.

Value: At long  a defense of Sevastopol chained significant forces of German troops, causing them  significant losses. Were disrupted plans to destroy the Black Sea Fleet of the USSR.

 

            Narazyvshys a strong resistanceGerman command changes the direction of the main shock. Now he was directedto Ukraine. In August 1941 troops were defeated SouthernFront (General Tulenev II) on the Right Bank. Near Uman Sovietswere surrounded and hit 103 thousand in captivity. Also, the enemy took siege of York,defense which lasted from August 5 through October 16, 1941 German troopsvyyshy to Dnipro almost the entire length of its current and seized a number of bridgeheadits left bank. Soviet troops Southwestern Front (commanderColonel-General M. Kirponos), defending Kyiv, face threatsflank attacks. Realizing the danger of the situation of the front commander, invitedBetting permission to leave Kyiv, but Stalin flatly refused. Is it expensivecost the Soviet troops. German troops in the Sky forsuvavshyKremenchug, took to the Left Bank. Meanwhile, the Army Tank Army Group Centreturned south, forsuvavshy Desna, also vyyschly on the Left Bank. September 151941 German troops from the `united, troops surrounding South WestFront. As a result of 665 thousand Red Army soldiers were taken prisoner. Kirponos atattempt to break the circle of death. September 19, 1941 the enemy came to Kyiv.Path German troops to the east of Ukraine and Crimea have been opened.

            In October 1941 Germantroops seized Crimea and Sevastopol was under siege (30 October 1941 - 4July 1942), which showed the enemy resistance 250 days. October 16, 1941Soviet troops invisible to the enemy left Odessa.

            Soviet leaders have madelot of effort to organize resistance to the enemy. June 29, 1941 appeareddirective and the USSR Council of CPSU (B) on emergency measures to fight the enemy. 23June 1941 organized G.H.Q (since 8 AugustBid Supreme Commander, led by Stalin) - the highest bodystrategic leadership of the armed forces. Plenitude of power in the country movedcreated to June 30, 1941 State Defense Committee (DKO). Aroundlarge industrial centers were created ukriprayony, began evacuationindustry and wealth to East.

 

Evacuation of large industrial enterprises

 

The area from which evacuated

Number

The area where the evacuated

Number

Ukraine

550

Volga

226

Belarus

109

Ural

667

Estonia

62

Zazhidnyy  Siberia

244

Moscow  and Moscow region.

498

East  Siberia

78

Leningrad

92

Kazakhstan  and Central Asia

308

Other  areas

212

 

 

 

            * Est. ToSpring 1942 was put into operation in 1200 evacuees and 850 newenterprises.

 

            However, significantly change the situation forfronts failed. Wehrmacht received significant victories, which allowed  captureterritory of the USSR area 1,5 million square meters. km with a population of 74.5 millions.

            In the end, only prisonersRed Army lost 3.8 million people. Generally by the end of the war in captivity horrible4.5 Soviet soldiers, and returned only about 2 million Others died or weredestroyed in Nazi concentration camps.

            There are reasons for these failuresRed Army in the summer-autumn 1941:

- At allcircumstances, political and military, Nazi Germany attacked the USSR boresudden character;

- Militarypotential Nazi Germany and its allies before the war exceededpotential of the USSR, only in Europe by the Nazis was captured arsenal that canarm was 200 divisions (for example, in 4930 France captured the aggressor tanks3000 aircraft, the French motor was secured in 1992 the German division);

- Germantroops had a significant numerical advantage: 1,8 times in the casualties of moderntanks and planes respectively 1,5 and 3,2 times;

- Wehrmacht hadtwo-year experience of war in Europe and dominated by Soviet troops intraining.

            One can not draw and subjectivefactors that led to tragic consequences summer and fall 1941 Allresponsibility for failure lies with the military leadership of the party, army andState, personally to Stalin:

- The struggle betweendifferent factions in the Red Army troops re impede newappliances;

- Falseproved military doctrine of "the war in the small bloodenemy ";

- There has beengross errors in the timing of war, operational and building locationtroops in echelon, which allowed the Wehrmacht to attack eachgrouping separately;

- EveWar, Stalin refused to lead troops in the western districts combat readiness,although accurate data was the beginning of the war and military intelligence;

- Repression1937-1938 biennium Officers destroyed the best team and staff of Red Army(Total repressed 43 thousand people. Officers).

