§ 38. Literature and the literary process of the first halfTwentieth century.
1. Literary trends of the early XX century.
In the literature of the period under study, he held leading positionsrealism, but realism unlike the second half of the nineteenth century. which is mainlydescribe reality, realism early twentieth century. critically osmyslyuvavreality, therefore it is called critical realism. In England, France,Germany, U.S. and other countries in this genre have been made famous novelsstory fiveart. The most popular at that time korytsuvalysya works of EnglishDzh.Holsuorsi, B. Shaw, S. Maugham, Frans A. French, R. Rolland, G. Mann Germans,T. Mann, L. Feyhtvanhera, Norwegian Hamsuna K. et al. Their work differed exclusiveattention to the problems of man and society in general.
LimitsRealism does not meet the needs of time. Literary process of 20-30'scharacterized by a deep creative exploration, the emergence of new styles and genres. In the workssome authors plot a traditional fade into the background, and sometimes quitedisappeared, giving philosophical reflection, feelingYam, experiences, sometimes - mysticalscene. New styles and genres of generalizing called modernist. ToWriters include French modernists M. Proust, F. Kafka Austrians,Englishwoman V. Woolf, James Joyce Irish and others.
In the 20'syears emerged a new trend in literature and philosophy - existentialism (inLatin - existence). Ekzystentsionalisty sought to understandplay a hidden, subconscious thoughts and feelings of a person understand hisrespect for life and death, to the existence of a whole (See paras 3paragraph).
Reproducedlist of movements and genres are not exclusive. Creative Diversity was much broader.
Scheme: "Major Trends and directions References 20-30'syears.
Critical realism Modernism Avant-garde
ObjectsunityWriters Literature futurism
And the artists, "Clara" lost dadaizm etc.).
Maingoal: "Revolution in the minds" Frustration in Modern Commitment to change
strugglefor the liberation of humanity from civilization, the loss of ideals notzmichtu only, but also
prejudicesbourgeois society afterWWI formliterary
andreligion War works
А.Barbusse Е.Hemingway J. Joyce Т.ТуMacaw
Vayyan-deKutur `є D. StillPassos F. Kafka Hyulzenbek
Stenleyn W. Faulkner M. Proust Janko
T. Hardy R. Oldinhton T. Elliot Jean Gros
B. Russell EV-M.Remark H. Wolf D. Hartfild
A. Franz Robert Desnos
R. Ledyvr A. Artaud
G. Wells Samuel Beckett
2. Terms of literature intotalitarian and democratic countries
Traddepth, second round a big impact on publicconsciousness was literature. Therefore, the regime sought to channel itdevelopment of profitable channel to make his arm. Writers and poets oftenfound themselves at the center of political events and had to have strong willpower andtalent, not to betray the truth of history. Especially difficult was it to makeStates where long established itself as a form of totalitarian rule and politicalspiritual dope masses.
Yes, Germany has created a custom MinistryPropaganda, headed by Г.Goebbels. It carried out the strict control over allspiritual life. Physical punishment threatened anyone who expresseddiscontent or not obeyed Nazi ideology. For these reasons, the countryleft-known writers - J. Becher, B. Brecht, E. Weinert, A. Seghers,T. Mann, E., M.Remark, L. Feyhtvanher, С. Zweig.
Tragic music permeate creativitywriters and poets of Italy. The hero of their works and prevailing sense of despairloneliness. In the work of artists of the country that gave the world many famous names,observed deviation from social issues, capture the form, the indifference tocontent.
Exceptional role for Japan in Asia justify this literaturecountry. In the 30's spiritual life here was subordinated elevationnational spirit and power of the emperor, military service celebration prowess.Totalitarianism government supported those writers who helped morallysociety prepare for the hardships and sacrifice.
