§ 39. Arts
1. Main ideas and trends in the development of art
In the interwar period in art, new trends anddirections? developing old ones. To Пershoyi World War II in the European Fineart ruled realism. World timeuyavlyavsya worthy of its realistic depiction. Personality artist? histastes and preferences in the choice could be a genre? song? superiority inshape or color.
First World War and postwar instability led towhat? that the world has lost the harmony and rationality in the eyes of artists? hisrealistic reflection allegedly lost meaning. There was a change in understandingartist. It was not an adequate reflection of the world? and in identifyinghis artist vision of the world. A is to gain understanding of the world could?for example? to a certain ratio of lines and geometric shapes. This kind ofpainting called abstract.The founder was a Russian painter Vasily Kandinsky. Surrealists toled by Salvador Dali tried to portray the world of irrationality. In theirpictures? unlike abstract paintings? There are things? theiryou know? but sometimes they look amazing and are in the unusualcompositions? as in dreams.
Modernism - mainstream art20-30's? that characterized the break with ideological and artisticprinciples of classical art. Originated at the same time? covered all types of art.Artists Modernist E. Kirchner? D. Ensor? E. Munch? E. Nolde? Kandinsky?P. Claes? O. Kokoschka offered intuitivism and automatism in the creativeprocess - using the physical properties of geometric shapes and colorsrefusal of the illusions of space? deformation of objects in the image? characterssubjectivity in the content.
One of the new trends in literatureand art was avant-gardism, thatemerged on the basis of anarchic? subjective outlook. Hence - a break withprevious tradition of realistic? formalistic search for new drugsartistic expression. The preceding vanguard modernist trends werefirst third of the twentieth century. - Fauvism? Cubism? Futurism? Surrealism and dodekafoniya in music. Amongrepresentatives of the vanguard and neoavanhardyzmu - artists P. Mondrian?S. Next? writers Robert Desnos? A. Artaud? Beckett? S. Bussoti composers?Dzh.Keydohs.
At the same time, realism is not handed over theirposition. Its representatives were, in particular, artists Mazerel F. (Belgium)?Fuzheron and Taslytskyy (France)? R. Huttuzo (Italy)? Ernie G. (Switzerland).
Significant progress has been made in the field of dramaart and film. This applies primarily in Western Europe andUSA. The U.S. was founded theaters, where directed by G. Klerman? E. Kazan?L. Starsberh? R. Mamoulian? K. Cornell actors? Dzh.Barrimor? Mr Hayes? E. Le Halyenn. Inrepertoire pieces were young American playwrights K. Odetsa? YU.O 'Neal? J.Lawson? Maltsy A. et al.
Since 20 years kinomatohraf proved that he isoriginal art. It combines the advantages of almost all traditionalArt. The appearance and sound colors anymore enriched kinomatohraf elements of literaturemusic and painting. In the early years of spectators kinomatohrafu prymanyuvalyprimitive melodramatic plots or ektsentrychnaGame talented actors such as Charlie Chaplin. But the 20-30'skinematohrah produced due to him only a set of techniques that allowspecial effect on the feelings of the audience. Uriznomanitnylosya Cinema: From `appearedhistorical, adventure pictures turned into a documentary kino.Kinomatohrafreal industry. World leader in the film industry in Hollywood is gradually becoming (in1908).
Most prominent figure in Americanfilm in years - DirectorDA-U.Hriffit? who in his historical films laid the foundations of cinema as an independentart. Thiscontributed to the activity directors, T. H.Insa? who started the movies-westerns? andM. Sennetta? marked by high professional culture. The greatest mastercomedy was Charlie Chaplin. Top Stars 20-30's -M. Pikford? D. Fairbanks? R. Valentino? G. Garbo? L. Hirsh? B. Keaton? K. Gable? F. Astor?G. Cooper? H. Bogart. While the U.S. bases are designed Disney cartoonfilm. It should be noted? Among these movies were? that raisedintellectual problem? for example? "Citizen Kane" (1941?by O. Uelles).
Mickey Mouse -U. Disney creation, favorite cartoon character
A number of countries have developed their owndirecting and acting school with their special traditions (U.S., USSR,France, India, etc.)..
In the USSR development of cinema was held in the samedirection? that in other countries? but have features? related to the existencetotalitarian state. In the 20-30's was shot films battleship"Potemkin"? "Chapayev, Eisenstein created prominent directors?Dovzhenko and others. Dovzhenko Film "Earth", which reflect originalityUkrainian folk life and praised the Ukrainian nature, as one of thebest films of all time and peoples.
Kinomatohraf had huge propaganda role. Nomanifestos and slogans can not compare with the bright kinobrazom. The actor who playedfavorite kinogeroy turned into a true idol. This feature filmwas actively used by totalitarian regimes to promote andagitation. Mighty power of propaganda was the documentary film, whichseemed to have objectspath marks and bezprestrastnym. Skillful editing staff, sound,plot and other professional techniques made it possible to kill people in mindcertain idea, ideology. Cinema has also become a powerful instrument of propaganda of a new lifestyle, fashion,behavior of others.