 
3. Battle forMoscow

            Autumn 1941 situation infronts to the Soviet Union became a tragic character. September 24commander of Army Group Centre von Bock corrected plan of attack andcapture Moscow ("Typhoon"). German troops in 1708 amounted to thousandsper., 13 500 guns and mortars, 1700 tanks and 1390 planes. Sovietfronts, which are shielded Moscow, had a membership of 1 250 thousand people., 7652 gunsand mortars, 990 tanks, 677 aircraft.

            During the first phase of Germanattack on Moscow, which lasted from 30 September to early November 1941German troops could surround the area in the Bryansk and west and Vyazmadestroyed the main forces of the west front of Soviet troops (in horrible captivity663 thousand soldiers, 1242 tanks, 5400 guns), that covering Moscow. Enemycaptured Kalinin (Tver), Maloyaroslavets, Mozhais'ka, Volokolams'ka, closeapproached Tula. German tanks were already in the 80-100 km from Moscow.

 

I wonder

            November 7, 1941 in Moscow (and also in KuybyshevVoronezh) to boost morale among the military parades were held in honor of anniversaryOctober Revolution. Parts of participating in the parade immediately directed tofront. The parade started in the morning much earlier than usual to avoidBombing raids. But the weather was favorable: there was low clouds, it wassnow. At the parade with a speech Stalin. In his speech he expressedconfidence that the enemy will soon be broken. Despite the demagogicstatement, it inspired hope in people throughout the Soviet Union in the future victory.

 

Spividnoshennya forcesBattle for Moscow

 

 

Personnel

Tanks

Guns

Aircraft

Before  German offensive against Moscow (September

1941)

Soviet troops

1250 thousand people.

990

7600

677

German troops

1700 - 1900 thousand people.

1700

14000

1200 -1390

Before  Soviet kontrnasturu

(December

1941)

Soviet troops

1100 thousand people.

774

7625

1000

German troops

1708 thousand people.

1170

13500

615

 

            The second stage - from 15-18November to early December 1941 German forces attempted to gropeweaknesses in the defense of the capital city and devious beats trying to surround itMoscow group of Soviet troops. German troops could closecloser to Moscow, but the desperate resistance of Soviet troops not allowedGerman command to implement their plans.

            The symbol of the heroic struggle became a feat28 soldiers (Panfilovtsiv, by the name of the division commander) 316 smallDivision to develop next entry in Dubosekovo Volokolams'ka highway blocked pathGerman tanks. In an unequal battle they did not miss the enemy. Cruise wasphrase V. Klochkova company political instructor: "Great Russia, but nowhere to retreat - backMoscow. "

            Meanwhile, as the defenders of Moscowconstrained attack enemy command and force accumulating prepared counterfire.In Moscow perekydalysya of the Far East and Central Asia. CommandingWestern front, which defended Moscow, was appointed GK Zhukov.

 

I wonder

            Thanks to intelligenceSoviet rozvydnyka Richard Sorge in Japan, the Soviet leadership receivedcompelling information that Japan would not attack the USSR.

 

            After intense fighting in defense5 on the night of December 6, 1941 Red Army crossed the offensive. Beganthird phase of the Battle of Moscow (5 December 1941 - the beginning of spring1942).

            During the Soviet counteroffensiveTroops near Moscow Army Group Center suffered major losses: it wasdestroyed 38 divisions (170 thousand people.), including 11 tank and 4 motorized.Total German losses in the battle for Moscow reached 500 thousand people., 1300 tanks,2500 guns and 15 000 vehicles.

            Defeat in Moscow foreverbury the myth of the invincibility of German armies, struck the final blow tolightning war plans. The victory marked the beginning of Soviet troop rotationin the World and the Second World War. Fashystski troops, znekrovleniin previous battles, were vidstup. As a result, Soviet troops counterattacknimetski forces were vidkynuti from Moscow to 100-300 km.