In the USSR, the main method in literature and art was considered"Socialist realism". He nasadzhuvavsya all means. Principle"Party" literature identified Vladimir Lenin, was the principal inloyalty test writers and poets to the existing regime. Pacificationtalented artists way of repression was combined with "care"about a new, Soviet prose and poetry. Stalinist leaders were in the firstpart, party officials, who demanded praise of Soviet reality andleadership of the Bolshevik Party. Resolution of the CPSU (B) 1932On re-literary organizations' long identifiedthe fate of Soviet literature. Resolution became the ideological basis for unlimitedstate intervention in the literary and artistic life, under conditions odnopartiynostisystem was particularly dangerous for the development of culture.
The first wave of repression against intellectuals in the USSRswept in 20-ies But the biggest blow was dealt in1936-1939 biennium As a result of Stalin's terror were killed Bebel I., M. Klyuyev,M. Koltsov, O. Mandelstam, B. Yasenskyy and many other writers and poetsincluding Ukraine. Those who survived were forced to adapt to the requirementsofficial ideology and Bolshevik practice of building socialism in one,separate country. Widespread and timeless themes are winningBolsheviks in 1917, collectivization and industrialization policy. However, in the framework of rigidtotalitarian state works appeared, consecrated talent of a writer.
For the Soviet Union, moreover, been overcome by a positive legacyof the tsarist empire mass illiteracy of the population. Some people firsttook his own writing and began to develop a distinctive literary tradition.
Inwestern democracies literary activity was rozkutishoyu. Butpolitical freedom still did not give material comfort. If countries withtotalitarian regimes work depended on relations with the ruling elite, inrelatively democratic states have done considerable pressure publishers urgent need forearnings. The rise of experienced creative writers, designed tothe general reader. Popular adventure, fantasy, psychologicalnovels. Acknowledged masters of the genre became a detective A. Christie (England)G. Simenon (France), R. Gardner and E. Stout (USA).
3.Social and Philosophical Thought 20-30's
Characteristicfeature of the philosophy of the interwar period was the continued focus on man and itsplace in a conflict the world. Most influential in these years is existentialism -philosophy of existence (from the Latin word "existence" - existence). Itsgreatest representatives in Germany were Karl Jaspers, M. Heidegger, France- Writers and philosophers JP Sartre, A. Camus, G. Marcel, in Spain -H.Orteha y Gasset. The philosophy of existentialism grew up on the basis of a deep crisis,which in those years were covered by Western society. Existentialism triedrespond to the tragic attitudes of people thinking the time to help peoplefind a place in the world, his "I" (its existence), breakingalienation. Man creates himself, gets his suschnist, existing - thatChief will existentialism, the idea of individual rights by complianceall vidyuuvayetsya with her and with other people. The situation of personal choice -central theme of philosophy and literature ekzystentsionalnoyi interwar years.
Considerableimpact on public opinion, the literature also had a philosophical conceptFreud's psychoanalysis, philosophy of life of French philosopher A. Bergson, whoattempted to build a picture of the world that a new way to explain the evolutionnature and human development, their unity.
4.The main directions of development of world literature. Writers - winnersNobel Prize
The linkfor prose writers, poets, publicists of all countries, irrespective of the dominant forms andmethods of political rule, were the theme of war and peace, life and death, love andhatred. Concentrated expression in the work they have received Americanwriter Ernest Hemingway(1899-1961). He was to take part in the first and second world wars,defend the republic in Spain. First novel "Fiesta" by E. Hemingwaypublished in 1926 This - the book-protest against the "senselessWar cry "lost generation." overtly anti-warorientation was the novel "A Farewell to Arms" Hatred of fascism,love of Spain and its people filled novel E. Hemingway For whom poundingbell (1940). literary creativity and active public positionwriter awarded the Nobel Prize in 1954, afterstory "Old Man and the Sea."
French writer Anatole France (1884-1924) awardedNobel Prize in 1924 was , the historical and philosophical novels against Frans A.spreading influence of the church. Similarities in contemporary France was looking in the eighteenth century.Infiltrated social problems came to the socialist movement,supported Soviet Russia.
