Introduction (compendium)

During the first half of XX century. enormous in scale and quality changes roiling economic, political, scientific, cultural and educational activities arena. And if not for world war 1914-1918 biennium and 1939-1945 biennium, the progress of human civilization would be much more successful. On the one hand, the war demonstrated the inability of leading nations to the peaceful settlement of problems, but on the other - have become a serious warning for the future coexistence of nations and peoples.

Compared with previous centuries the impression that humanity was moving faster. This is because due to advances in science and technology economy, followed by other signs of human activity began to develop rapidly. Even for the life of one generation dokorino changed environment, lifestyle, technology, relationships between people and so on. For instance, witness the first aircraft flight (1903) could see human space flight (1961).

Like XIX, in the first half of the twentieth century. major changes occurred in the West who continued to act as the locomotive of history. Ended up of industrial society. Unprecedented growth to the productive forces pushed the leading countries to keen competition for markets. Peredilyvshy world, not in their colonial possessions ruthlessly destroyed the traditional way of life, by force pulling in people from Asia, Africa and Latin America in the world economy. Expansion of the West led to the fact that economies become more interdependent and vulnerable. Evidence of this was the "great depression" 30 years, which, beginning in the U.S., has captured almost all countries.

In the first half of the twentieth century. changed world leaders. If the nineteenth century. England was the most powerful state, its early twentieth century. Germany has pressed something, then in 20 years finally acutely the economic hegemony of the United States. The First World War and especially the economic crisis in 1929-1933, led to the need for state regulation of economy. In some countries it was totally governmentalization (USSR). In Italy, Germany and Japan vstanovvyvsya strict state control, but in the U.S., England, Scandinavia was found more efficient, indirect impact on the economy of the state that has not led to deformations of its structure.

main layers of the new industrial society have become entrepreneurs and industrialists on the one hand, the employee - on the other. At the beginning of the twentieth century. among industrialists and entrepreneurs evolved group of financial oligarchs, who became the decisive power in the policymaking world countries. These mighty Dnipro River of the old aristocratic families that have preserved their wealth and influence. Together these two groups were the elite of society.

the largest social group continued to be salaried workers. They constituted the basis of mass parties and movements. The ability to manipulate their mood has become an integral feature of the political leaders of the first half of the twentieth century. New phenomenon was the formation of the middle class (middle and small businessmen, bureaucrats, creative and technical intelligentsia, workers are highly paid), which is dependent on the internal stability of society. With its business or paying public office, they were interested in conducting such domestic policy that prevented social upheaval. This stratum of society constituted the bulk of voters.

is a new social structure emerged in the USSR. This class of owners disappeared. Caste won party-bureaucratic elite. The working class, which was announced ahead of things are not that many more of revolutionary transformation. Living standards remained low.

the end of 30 years in most European urban population has exceeded the rural population. The most radical change to the peasantry in the USSR. It was physically destroyed wealthy peasants, the rest lost ownership of the land turned into a cheap labor to artificially created collective farms - collective farms.

Political History of Europe and the U.S. the first half of the twentieth century. was filled with struggles around social issues and problems of democracy. In some countries, social tensions exploded revolutions in other ruling elites prudently carried out reforms.

main driving force behind the revolution in mass workers' party. Revolution swept the Russian and Austro-Hungarian Empire, Germany. Speeches workers held in Bulgaria and Italy. The initial aim was to create a revolutionary democratic republics with a more equitable social order. However, disappointment in the existing authorities and lack of political experience have generated a system of direct democracy in the form of tips. But the Soviets rotated restraint and then the elimination of democratic institutions, establishing rigid dictatorships (the dictatorship of the proletariat in Soviet Russia). Attempts to build a fair (socialist, communist) society ended up becoming a totalitarian system of Soviet design.

simultaneously growing and counterrevolutionary wave, which in most cases resulted in the loss of democratic gains and establishment of authoritarian regimes (Hungary) or the dominance of conservative forces (Germany, Finland).

countries that managed to avoid revolutions (England, France, Sweden) went through the development of liberal democracy: improved voting rights, civil society, social protection and so on.

exacerbation of post-war social and political struggle, the crisis of the existing institutions of power generated fascism. The Nazis offered their prescriptions of society, but a complete negation of democracy.

Thus, after World War for the people opened three perspectives: the development of liberal democracy, the construction of socialism (communism), fascist modernization. Summary History 1920-30-years is to fight these trends. After the last two were blind, proving that democracy and market economy has no alternative.

powerful influence on political life in the interwar period, kept the national liberation movements. The people who were enslaved or suffered national oppression sought to decide their fate. Attempts to settle jazaty national problems after World War were not successful. Political boundaries do not coincide with ethnicity. The desire of many European nations (among others - and Ukrainian) for independence or even autonomy to not heard. Experience in solving national problems in 20-30's (from direct attempts of assimilation and genocide to seek compromise) proved the necessity of granting the right of self-determination or consideration of interests of minorities and creating a system of international relations that would ensure free development of all nations.