            After that began a generalRed Army to attack several of the front segment. So in the Leningradattempt was foiled German forces to create a double ring of the blockade. InKharkiv region by the Soviet troops formed barvinkovskyyperformance that was nepahanym base for continued attack on the liberationcity. The most successful company in the cold was the Kerch-Feodosia operation(December 26, 1941 - January 2, 1942), which led to liberationKerch Peninsula and weakened the German pressure on Sevastopol.

 

4. Progress on the WarSoviet-German front in spring and summer of 1942,

            Despite the defeat at Moscow inDecember 1941, the strategic initiative remained with the Wehrmacht. Sovietcommand mistakenly believed that in 1942 nimtsi brunt againcause under Moscow. Nimetskiy rozvidtsi able to successfully carry out these windowsdezinformatsiyi Soviet side under the code name "Kremlin". But in facthitlerivske command was a strategic action plan for 1942, whichpredicted large-scale offensive on the southern flanzi Soviet-Germanfront to acquire the Volga, the Caucasus, the oil deposits of Northern Caucasusand Transcaucasia, and then inflict a decisive blow in the direction of Moscow.

            This attack had become an integralHitler's overall plan, which involved the seizure of the Suez Canal,Middle East and Persian Gulf oil fields.

            By decision of Stalin radyanskitroops had to strike blows Hitlerites proactive, not waiting for the beginningtheir offensive.

            In April on the Kerch Peninsularadyanski parts that went into preparing for offensive deblokuvanya Sevastopolsuffered a sudden attack German troops under the command Manshteyna. LossesRed Army exceeded 200 thousand people. and a large number of weapons.Nimetski troops took Kerch, and surrounded by remnants of the Soviet units were still longAdzhymushkayskyh struggle in quarries.

CD_11_17

Landing sailorsBlack Sea Fleet, 1942

 

            The next blow nimetska armycaused by harnizonu surrounded Sevastopol (2 June - 4 July 1942).Nimetski troops, pidtrymani Romanians came to Northern Bay, and the fortress fell.Able to evacuate only a small part of defender of the city. The loss of SovietTroops were over 200 thousand people.

            Another tragic defeatSoviet troops were near Kharkiv. May 12, 1942 startedSoviet troops advance with Barvinkivsky speech in Kharkiv, which pryzviv tocatastrophic consequences. Soviet blow fell in the area where focusedmain force of German troops prepared to attack the South. Afterbloody battles Division three armies, and several other compounds are inenvironment and were defeated. Soviet losses were: 227 190 soldiers, 652tanks, 1646 guns, mortars 3278. Only 22 thousand people. managed to escape fromenvironment.

CD_11_16

Soviettrooper before the attack on Kharkov. 1942

 

            Unsuccessful attack and ended onnorthwestern part of the Soviet-German front, where the second shock armytried deblokuvaty Leningrad. Army commander General Vlasov surrendered incaptured and subsequently headed "Russkuyu osvobodytelnuyu Army (ALIR), which fought inside of Germany.

            Thus, in spring 1942southern flank of the Soviet front was considerably weakened, and the army remainedwithout reserves. In June 1942 General Wehrmacht offensive was launched toVolga and Northern Caucasus. In mid-July 1942 German troopsDon went to the river and launched the attack on Stalingrad. UnfoldedBattle of Stalingrad (July 17, 1942 - February 2, 1943). August 236th Army commanded by von Paulus reached the Volga River and began to assault the city.

            To stop the retreat of SovietTroops, July 28, 1942 Stalin signed the decree number 227, known asorder "not a step back." The essence of it was that the retreatingsoldiers and commanders were seen as cowards and deserters and were subject to punishmentunder the terms of wartime. Behind least stiykyh parts treatedzahorodzhuvalni special troops. By their own mistakes and errors Stalintranslated responsibility for the Army.

            In defensive battles radyanski troopsi kept some cities znekrovyly enemy.

            Simultaneously, long battle for the Caucasus, inwhich Soviet troops managed to stop the German troops in the Caucasuspasses.