Fromliterary and musical culture of France is closely linked name Romain Rolland (1866-1944). The fate of the artistin society it reflected in the novel-epic "Jean-Christophe. DuringWorld War I made a sharp reviews and articles. Not takemethods of revolutionary struggle, and their protest against war and violence passedin the novel "Klerambo" and the novel "Pierre Lys. Spiritual LifeEuropean intelligentsia, warning against the danger of fascism is the leitmotivnovel "The Enchanted Soul." Anti-war grandeur was inherent not onlyRolland creativity, but also its vital position. Together with Henri Barbusse itinitiated the antifascist congresses. Following the mean-that bothwriters after a visit to the USSR used to form in theWestern public opinion in the absence of Soviet repression and famine.
Romain Roland during his stay in the USSR
English writer on art John Galsworthy (1867-1933) largelargely influenced by humanistic views mean Dickens, I. Turgenev, Tolstoy.Staying active supporter of British society, he managedplay it with all of the problems and contradictions. The famous trilogy SagaAbout Forsyte, other novels, short stories and plays D. Galsworthy reveal the fate ofone family against the backdrop of the crisis in society and in human relations.
OutstandingGerman writer Thomas Mann (1875-1955) -author of novels Buddenbroky "," Magic Mountain ", the historicaltetralogy on the Bible "Joseph and his brothers." Origins AnalyzedGerman fascism and sharply condemned the consequences of Nazi barbarism. In1947 completed work on the novel "Doctor Faustus", in whichrevealed a close relationship between the crisis of society, culture and human personality.
The glorious Indian writer Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941) was a thoroughly gifted man.For some time the head of the national liberation movement. His patriotic song"My golden Bengal" became the national anthem of Bangladesh, and the song"Soul People" - the anthem of India. He was the author of numerous poetrycollections, novels, dramatic works. In the work of R. Tagore dominatedsocio-psychological motives ospivuvalysya nature and love. R. Tagore -first native of Asia, awarded the Nobel Prize. Many worked inthe field of painting, led educational activities. Nearby founded CalcuttaUniversity where studied, including Indira Gandhi and many other politicalLeaders of India, prominent Indian science and culture.
George BernardShaw among peasants
English playwright, journalist,critic George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950)literary career began in 1875 Then his work was denied by the publishers. Exposing hypocrisycovetousness using caustic irony and denial of the existing forms causedoriginality of the creative method B. Shaw. Believed that bourgeois society has gone indeadlock and therefore doomed (works "Trolley with apples, bitter,but the truth, "" Geneva "). Publicism B. Shaw combined withreflections about the destiny of humanity, and condemnation of Western parliamentarism - withapproval of the Soviet social order.
Russian writer JohnBunin (1870-1953) was born near Voronezh. My parents belonged to the ancientnoble families. 22-year-old boy arrived in Ukraine. He lived in Poltava and Kharkivvisited Kiev, Mirhorod, Cherkassy, Chyhyryn, so natural in his workare Ukrainian motifs and images. Since 1895 lived in Moscow and St. Petersburg.Correspondence with Gorky, was friends with the composer Sergei Rachmaninov, singerF. Shalyapin, met with M. Kotsiubynsky. Translated works Dzh.Bayrona,A. Mickiewicz, Shevchenko.
Ivan Bunin condemned the October Revolution in 1917, believingthat the victory of Bolshevik Russia will lead to disaster. During the civilWar in Russia lived in Odessa, from where he moved to France. If the first knownworks of Bunin was longing for the nests of the gentry, then in exile, he touched themeslove, nostalgia, and death. The diary "Accursed Days" hatewrote of the Bolshevik regime. The best is an autobiographical story1933 "Life Arsen'jeva. Then Ivan Bunin NobelAward for mastery in the development of traditions of Russian classical prose and abilityvery clearly and accurately describe the real life. In the 30's Ivan BuninRussian writer and leading-emigrants.
Questions and Tasks
1.Compare the development of culture in countries with democratic and totalitarianregimes.
2. Asinfluenced the literary process Пersha World War and the threat of another world war?
3. Thatcommon and different writers were in the interwar period? Whatgenres of literature became popular in the 20-30's?
4. Onbased on additional sources make a story about the life and work of aWriters 20-30's Twentieth century.