Periodization of the history of early twentieth century.

1. The First World War (1914-1918)

War summed up the international relations of the late XIX - early XX century. The existence of military-political blocs (the Entente and the Triple Alliance) draws in World War 36 States (67% of the planet). The fighting there were in Europe, Asia, Africa, in the vast oceans.

War Features:

  • engulfed the whole world
  • wore mostly invasive nature (except for Belgium and Serbia, the victims of aggression)
  • massive use of new weapons (powerful guns, machine guns, planes, tanks, submarines, etc.)
  • existence of continuous front line
  • mobilization of its human resources (70 million people.)
  • massive destruction (especially in France, Belgium and western regions of the former Russian Empire, the eastern regions of the former Austro-Hungarian)
  • significant human losses: about 10 million people (of which one million civilians)
  • economic potential and technological level of the decisive factor of victory
  • war highlighted the deficiencies of public administration
  • acquired great importance to ideology, propaganda, ability to mobilize and unite people around an idea
  • made fundamental changes in military art.

war has created precedents that have become commonplace: state regulation of economy, labor mobilization, bringing foreign workers forced to work in; total war (to run out of material and human resources), massive propaganda company deliberate intimidation and bluff people, devaluation of human life, genocide (Armenians and Assyrians in Turkey in 1915), use of weapons of mass destruction (chemical), etc..


2. Post-war instability (1918-1923 biennium)

Revolution, reform, revision of borders, creating a new system of international security, political and economic crisis have resulted in:

- deployment of the revolutionary process whose consequences in different countries were different. Thus in Italy the Nazis to power dostupylysya (1922), in Hungary been established authoritarian dictatorship in the USSR - communist, appeared in Germany Weimar Republic, based on the Union of Social-Democracy and the military-aristocratic elite

- revival of democratic and labor movements, reforming government activity aimed at removing social tension in society

- split in the labor movement, a Communist (which sought to implement delirium of world revolution) and the Socialist International, trade unions

- signed peace treaties with countries that were defeated in World War II, a Versailles-Washington system.

3. Stabilization (1924 <-1929 years)

During this period Europe and the U.S. have overcome the consequences of war, rebuilt the economy, moved it to the peace track and began to increase the pace of economic development. Stabilization period characterized by the following features:

- modernization of industrial production, introduction of new technology, new areas and methods of work organization (pipelined, standardization, mass production)

- stabilization credit and financial system

- reducing government regulation

- changes in political party structures in some countries

- establishment of authoritarian regimes in Central and Southeast Europe

- formation of new European security system, weakening the Versailles-Washington system

- significant changes in the ideological, political, cultural, social, psychological, moral atmosphere of Western society (increasing role of the media, the democratization of everyday life, sports development, tourism, the emergence new genres of art).

4. Great Depression (1929-1933 biennium)

In 1929 the world got in the face of unprecedented economic crisis.

Its main reasons:

- extremely high degree of concentration and monopolization of capital and production

- transition to mass production technologies

- reducing government regulation

- uneven distribution of national wealth, the narrowness of the domestic market.

crisis has affected all industrialized countries, almost all economic sectors and lasted four years.

main indicator of the crisis - the overproduction of goods. This led to bankruptcy of many enterprises, reduction of industrial production by nearly 80%, agriculture - at 30, trade - almost 70% increase in unemployment (over 30 million people), lower living standards. Aggravated domestic problems. More active workers, communist, fascist movements.

greatest crisis hit countries that late 20-ies had the highest rates of economic development - the U.S. and Germany.

5. Nazrivannya World War II (1933-1939 biennium)

Different countries have searched the crisis alone and in different ways, ignoring the interests of other states. This led to the emergence of "trade wars and interstate conflicts. Moreover, two major trends stand out.

Yes

USA, England, Canada, Scandinavian countries have made liberal reforms in the interest of the general population, but increased state control over the economy. It laid the foundations "of the state of prosperity".

Instead, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Japan established a fascist-type totalitarian regimes that sought the crisis by reviewing the results of the First World War and preparing for another war, claiming to be world domination. Ended up of the totalitarian regime in the USSR in foreign policy as a way to territorial and political expansion under communist slogans.

This is extremely

worsen the confrontation of democracy and totalitarianism.

In some countries (France, Spain, Chile) on the wave of anti-fascist struggle for power came at a time People's Front, which had a radical social reform. Over Spain in the fight against fascism threatened the communist dictatorship, but was overthrown and a republic established nationalist-totalitarian regime of General Franco.

peaceful means containment of totalitarian states did not work, and the world came to World War II.