 
5. Creationanti-Hitler coalition

            From the first hours of Nazi attackGermany on the Soviet Union it became clear that Hitler's calculations on internationalisolation of the Soviet collapse. In the early days of aggression, Winston Churchill said:"Anyone who fights against Hitler - a friend of England, anyone who fights onhis side - the enemy of England. "June 22, 1941 addressed to the nation inEnglish Prime Minister announced that Britain will "of Russia and Russianpeople all the help you can only. "On the USSR declared its support andU.S. President. Thus, with the beginning of the Soviet-German War beganformed anti-Hitler coalition.

            July 12, 1941 signedAnglo-Soviet agreement on joint fight against Germany. The first jointaction of the USSR and Iran Velykbrytaniyi occupation was to prevent convergenceit from Germany.

            August 14, 1941 afterRoosevelt and Churchill meeting appeared in a document called the Atlantic Charter,which is summed in a future coalition ideological. This Charter inDecember 1941 joined the Soviet Union. Charter was the firstdocument, which set out targets U.S. and UK in the war and generalposition pislyavoennoho structure of the world. Atlantic Charter has put forward the following objectives:destruction of Nazi tyranny, disarming the aggressor, the total disarmament of the world.

 

Atlantic Charter

(Adopted by the Heads of U.S. and UK August 141941)

U.S. President Roosevelt andPrime Minister Churchill, representing Her Majesty's Government in the of the unitedKingdom, after a joint discussion feel the need to promulgate  some general principles of national policytheir countries - the principles on which they were putting their hopes for a better futurethe world.

1)    U.S. and Britain is not seeking territorial orother acquisitions.

2)    They will not agree to any territorial changes that do notare situated in agreement with the free expression of the desire of interested people.

3)    They respect the right of all peoples to choose their formBoard at which they want to live, they seek to restore sovereignrights and self-government of the people who were deprived of this violentway.

4)    Follow properly with their existing obligations,they will seek to ensure a position in which all countries - large andsmall winners and losers - have access to rivnyhzasadah to trade and toglobal sources of raw materials needed for the economic prosperity of these countries.

5)    They strive to seek the full cooperationall countries in the economic field in order to provide for all higherliving standards, economic development and social security.

6)    After the final destruction of Nazi tyranny, theyhope for peace that will enable all countries to live insecurity in its territory and to ensure that provision. For which allpeople in all countries could live his life without knowing no fear ornuzhdennosti.

7)    Such a peace should enable all to freely withoutall the obstacles to swim the seas and oceans.

8)    They believe that all countries of the world must  with realistic motivations and spiritual orderthe use of force, because no future peace can not besaved if states that threaten or could threaten aggression outsideits borders will continue to use the land, maritime andair weapons. Churchill and Roosevelt believed that the establishment of morebroad and reliable system of general security, such countries should berozbroyeni. England and the U.S. will also help and encourage all other measuresimplemented. That will facilitate peaceful people get rid of the burdenweapons.

 

            October 1, 1941 between the USSR, USAand Great Britain in Moscow was signed tripartite agreement on aidSoviet Union weapons and food. Delivery (400 tanks, 500 aircraftmonthly, and strategic raw materials) began immediately. The United Statesinterest free loan of 1 billion dollars (November 1941). In December1941 the USSR was expanded force of about Lend-lease. The first military equipment (tanks especially) appeared onSoviet-German front during the Battle of Moscow. Help Alliesmainly took place Northern Sea convoy (to Murmansk andArkhangelsk), protected by British naval forces. Also through Iranand the Far East. Despite significant losses from German submarines and aircraft, withOctober 1941 by June 1942 USSR received three thousand planes, 4 thousandtanks, 20 thousand different vehicles. In general, the USSR was 4% (forother data, 7-11%) of weapons and equipment of local output. In the USSRtrytyna delivery fell U.S. Lend-Lease(10,8 billion dollars. With 30.3 billion). In the U.S. military products to the Soviet Union directedUnited Kingdom, Canada.