In art 20-30's took an intensive search for answerson the role and place of man in society about the principles of its interaction withenvironment and the future of humanity. The architecture of mostwere popular moderniski flow. One of the greatest architects of theera as Hrippius Walter, who in 1919was founded in Weimar High School building and styling"Bauhaus". A summary of his project building schools with the same name wassymbol of perfection new style - functionalism or constructivism. Incourse of this school developed functionalist aesthetics, principles of modernshaping the architecture and design, principles ofmaterial, transportation in means of plastic art. artrepresentatives of the "Bauhaus" had a significant impact on art and architectureEurope, America and Asia. Heritage School includes memorytents of modern architecture,examples of classic design, sculpture, stage productions, posters,photographs, samples of design books and more.
Construction Skyscraper (USA)
French architect Le Korbyuzyeconsidered architecture as part of social progress and gavepreference to the development of convenient apartment buildings and complexes, supportedneed serial design and industrial construction. Using the Architecturearchitects sought to eliminate existing inequities, improvesociety. Now spread the idea of population in large citiessatellite towns, create a "garden city". Similar projects are carried outin England, France and Holland. In various forms the idea of the harmonious combinationhousing and human nature realized in the USA, Finland, Czechoslovakia, Swedenand other countries. It picked up in the USSR, but vyholostyly essence, bringingto propaganda slogans. "I know - the garden will be, I know -Supplies tsvest, when are people in the country sovetskoi there! "- wrote the poetVladimir Mayakovsky in 1929 on the development of Kuznetsk. But still theredominated by mining and smelting industry, and public infrastructureremains weak.
In countries with a totalitarian regime sought to artimpose the idea of the social order of preference of one over the other, to instill charactereternity and inviolability of the existing government that cares about the welfare of people andhis spiritual purity. In architecture and sculpture in Germany and Italyvtilyuvalys idea implicitly humility, national and racial superiority,cultivated force and brutality. In the USSR, supported those artists who have managedclearly and convincingly show the grandeur of socialist construction and servicesin it the Bolshevik party and its leaders. An outstanding international phenomenonculture over here long sculptural group called the V. Mukhina worker andcollective farmer ", designed specifically for Soviet Pavilion World Exhibition1937 in Paris.
Sculptural group V. Mukhina"Worker and collective farmer"
5. Olympic Movement. Development of Sports in the interwar years
Thanks to Baron Pierre de Kubertenunaprykintsi nineteenth century. wasrestored to the Olympic Games. The first modern Olympic Gameshistory occurred in 1896 in Athens. The First World War interrupted this tradition.After its completion the Olympic movement was revived and increasingly gainpopularity. During the interwar period took place in fiveFive Summer Games and four Winter.
Table. Olympics in the interwar period
VSecond Summer Olympics - Atverpen (Belgium).
VIII Summer Olympics - Paris (France).
And the Olympic Winter Games - Chamonix (France).
IX Summer Olympics - Amsterdam (Netherlands).
II Olympic Winter Games - St. Moritz (Netherlands).
X Summer Olympics - Los Angeles (USA).
III Olympic Winter Games - Lake plesyd (USA).
XI Summer Olympics - Berlin (Germany).
ІV Winter Olympics - Garmisch-Parkenkirhen(Germany).
In 1932Olympic year, there was a case where one athlete was simultaneouslyChampion in summer (boxing) and winter(Bobsled) games. They became American Edward Ihen. .
The mostresonance, dueго powerful propaganda, had the OlympicsGermany (1936). The Nazi regime tried to use them as powerfulAryan Nation propaganda advantage over others. The victory chornoshkirokoAmerican runner Jesse Owens (he won 4 gold medals) crossedthese plans to the Nazis, despite the TEAM won the German national team.
Jesse Owens to p`pedestal of fame
AlthoughUkrainian team at the Olympic Games in the interwar years was not(USSR did not participate in Olympic move to 1952) Ukrainianathletes took part in them in the team of Poland, Romania,Czechoslovakia, Latvia, USA, Canada. Among the Ukrainian, who won Olympicgold were Adam Krulykevych cavalryman, shablist Thaddeus Frederick.
OlympicsGames gave a powerful boost to the sport. In the 20-30-years sport has becomecraze. In totalitarian states (Italy, Germany, USSR), hehas become a cult, a form of expressing the power of the nation regime.
German football team
In the 20'syears is rapidly gaining popularity of football, to now most popular sport. From1930 start regularly provvodytysya world championships. The first took place inUruguay, where the local team and became the first champion. The next championships(1934, 1938) won the football cup champions Italy.
Featuresports development in the interwar years was that it starts to become pofesiynym. In1917 in Canada there is the first professional sports organization - the NationalHockey League (NHL).
Questions and Tasks
1.Verify features of the development of art in the 20-30's
2. Whichinfluenced ПershaWorld War II on the public consciousness?
3. Whatdirections and trends dominated the art 20-30's and why?
4.Expand the concept: avant-gardism, modernism, realism.
5.Describe the development of cinema and theater in the 20-30's Twentieth century.
6. Whichkinomatohrafu impact on society?
7. Assport developed in the interwar period? What is the impact of policy on the development of sport?Give examples.