 

G. Zhukov onLend-lease

"Wewould find themselves in a tight place without American gunpowder, we could notproduce that amount of ammunition? Without American studebekeriv, we nowhy would pull our artillery. Issue of special steel, it is necessaryfor the purposes of war, was also connected with a number of U.S. supplies.

 

            January 1, 1942 Washington in 1926countries, including Soviet, American i Great Britain, signed the declarationUnited Nations on which was built on the principles and tasks of the Atlantic Charter.They pledged to use their resources to combat ahresoriv,War in spivrobitnychaty i do not conclude a separate peace. The Declarationnoted that complete victory over Nazism is the key to protecting life, libertyand independence of all peoples.

            Under anti-HitlerSoviet leadership recognized the coalition governments emigrant PolandCzechoslovakia, France.

 

Milestones of the anti-Hitler coalition

Date

Major events

March  1941

U.S. Senate adopts  the law of the land-lease

June 22  1941

Assault on Germany  USSR. Statement by Prime Minister Winston Churchill, that Britain will  "Russia and Russian people all the help that you can only.

July 12  1941

Anglo-Soviet  Declaration on Mutual Assistance in the fight against Nazi Germany and its  allies.

August  1941

Joint operation  USSR and the United Kingdom for the introduction of troops to Iran to its unymozhlyvyty  joining the war on the side of Germany and activities of German agents.

August 14  1941

Signing of the U.S.  UK Atlantic Charter, which set out the basic aims of participation  two countries in war and postwar principles of world order.

October 1  1941

Agreement between the USSR, USA  Britain and the Soviet Union for help with food and weapons.

December  1941

Introduction in the U.S. war  after Japan's attack on voyeyeno U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor. Joining the USSR  to the Atlantic Charter. Distribution of the USSR law on land-lease.

January 1  1942

26 States have signed  Declaration unions Nations, which was based on the principles of the Atlantic Charter.  Countries that signed the Declaration pledged to use their resources  to fight against ahresoriv, spivrobitnychaty in War i do not conclude  separate peace.

26 May 1942

Agreement between the USSR i  Union of Great Britain in the War against Germany and its hitlerivskoyi  satellites in Europe. Agreement provided for mutual cooperation i  care and after war.

June 11  1942

Agreement between the U.S. and  USSR on Mutual Assistance in vedenni war against the aggressors. Both sides  undertook to supply one by one oboronni materials, information, develop  Trade and economic co-operation exercise.

27  September 1942

USSR recognized leader movement  "Free France" General C. de Gaulle as leader of all free  French.

 

            26 May 1942 in Londontreaty was signed between the Soviet Union of i Great Britain in the War againsthitlerivskoyi Germany and its satellites in Europe. Agreement providedi cooperation for mutual assistance after the war. Were held in WashingtonSoviet-amerykanski talks, which ended June 11 signature1942 Agreement on Mutual Assistance in vedenni war against the aggressors. Obydviparties are committed to supply one by one oboronni materials, information,develop and implement Trade Economic Cooperation. These two agreementscompleted anti-Hitler coalition.

            The war has revealed the roots coincidenational interests of States, which threatened nimetskyy Japanese fascism imilitaryzm. In the interests of preserving their American, British andSoviet governments were zmusheni pity on cooperation, rejecting ideologicaldifferences. Coalition of the anti-fascist coalition was i peoples, contributing toits durability.

            The most important thing in relations betweenUSSR, the USA and Britain from the beginning was the problem of opening of the secondfront in Europe. Originally it was planned for 1942

 

6. Attacking Japanon Pearl Harbor and the outbreak of war in the Pacific

            After the signing of the Triple Pact(1940) Japan has conducted an active predatory policies in Asia. Japanesemilitarists seized part of China, and after the defeat of France signed an agreement withGovernment Petena (July 1941) on the right bases in franzuzkyhcolonies - Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia. Penetration in Japan to IndochinaU.S. urged Japan to freeze funds in American banks and toJapan's embargo on oil. The U.S. decision support and UKHolland. As a result, Japanese foreign trade declined by 3 / 4, andoil imports - on 9 / 10. Japanese economy faces a threat of collapse. 2July 1941 Japanese leadership decided to "move onSouth, that capture the country's South and Southeast Asia. Japandecided to join the fight against U.S. domination in the Pacific.

            Chief of the Japanese NavyAdmiral Yamamoto, the emperor promised that half the nearest future he will be able to keepstratyhichnu Initiatives, but then he can not guarantee the positive developmentevents for Japan.

 

Spividnoshennya forces parties to TopWar in the Pacific

 

Types of forces and  classes of ships

Japanese

force

Anglo-American-

Dutch forces

Correlation

Ground troops

(Thousands)

400

420

1:1

Air Force (aircraft)

1100

1329

1:1,2

Aircraft on aircraft carrier

550

280

2:1

Capital Ships

(Battleships)

10

11

1:1,1

Aircraft Carriers

10

4

2,5:1

Cruisers

36

35

1:1

Destroyers

113

100

1,1:1

Submarines

63

86

1:1,3

 

4

 

            Japanese navy went unnoticedto Hawaii and December 7, 1941 attacked by air from 350U.S. military aircraft carrier naval base at Pearl Harbor. Americans have lost19 military ships, 272 airplane over 3 thousand i Servicemen. Thisway, Japan one jab at a certain time advantage gained by sea andcaptured the strategic Initiatives. December 8 announced Britain USA iwar Japan. I Germany Italy declared intention YOUR fight with the UnitedStates. Thus, in late 1941 all the big states were vtyahnutiin the Second World War.

CD_I_34

Admiral Yamamotoled the attack on the American

 naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaiiosrovah. 1941

 

            The same day the Japanese began to moveThailand (Japan became an ally), English Malaya (now Malaysia) andBurma. Simultaneously, Japanese troops began landing in Indonesia, Malaya andthe Philippines. In December 1941 was captured Hong Kong, Guam Island,Uyeyk that were important allies supporting databases.

            American garrison inPhilippine Islands without support from the air and the sea was broken andsurrendered (May 1942) The losses reached 130 thousand people.

            In February, 1942 capitulatedimportant English naval base, a fortress of Singapore. In the same monthsea battle took place in Shuroobod Sea, where the Japanese destroyed connectionsAnglo-American-Dutch squadron. After that Japanese troops quicklyoccupied all the islands of Indonesia, in spring 1942 landed in New Guineaand came to Australia.

            Thus it was seizedhuge territory with a population of 150 million people and vast naturalresources.

            The Allies lost only landMore than 300 thousand troops Pers., Japan - 20 ths. Continuing the offensive inIndia, Australia and not seized by the Pacific Islands, Japan tried tomaster all the important strategic point in Asia-Pacificregion and to force the U.S. and Britain make it profitable for peace.

 
7. War inNorth Africa and the Mediterranean `th

            In early 1941 to NorthernAfrican troops to help the Golf arrived in the German Africa Corpsled by General Rommel. His arrival helped not only to stop the successfulBritish offensive in Libya, but to reject them to Egypt. Successful action Rommelearned him the nickname "Fox Desert.

CD_I_35

Field marshalRommel

 

            Initiative in North Africacaptured the state fascist bloc. However, in the rear of German troopsAllspice troops held an important strategic point of Tobruk, which did not giveRommel continue the offensive. All attempts to break down the resistance of Englishmen were unsuccessful.In November 1941, British made a successful attack on Tobruk deblokadiand re-mastered Kerenayikoyu. British success has breached seaTransport of Italians and Germans in the Mediterranean Sea and set building Rommelthreatened to stay without reinforcements and supplies. This alarmed the Germancommand, which decided to seriously tackle the Mediterranean `pits. Keypoint the English domination in the Mediterranean was o.Malta thatwas just in the middle of the sea. First German aircraft and submarinestogether with the Italian fleet caused quite a significant impact on EnglishFleet in the Mediterranean `th: been sunk or rendered unserviceable by the largest ships(The most successful operation was carried out by Italian commandos in Alexandria in 1919December 1941, when it was damaged two British battleships). Thenbegan systematic bombardment o.Malty who had completed a Germanlanding in July 1942 However, Hitler chose to attack Rommel,which was to capture Alexandria and the Suez Canal. In March, Italian-Germantroops launched attacks in Egypt and were with great difficulty stopped about 100 km fromAlexandria. In June 1941 Rommel troops captured Tabruk -key point of British defense and captured 33 thousand hisdefenders. For this, Hitler awarded him the rank of General Field Marshall. Summer1942 Italo-German troops were at El Alamein (halfwayto Alexandria), but their further progress was stopped by Britishtroops.

 

8. Nativefracture in the Pacific theater of war

The spring-summer 1942 strategicinitiative on all fronts entirely belonged to Germany and itsallies. Anti-Hitler coalition allies were hard defensive battle.However, by mid 1942 is beginning to change.

The first success that allowed changeoverall strategic position has been achieved in the Pacific. 7-8 May1942 in a sea battle in the Coral Sea, off the coast of New Guinea,Japanese shock squadron that napravlyalasya to capture Port Moresby, the injuredfirst significant defeat. The feature of this sea battle was that the surfaceships of both sides made no shot one by one. The fate of the battleAviation has decided that based on the aircraft carrier. Japanese, losing one aircraft carrier, 1destroyer and 80 aircraft were forced to leave. From plans to invade Australiahad to be abandoned.

June 4-6, 1942 at MururoaMidway the Japanese fleet (Admiral Yamamoto) suffered such a defeat of U.S. Navy (Admiral Nimitz mean) already failedrestore their power to end the war. In the battle the Japanese lost 4 carriers, 1cruiser and 253 aircraft, the Americans - 1 carrier, 1 destroyer and 150 aircraft.

Following those two defeats Japanlost half of its aircraft carriers and had to move to strategicdefense. The Americans in turn passed to active hostilities.In August 1942 they began to fight for the island of Guadalcanal (groupSolomon Islands). Severe battles unfolded in the sea, in air and on land.They continued until February 1943 and completed a total defeat of Japanin the region. The victory meant the American general in the struggle for the PacificOcean crossing to the U.S. initiative.

 

Results

1941-1942 biennium were rich in events that werecrucial for further progress of the war. In the war came and the USSR were involved,Japan, U.S.. The war was truly global. 1941 for a crashGermany, 1942 - For Japan strategy "Blitzkrieg". AlthoughTriple Pact countries held the strategic initiative, but wasclear that their defeat is inevitable.

 

Questions and tasks:

1.    What were the reasons for attacking Germany and its allies in the USSR?

2.    Identify the major provisions of "Barbarossa". Did it sell?

3.    Compare Stalin and Hitler military doctrine.

4.    Marshal Vasilevskyafter the war argued that Stalin's "fault that he did not catch thatlimits on which his policy of "become not only unnecessary but alsodangerous. Such a limit had to go boldly ". What kind of "threshold" questionlanguage?

5.    As events unfolded inSoviet-German front in 1941? What caused the defeat of the Red Armyat the initial stage of the war?

6.    Analyze the table. What had caused such a loss ratio betweenUSSR and Germany?

 

Losses to the USSR and Germanyon July 10, 1941

 

Personnel

Tanks

Guns

Aircraft

Soviet troops

815 700 people.

11783

21500

4013

German troops

79 058 people.

350

1061

826

 

 

7.    Red Army losses in 1941 accounted for 67% of small arms, 91%tanks, 90% of guns and mortars, 90% of aircraft, almost the entire cadre of the army.Do you think that makes the Soviet Union managed to confront and defeatenemy?

8.    What does the battle for Moscow in the course of World War II?

9.    What caused the defeat of the Red Army in the spring of 1942?

10. What are the causes of Japan's attack on the U.S.? Describe events of December 71941 in Pearl Harbor.

11. As events unfolded war in the Mediterranean basin and North Africain the second half of 1941 - in early 1942?

12. Make a table senhronistychnu events on the fronts of the Second World War1941-1942 biennium

 

Soviet-German front

African, Mediterranean theaters of war

Pacific theater of war